C# Programming Made Easy. Visual Studio 2008


Textbook, 2013
220 Pages, Grade: 5.9

Excerpt

Chapter 1: Introduction to Visual Studio 2008

Introduction to the Visual Studio Development System

Visual Studio 2008 provides advanced development tools, debugging features, database functionality, and innovative features for quickly creating tomorrow’s cutting-edge applications across a variety of platforms.

Visual Studio 2008 includes enhancements such as visual designers for faster development with the .NET Framework 3.5, substantial improvements to web development tools and language enhancements that speed development with all types of data. Visual Studio 2008 provides developers with all the tools and framework support required to create compelling, expressive, AJAX-enabled web applications.

Developers will be able to take advantage of these rich client-side and server-side frameworks to easily build client-centric web applications that integrate with any back-end data provider, run within any modern browser and have complete access to ASP.NET application services and the Microsoft platform.

Rapid Application Development

To help developers rapidly create modern software, Visual Studio 2008 delivers improved language and data features, such as Microsoft Language Integrated Query (LINQ), that make it easier for individual programmers to build solutions that analyse and act on information.

Visual Studio 2008 also provides developers with the ability to target multiple versions of the .NET Framework from within the same development environment. Developers will be able to build applications that target the .NET Framework 2.0, 3.0 or 3.5, meaning that they can support a wide variety of projects in the same environment.

Breakthrough User Experience

Visual Studio 2008 offers developers new tools that speed creation of connected applications on the latest platforms including the web, Windows Vista, Office 2007, SQL Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008. For the web, ASP.NET, AJAX and other new technologies will enable developers to quickly create a new generation of more efficient, interactive and personalised web experiences.

Effective Team Collaboration

Visual Studio 2008 delivers expanded and improved offerings that help improve collaboration in development teams, including tools that help integrate database professionals and graphic designers into the development process.

Use the Microsoft .NET Framework 3.5

The .NET Framework enables the rapid construction of connected applications that provide outstanding end-user experiences by providing the building blocks (pre-fabricated software) for solving common programming tasks. Connected applications built on the .NET Framework model business processes effectively and facilitate the integration of systems in heterogeneous environments.

Together Visual Studio and the .NET Framework reduce the need for common plumbing code, reducing development time and enabling developers to concentrate on solving business problems.

The .NET Framework 3.5 builds incrementally on the .NET Framework 3.0. Enhancements have been made to feature areas including the base class library, Windows Workflow Foundation, Windows Communication Foundation, Windows Presentation Foundation and Windows CardSpace.

What's New in 2008

- Build applications that use the latest web technologies with improved support for AJAX and web controls and the Microsoft AJAX Library
- Create web applications more easily with an improved design surface and standards support
- Use data from any data source more smoothly with LINQ, a set of language extensions to Visual Basic and Visual C#
- Manage and build applications that target multiple versions of the .NET Framework. For the first time, you can use one tool to work on applications that run on .NET Framework versions 2.0, 3.0, and 3.5
- Ensure application correctness more easily with integrated unit testing in Visual Studio 2008 Professional Edition
- Discover the full power of the .NET Framework 3.5 with integrated tools that simplify building great user experiences and connected systems
- Build stunning user experiences with integrated designers for Windows Presentation Foundation. Experiences built with Windows Presentation Foundation can interoperate seamlessly with Windows Forms
- Create connected applications using new visual designers for Windows Communications Foundation and Windows Workflow Foundation
- Use Visual Studio’s professional development environment to build Microsoft Office-based solutions that are reliable, scalable and easy to maintain (available in Visual Studio 2008 Professional Edition only)
- Enhance collaboration between developers and designers to create more compelling user experiences

Feature Highlights

- Build applications for Windows, the web, the Microsoft Office system, the .NET Framework, SQL Server and Windows Mobile with integrated drag-and-drop designers
- Visual Studio integrates Visual Basic, Visual C# and Visual C++ to support a wide variety of development styles
- Editor features such as Edit and Continue and Microsoft IntelliSense simplify the cycle of designing, developing and debugging an application
- Deploy client applications easily with ClickOnce, which enables developers and IT pros to deploy an application and its prerequisites and then ensure that the application remains up-to-date
- Build applications which target the .NET Framework, shortening development time by reducing the need for infrastructure code and helping to enhance application security
-Use ASP.NET to speed the creation of interactive, highly appealing web applications and web services. Master Pages allow developers to easily manage a consistent site layout in one place
-A community of millions of developers ensures that developers can find partners and other community members addressing the same challenges

Visual Studio Editions with Features

Visual Studio is available in several editions: Standard, Professional, Tools for Office, and Team System.

