Table of Contents
2. Main part
2.2.1. Forms of linguistic tranfer
18.104.22.168. Other important terms
2.2.2. Linguistic levels
2.3.3. Other hybrid formations
2.3.5. Other formations
Since the 1960´s the increase of anglicisms in the German language can be recognised and since the 1990´s it strengthened even more.
The reasons for that are obvious: It is the economical, technological, military and cultural domination of the United States and Anglo-Saxon speech communities all together.
This domination is very remarkable in the fields of media, technology and the film industry. That is why anglicisms are found especially in those fields which bring or brought technological innovations into everyday life: the information technology (computer), the service area (autoleasing), the leisure industry (Trendsportarten) and the culture of the youth (Popmusik) whose taste of music and way-of-life is coined predominant by English-speaking areas. Until now there is a large number of papers and books written about the English influence on the German language, for example Broder Carstensen, Werner Betz, Manfred Görlach, René Appel and Pieter Muysken, to name just a view.
In my paper I don´t want to write about anglicisms of the fields mentioned above.
The task of this written assignment was to analyse in what respect anglicisms appear in Greifswald´s bakeries: For this I will, first of all, define the term anglicism from a linguistic perspective, and I will give an overview of the processes of adopting words with all their distinctive and characteristic features in their formation. For this I will go into terms like loanword and foreign word. This theoretical framework will help me to analyse afterwards the practical examples which I collected from four bakeries in the inner-city of Greifswald (namely: Backfactory, De Mäklenbörger, Marckwardt and Stadtbäckerei Junge).
2. Main Part
In the early history of English, the language borrowed rather than exported words. In the Middle Ages, the percentage of borrowings in the whole vocabulary of English rose from some 3% to about 60% by 1500 (cf. Görlach 2003: 6).
The term anglicism is, as far as linguists know today, older than the term foreign word . It was first mentioned in Germany in the year 1744. (cf. Spitzmüller 2005: 166)
Anglicism was seen as a linguistic peculiarity of English which is copied in German.
Karl Philipp Moritz gave a definition in 1793:
Anglicismus. Einen Anglicismus machen, heißt, im deutschen Ausdruck
eine Redensart, auf eine ungewöhnliche Weise, nachbilden: Im Plural gilt von dem Worte die deutsche Endung: Anglicismen.- Die Endung aus mus verursacht nur einige Härte; so daß man den Begriff Anglicismus lieber umschreiben kann: ein dem englischen nachgebildeter deutscher Ausdruck; welcher Umschreibung sich denn auf Gallicismus, Germanismus u.s.w. Anwenden ließe. (Spitzmüller 2005: 169)
In the 14th edition (1901) of the Brockhaus´ Konversations-Lexikon you can read the following definition:
Anglicismen, der engl. Sprache angehörende Eigentümlichkeiten, namentlich wenn sie, in eine andere Sprache übertragen, als Fehler gegen deren Sprachgebrauch erscheinen. (page 625)
This definition was kept until the 17th edition (1966) of the encyclopedia, but in the 18th edition (1977) the valuing subclause was left out, and from the 19th edition (1986) on it was replaced by a more scientific definition: “Bez. für Wörter aus dem brit. oder amerikan. Englisch in einer anderen [nichtengl.] Sprache sowie für nicht übliche Wortkombinationen und alle Arten der Veränderung von Wortbedeutungen oder Wortverwendungen[...]” (page 580).