The core languages included with Visual Studio — Visual Basic, Visual C++, Visual C#, and Visual J# — as well as Visual Web Developer are each also offered in separate Express editions.

The following table lists the different features and tools available with Express editions, Visual Studio Standard and Professional editions, and Visual Studio Tools for Office.

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Introduction to the IDE (Visual C#)

The Visual C# integrated development environment (IDE) is a collection of development tools exposed through a common user interface. Some of the tools are shared with other Visual Studio languages, and some, such as the C# compiler, are unique to Visual C#. The documentation in this section provides an overview of how to use the most important Visual C# tools as you work in the IDE in various phases of the development process.

The following are the most important tools and windows in Visual C#. The windows for most of these tools can be opened from the View menu.

- The Code Editor, for writing source code.
- The C# compiler, for converting C# source code into an executable program.
- The Visual Studio debugger, for testing your program.
- The Toolbox and Designer, for rapid development of user interfaces using the mouse.
- Solution Explorer, for viewing and managing project files and settings.
- Project Designer, for configuring compiler options, deployment paths, resources, and more.
- Class View, for navigating through source code according to types, not files.
- Properties Window, for configuring properties and events on controls in your user interface.
-Object Browser, for viewing the methods and classes available in dynamic link libraries including .NET Framework assemblies and COM objects.
-Document Explorer, for browsing and searching product documentation on your local machine and on the Internet.

How the IDE Exposes the Tools

You interact with the tools through windows, menus, property pages, and wizards in the IDE. The basic IDE looks something like this:

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You can quickly access any open tool windows or files by pressing CTRL + TAB.

Editor and Windows Form Designer Windows

The large main window is used by both the Code Editor and the Windows Forms Designer. You can toggle between code view and Design view by pressing F7, or clicking Code or Designer on the View menu. While in Design view, you can drag controls onto the window from the Toolbox, which you can make visible by clicking on the Toolbox tab on the left margin.

The Properties window in the lower right is populated only in Design view. It enables you to set properties and hook up events for user interface controls such as buttons, text boxes, and so on. When you set this window to Auto Hide, it will collapse into the right margin whenever you switch to Code View.

Solution Explorer and Project Designer

The window in the top right is Solution Explorer, which shows all the files in your project in a hierarchical tree view. When you use the Project menu to add new files to your project, you will see them reflected in Solution Explorer. In addition to files, Solution Explorer also displays your project settings, and references to external libraries required by your application.

The Project Designer property pages are accessed by right-clicking on the Properties node in Solution Explorer, and then clicking Open. Use these pages to modify build options, security requirements, deployment details, and many other project properties

Compiler, Debugger, and Error List Windows

The C# compiler has no window because it is not an interactive tool, but you can set compiler options in the Project Designer. When you click Build on the Build menu, the C# compiler is invoked by the IDE. If the build is successful, the status pane displays a Build Succeeded message. If there were build errors, the Error List window appears below the editor/designer window with a list of errors. Double-click an error to go to the problem line in your source code. Press F1 to see Help documentation for the highlighted error.

The debugger has various windows that display values of variables and type information as your application is running. You can use the Code Editor window while debugging to specify a line at which to pause execution in the debugger, and to step through code one line at a time.

Customizing the IDE

All of the windows in Visual C# can be made dockable or floating, hidden or visible, or can be moved to new locations. To change the behavior of a window, click the down arrow or push-pin icons on the title bar and select from among the available options. To move a docked window to a new docked location, drag the title bar until the window dropper icons appear. While holding down the left mouse button, move the mouse pointer over the icon at the new location. Position the pointer over the left, right, top or bottom icons to dock the window on the specified side. Position the pointer over the middle icon to make the window a tabbed window. As you position the pointer, a blue semi-transparent rectangle appears, which indicates where the window will be docked in the new location.

Following are different templates under Project Types and their use.

Windows Application:

This template allows to create standard windows based applications. Windows Applications are form based standard Windows desktop applications for common day to day tasks. (Ex: Microsoft word).

Class Library:

Class libraries are those that provide functionality similar to Active X and DLL by creating classes that access other applications. Class library contains components and libraries to be used inside other applications. A Class library can not be executed and thus it does not have any entry point.

Windows Control Library:

This allows to create our own windows controls. Also called as User Controls, where you group some controls, add it to the toolbox and make it available to other projects. Windows Control Library contains user defined windows controls to be used by Windows applications.

Web Application:

This allows to create web-based applications using IIS. We can create web pages, rich web applications and web services. Web applications are programs that used to run inside some web server (Ex:IIS) to fulfill the user requests over the http. (Ex: Hotmail and Google).

Web Service:

Allows to create XML Web Services. Web services are web applications that provide services to other applications over the internet.

Web Control Library:

Allows to create User-defined controls for the Web. Similar to user defined windows controls but these are used for Web. Web Control Library contains user defined web controls to be used by web applications.

Console Application:

A new kind of application in Visual Studio .NET. They are command line based applications. Console applications are light weight programs run inside the command prompt (DOS) window. They are commonly used for test applications.

Windows Service:

These run continuously regardless of the user interaction. They are designed for special purpose and once written, will keep running and come to an end only when the system is shut down.

Other:

This template is to develop other kinds of applications like enterprise applications, database applications etc.

.NET Framework & Architecture

Microsoft .NET supports not only language independence, but also language integration. This means that you can take the advantage of classes, inheritance of classes etc. across different languages. The .NET Framework makes this possible with a specification called the Common Type System (CTS) that all .NET components must follow. The term .Net Framework refers to the group of technologies that form the development environment for the Microsoft .Net platform.

It also includes a Common Language Specification (CLS), which provides a series of basic rules that are required for language integration. The CLS determines the minimum requirements for being a .NET language. Compilers that conform to the CLS create objects that can interoperate with one another. The entire Framework Class Library (FCL) can be used by any language that conforms to the CLS.

The .NET Framework sits on top of the operating system, which can be any flavor of Windows from Win 98 forward, and consists of a number of components.

The .NET Framework consists of:

- Different languages: VB.NET, C#, J#, and JScript .NET
- The Common Language Runtime, an object-oriented platform for Windows and web development that all these languages share
- A number of related class libraries, collectively known as the Framework Class Library (FCL) (BCL).

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The most important component of the .NET Framework is the CLR, which provides the environment in which programs are executed. The CLR includes a virtual machine. At a high level, the CLR activates objects, performs security checks on them, store them out in memory, executes them, and garbage-collects them. The Common Type System is also part of the CLR.

The layer on top of the CLR is a set of framework base classes (BCL), followed by an additional layer of data and XML classes, plus another layer of classes intended for web services, Web Forms, and Windows Forms. Collectively, these classes are known as the Framework Class Library, one of the largest class libraries in history and one that provides an object-oriented API to all the functionality that the .NET platform encapsulates. With more than 4,000 classes, the FCL facilitates rapid development of desktop, client/server, and other web services and applications.

Web Forms and Windows Forms allow you to apply Rapid Application Development techniques to building web and Windows applications. Simply drag and drop controls onto your form, double-click a control, and write the code to respond to the associated event.

Features of .NET Platform

The core component of the .NET platform is found in the Common Language Runtime, Base Class Library & the Common Language Specification. The .NET BCL expose the features of the CLR in much the same way that the Windows API allows you to utilize the features of the Windows operating system; however, it also provides many higher-level features that facilitate code reuse.

This architecture gives a great number of benefits, not the least of which is a consistent API. By writing to the CLR & using the .NET BCL, all application services are available via a common object oriented programming model.

The new programming model greatly simplifies the efforts that were required when writing Windows DNA applications or fir that matter, almost Win32 & OM project.

Another great benefit for .NET benefit for .NET developers is its model for error handling via exceptions.