Since the end of the 18th century there was a completely new meaning which was related to 'English manner and way of thinking' respectively 'special preference for England and the English character'. (Spitzmüller 2005: 170)
But this sense becomes unimportant in the 20th century. There is a meaning shift from imitation ('Nachahmung') to borrowing ('Entlehungen'). In 1959 the German linguist Zindler gave a trailblazing linguistic definition, which outlines the whole modern term of anglicism:
Ein Anglizismus ist ein Wort aus dem britischen oder amerikanischen Englisch im Deutschen oder eine nicht übliche Wortkombination, jede Art der Veränderung einer deutschen Wortbedeutung oder Wortverwendung (Lehnbedeutung, Lehnübersetzung, Lehnübertragung, Lehnschöpfung, Frequenzsteigerung, Wiederbelebung) nach britischem oder amerikanischem Vorbild. (Spitzmüller 2005: 171)
Carstensen mainly agrees with this definition but emphasizes that in most cases it is not possible or not wise to distinguish between British and American English: “Bei vielen Wörtern lässt sich die Scheidung zwischen AE und BE nur mit Mühe aufrechterhalten, und die philologische Exhakrtheit wäre nicht gewährleistet, wenn man mehr als 'Englisch' sagte.” (Carstensen 1965: 18)
To close this chapter about the term anglicism and its development in meaning I want to quote an English definition of anglicisms by the German linguist Manfred Görlach:
An anglicism is a word or idiom that is recognizably English in its form (spelling, pronunciation, morphology, or at least one of the three), but is accepted as an item in the vocabulary of the receptor language. (Görlach 2003: 1)
But this definition also is not complete. Görlach himself says that it does not include “words that have been so fully adapted that their English origin is no longer apparent to the general user” (Görlach 2003: 1), “code-switches, quotation words and items for which a native equivalent is dominant and the English word is felt to be alien by competent native speakers.” (Görlach 2003: 2)
The scientific literature about studies of foreign words and loanwords is extensive and an old topic of historical linguistics as well as contact linguistics of the modern time. Groundbreaking studies were done by Betz1 (1936, 1959, 1975 etc.), Haugen (1950), Weinreich (1953/1977), Carstensen (1965, 1993) and Yang (1990). But for the international research about anglicisms, Manfred Görlach gave the best overview of, for example, the forms of linguistic transfer and their categorization. (cf. Görlach 2002: 29)
The distinctions and definitions by Görlach2 will be explained in this term paper as a theoretical framework and later used for the analysis.
M. Görlach distinguishes between three forms of linguistic transfer: borrowing, replacement and pseudo- loans. We will have a look at those at first and continue with the linguistic levels.
2.2.1. Forms of linguistic transfer: Anglicisms
Borrowing is the most frequent type of expansion in a receiver language. It is the adoption of the form and (parts of) the content of a word from a donor language. The process usually takes place in specific situations and therefore borrows only one sense of polysemic or homonymous etymons at a time. Borrowing affects the meaning of words. Görlach wisely writes that it can restrict the meaning “semantically (being more specific), referentially (designating a smaller range of objects), stylistically, socially, or connotationally” (Görlach 2002: 10). Within this group we can find foreignisms, also called exoticisms, which refer to objects, institutions, appearances, persons, events etc., which cannot be found within the German culture but exist in English-speaking countries and therefore keep their name as it is, for example high school or BBC. They are fully unadopted and not felt to be part of German. Another subgroup is foreign loan , also called aliens. They are lexemes or lexical combinations which are taken over from a foreign language, which are used in German without phonological, orthographical, morphological and semantic change, and whose origin can be clearly and easily recognized as English. Examples for this group are: Management and Facelifting. Last but not least, loan words (denizens) are, like the foreign words, borrowings from a foreign language, but they adopted the German phonological and/or morphological and/or orthographical system. They therefore are fully integrated items and often not recognized as loanwords, e.g. Club, campen and Komfort. Loanwords fill certain semantic and stylistic spaces and express a concept more precisely than a native equivalent. The distinction between foreign word and loanword is not easy. Yang quotes Zindler who says that the differentiation between these words depends on the sense of the language user and therefore on the educational background of the person who judges. Yang (1990: 12) cuts it short: “A final decision is not possible.”
There are many possibilities to render foreign concepts by native means. These various ways provide an excellent alternative to loanwords as they avoid foreign words. M. Görlach names them calques, which is the highest degree of integration. He distinguishes four types:
a calque is defined by rank ( word, phrase,...), by completeness of the calquing process ( cf. semi-calques), by the formal exactness of the source structure- and (extralinguistically) by the social/legal background of the process and the success/the acceptance by the speech community. (Görlach 2003: 96)
He therefore distinguishes as the following:
1. Semantic calque means that an existing word sharing one meaning with the foreign item may take over a new meaning and extends its meaning by a foreign sense.
2. Translation is the reflection of the morphologic structure of the English complex item as closely as the structure of the receiving language permits. Only part of the foreign word is translated in many cases, and the other is adopted in its original form. Görlach calls these words semi-calques.
3. Rendering is the translation of only part of the foreign item or the equivalence is not as close as it might be, whether formally or semantically.
4. creation means that a new word was stimulated by a foreign word, but is formally independent of the etymon.
The categories can be illustrated with German specimens, distinguishing between successful attempts and proposals which were not accepted:
1 mentioned and quoted in Carstensen 1965
2 For better understanding use the pattern I provided in the appendix.
- Quote paper
- Julia Diedrich (Author), 2006, An analysis about Anglicisms collected from four bakeries in the innercity of Greifswald, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/189298