In .NET all errors are reported via exceptions, which greatly simplify writing, reading, & maintaining code. Thanks to Common Language Specification & Common Type System, .NET exception work across module & language boundaries.

1) Multilanguage Development:

Different types of application and programmer required to work with different types of programming languages. With the use of CLR the component of .Net framework, it is easy to work with different types of languages in .net platform. In .Net platform programmers can choose the languages which best for them. Additionally, .Net framework allows the integration of these different languages through the use of MSIL. Currently .Net supports languages like VB.Net, C#.net, J#.Net, Jscript.Net, COBOL, Fortran, Perl, Python and many more. In .Net platform, we can develop different types of application like windows, web or portable application which runs on PDA or mobile device.

2) Platform and Processor Independence

When we compile any application in .Net platform first it converted into MSIL code. This MSIL code is CPU-Independent and is higher then any machine language. After creation of MSIL code, this code can be run on any platform and processor which supports Common Language Runtime. So, programmers can develop application which can be run on any platform and processor.

3) Automatic Memory Management:

The programmers always worry about the Memory while it is developing any type of application. We already use, program like C and C++, we are allocating memory to particular object using different function and we release this memory when program is terminated. In .Net environment, Microsoft is provide facility to make developing easier. It provide a component called Garbage Collection which handles this memory management task. When any object required memory it automatically allocates it and when that is no longer valid then it automatically free up those memory to resue.

4) Easy Deploying:

After developing any type of application, programmers always worry about how they can deploy (install) their application. Most of the companies use third party software to build their installation. These installation contain a large number of files installed in different directory, various registry setting required, COM componets and short cuts may required. The .Net application doesn’t require any extra activity than copying their files to a directory. For uninstalling an application will be easy as deleting those files. This is because .Net components are not referenced in registry because of Metadata.

5) Distributed Architecture:

Today, application or websites which are presented to user come from different sources like servers located at different places and different application running on this server which fetches data from many database. This called distributed architecture. This type of application are very complex to build and maintain. Each interface uses different types of programming concept to fetch data. The .Net provide architecture for developing this type of complex application using different concept like XML, SOAP, UDDI.

6) Interoperability with Unmanaged Code:

The code which is generated by CLR are is known as managed code. So, code outside from CLR and not managed by CLR is unmanaged code. However, this code is still run by the CLR but we cant take the advantage like CTS and automatic memory management. There are many situation arrive, when you have to work with code that is outside from .Net platform. Companies doesn’t deliver a .Net component version of their products every time. So, Microsoft add a functionality in CLR so it can work with this unmanaged code. Examples of unmanaged code are calling DLL files, Calling COM components.

7) Security:

Distributed component application require security. The .Net designer follow the approach which provides separation and access control based on user account. Security for .Net applications starts as soon as a class is loaded by the CLR. Before the class is loaded, the accessibility rules and requirement are checked. Additionally, when code request, access to the certain resources, the class identification are verified.

8) Performance and Scalability:

There is no magic tool that will allow a poorly designed application to scale and perform well. The .Net framework gives you a tools that make it easier to design better performing software.

Components of .NET Architecture

Following are the different components of .Net Architecture. Each explain in detail with their functionality.

1) .Net Runtime (Common Language Runtime):

The heart of the .Net framework is the CLR. This is similar to the Java Virtual Machine. It is an environment that executes MSIL code. In java, the JVM is the concept of one language for all purpose while .Net platform supports multiple programming languages through the use of Common Language Specification. It is also referred to as a managed environment, one in which common services, such as garbage collection and security, are automatically provided. Following are the different feature provided by

Process of compilation and executing:

Code that we have develop with language compiler and run under the CLR is called managed code. It provides the functionality like cross-language integration, exception handling, security. To provide services to managed code, language compiler are required to add metadata with it. It means they provide information that describes the types, members and reference used in code. Metadata is stored with code. When class loader loads the code, it uses the metadata to locate and load classes, allocate required memory, solve method invocation, generate native code, apply security and set up run time boundaries for application.

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2) Managed and Unmanaged Code:

Managed Code is what Visual Basic .NET and C# compilers create. It compiles to Intermediate Language (IL), not to machine code that could run directly on your computer. The IL is kept in a file called an assembly, along with metadata that describes the classes, methods, and attributes (such as security requirements) of the code you've created. This assembly is the one-stop-shopping unit of deployment in the .NET world. You copy it to another server to deploy the assembly there—and often that copying is the only step required in the deployment.

Managed code runs in the Common Language Runtime. The runtime offers a wide variety of services to your running code. In the usual course of events, it first loads and verifies the assembly to make sure the IL is okay. Then, just in time, as methods are called, the runtime arranges for them to be compiled to machine code suitable for the machine the assembly is running on, and caches this machine code to be used the next time the method is called. As the assembly runs, the runtime continues to provide services such as security, memory management, threading, and the like.

Unmanaged code is what you use to make before Visual Studio .NET was released. Visual Basic 6, Visual C++ 6, heck, even that 15-year old C compiler you may still have kicking around on your hard drive all produced unmanaged code. It compiled directly to machine code that run on the machine where you compiled it and on other machines as long as they had the same chip, or nearly the same.

It didn't get services such as security or memory management from an invisible runtime; it got them from the operating system. And importantly, it got them from the operating system explicitly, by asking for them, usually by calling an API provided in the Windows

3) Intermediate Language:

MSIL is the CPU-independent instruction set into which .Net framework programs are compiled. It contains instructions for loading, storing, initializing and calling method of different objects. MSIL contains code and Metadata which is true cross language integration. It is also known as CIL (common intermediate language) or IL (intermediate language). We can directly code into MSIL language but it is rare case.

4) Common Type System:

As Microsoft .Net provide application development using different programming languages. For this, Microsoft has provided Common Type System which means we don’t have to worry when we are developing multiple languages about how a data types declared in one language needs to be declared in another. Any .Net type has the same attributes regardless of the language it is used in. In .Net all data types are objects which derived from System. Object. So, all data types derive from a common base class, they all share some basic functionality.

5) Base Class Library:

In C and C++, we include header files like stdio.h, conio.h for using library functions. In .NET, BCL, is the collection of classes and namespaces which we use in application for variety of inbuilt functionality. The .NET framework Base Class Library provides an extensive collection of classes which are hierarchically organized via namespaces. This library consists of classes related to Data, XML, Web Forms, Windows Form, Smart Device, Input Output etc.

The namespace is logical container or partition which group the different classes related to same functionality. It looks like drive’s or folder in our computer. We organized our data into different folders or drives. For specific information or files we go into the specific folder or drive for faster retrieval of information.

The root of the hierarchy of Base Class Library is System namespace. Here, two classes can have same name but they must reside in different namespace. Following are the listing of some common namespace with its description.

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6) Assemblies:

Assemblies are the building blocks of .NET Framework applications; they form the fundamental unit of deployment, version control, reuse, activation scoping, and security permissions. An assembly is a collection of types and resources that are built to work together and form a logical unit of functionality. An assembly provides the common language runtime with the information it needs to be aware of type implementations.

It contains code that the common language runtime executes. Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) code in a portable executable (PE) file will not be executed if it does not have an associated assembly metadata.

Assemblies can be static or dynamic. Static assemblies can include .NET Framework types (interfaces and classes), as well as resources for the assembly (bitmaps, JPEG files, resource files, and so on). Static assemblies are stored on disk in portable executable (PE) files. You can also use the .NET Framework to create dynamic assemblies, which are run directly from memory and are not saved to disk before execution. A static assembly can consist of four elements: Assembly metadata, Type metadata, Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) code that implements the types, A set of resources.

A private assembly is used by a single application and is store in that application’s install directory. A shared assembly is one that can be referenced by more than one application.

7) Metadata:

The data about data is called Metadata. It is a feature that lets the CLR know the details about a particular component or object. The metadata for an object is persisted at compiled time and then queried at runtime so that the CLR know how to initialize object, call their methods and access their properties. An application can interrogate metadata and learn what an object exposes. This process is known as reflection. This data is stored in component itself in a binary format inside an assembly. It contains a declaration for every type including names and its members like methods, fields, properties and event. When a class loader of CLR loads an assembly at that time it uses a metadata to locate the body of method.

8)Assembly Cache:

The assembly cache is a directory which contains the different assembly on the machine. There are two types of assembly cache: A global assembly cache and a transient (temporary) assembly cache.

When assemblies are downloaded to the local machine using browser, it is automatically installed in the transient assembly cache. Each computer where the common language runtime is installed has a machine-wide code cache called the global assembly cache. The global assembly cache stores assemblies specifically designated to be shared by several applications on the computer.

You should share assemblies by installing them into the global assembly cache only when you need to. As a general guideline, keep assembly dependencies private, and locate assemblies in the application directory unless sharing an assembly is explicitly required.

9)Reflection:

Reflection is the process by which .NET applications can access an assembly’s metadata information and discover its methods and data types at runtime. We can also dynamically invoke methods and use type information through late binding through Reflection API. System.type class is the core of the reflection. It is used to represent a Common Type System which includes methods that allow to determined type’s name, which module it contain and its namespace with it contains value or reference type.

Using System.Reflection.Assembly class you can retrieve all of the types in an assembly and all modules contained in the assembly. To invoke any method of class named Activator class to create instance and then GetMethod method to invoke the method.

10) Just-In-Time Compilation (JIT):

When any .NET application compile, it is not converted into machine code but it converted into MSIL (Intermediate Code). This code is machine independent. So, CLR provide Just In Time compilation technology to convert the MSIL code into a platform/device-specific code so that it can be executed.

The .NET provide three types of JIT compilers:

Pre-JIT: This JIT compiles an assembly’s entire code into native code at one cycle. Normally, it is used at installation time.

Econo-JIT: This compiler is used on devices with limited resources. It compiles the IL code bit-by-bit freeing resources used by the cached native code when required.

Normal-JIT: The default JIT compiles code only as it is called and places the resulting native code in the cache.

When, JIT compiles, the native code is placed into the cache, so that when the next call is made to the same method, the cached code is executed. So it increase the application speed.

11) Garbage Collection:

Memory management is one of the housekeeping duty that takes a lot of programming time in developing application. We doesn’t like spent a time for programming related to memory. So .NET provides a environment with the garbage collection system. Garbage collection runs when application needs free memory. There is no exact time of execution of garbage collection system.

When application required more memory and the memory allocator reports that there is no free memory than garbage collection is called. It start by assuming that everything should be deleted from the memory. First it create a graph of used memory by application. When it has complete graph of memory used by application then it copies this data and free up the whole memory. And reallocate the memory to the application.

Garbage collector also free up the memory for unused object at regular interval. We do not have to write code to perform memory management task when developing managed applications

Explain CTS, CLR and JIT

CLR (Common Language Runtime):- The most important concept of the .net framework is the existence and functionality of the .net common language runtime (CLR), also called .net runtime and short. It is a framework layer that resides above the OS and handles the execution of all the .net applications. Our programs don’t directly communicate with the OS but go through the CLR.

CTS (Common Type System):- .NET also defines a common type system (CTS). Like CLS, CTS is also a set of standards. CTS defines the basic data types that IL understands. Each .Net compliant language should map its data types to these standard data types. This makes it possible for the 2 languages to communicate with each other by passing/receiving parameters to and from each other. For example, CTS defines a type, int32, an integral data type of 32 bits(4 bytes) which is mapped by C# through int and VB.net through its integer data type.

JIT (Just In Time Compilers):- When out IL compiled code needs to be executed, the CLR invokes the JIT compiler, which compile the IL code to native executable code(.exe of .dll) that is designed for specific machine and OS. JITers in many ways are different from traditional compliers as they compile the IL to native code JIT. So, the part of code that is not used by that particular run is never converted to native code. If some IL code is converted to native code, then the next time it’s needed, the CLR reuses the same (already compiled) copy without re-compiling. So, if a program runs for some time (assuming that all or most of the functions get called). Then it won’t have any just-in-time performance penalty.

As JITers are aware of the specific processor and OS at runtime and OS at runtime. They can optimize the code extremely efficiently resulting in very robust applications. Also, since a JIT compiler knows the exact current state of executable code. They can also optimize the code by in-lining small function calls (like replacing body of small function when its called in a loop, saving the function call time). Although Microsoft stated that C# and .net are not competing with language like C++ in efficiency and speed of execution. JITers can makes your code even faster than C++ code in some cases when the program in run over an extended period of time.

Managed Vs. Unmanaged Code

Manage code: -

The execution of manage code is done by following steps.

1. Selecting language complier.
2. Completing the code to IL (information language).
3. Completing IL to native code.
4. Executing code.

The CLR is used by selecting one or more language complier such as VB, C++, VC++, java, JavaScript etc. The language complier will decide the syntax of the code. When the program is compile then that code is called manage code. The complier will convert the source code to IL which is dependent on CPU. Just in time complier converts IL into native or CPU specific code. When you compile source code to IL required metadata is generated.

Unmanaged Code:-

The unmanaged code directly complies with the mechanic code and executed when a work it is complete. It does not have services such as security and memory management but the OS is gives this services at runtime. The OS gives these services by calling the API of the window.

Explain Assemblies and Metadata

Meta data describes source code or program which is in binary information stored in CLR portable executable file or in the memory. When the compilation when the code take place in DE file then metadata in inserted in the file. The metadata describes data types and members used in the program. When the code is executed the CLR loads the metadata into the memory and finds information about classes and its members.

Meta Data Contains:-

Assembly information such as name, version, type of assembly, reference assembly and security permission. Information about type such as name, interfaces used, methods, fields, properties, events based class etc. It maintains attributes information which are modified by the user.

Assemblies:-

The assembly contains code which is executed by CLR (Common Language Runtime). There are two types of assembly.

1. Dynamic:- Dynamic assembly will run directly from the memory without saving but it can be saved after execution.
2. Static:- Static assembly includes interfaces classes and resources. This assembly are stored in PE files.

Assembly Contains:-

Assembly in a logical unit which consist of four parts.

1. Manifest:-
2. Type Metadata

Every assembly, whether static or dynamic, contains a collection of data that describes how the elements in the assembly relate to each other. The assembly manifest contains this assembly metadata. An assembly manifest contains all the metadata needed to specify the assembly's version requirements and security identity, and all metadata needed to define the scope of the assembly and resolve references to resources and classes. The assembly manifest can be stored in either a PE file (an .exe or .dll) with Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) code or in a standalone PE file that contains only assembly manifest information. It contains Assembly name, Version number, Culture, Strong name information, List of all files in the assembly, Type reference information, Information on referenced assemblies.

Type Metadata is information stored in the assembly that describes the types and methods of the assembly and provides other useful information about the assembly. Assemblies are said to be self-describing because the metadata fully describes the contents of each module

Managed execution process of .NET applications.

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The process of executing .NET application is divided into different steps. First steps is select a compiler based on language which you have written source code. There are different compiler available in .NET framework like for VB.NET select VBC, for C# select CSC etc.

In, second step the source code is converted into MSIL code which contains assembly and metadata information.

Next step, the MSIL code is translated into native code by using CLR’s JIT compiler.

In final step of execution, the CLR provides environments which run this native code on machine and provides other related services.

Namespace

The namespace keyword is used to declare a scope. This namespace scope lets you organize code and gives you a way to create globally unique types. Even if you do not explicitly declare one, a default namespace is created. This unnamed namespace, sometimes called the global namespace, is present in every file. Any identifier in the global namespace is available for use in a named namespace. Namespaces implicitly have public access and this is not modifiable.

The Namespace Hierarchy and Fully-Qualified Names

You're probably already familiar with namespaces from the .NET Framework Class Library. For example, the Button type is contained in the System.Windows.Forms namespace. That's actually shorthand for the situation shown in Figure 2, shows that the Button class is contained in the Forms namespace that is ontained in the Windows namespace that is contained in the root System namespace.

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Figure 2. A namespace and class hierarchy

The fully qualified name of a class is constructed by concatenating the names of all the namespaces that contain the type. For example, the fully qualified name of the Button class is System.Windows.Forms.Button. The namespace hierarchy helps distinguish types with the same name from one another. For example, you might define your own class named Button, but it might be contained in the ControlPanel Namespace within the PowerPlant namespace, making its fully qualified name PowerPlant.ControlPanel.Button.

Declaring Namespaces

You can use the Namespace statement to declare a namespace in your own code. Namespace statements can be nested. For example, a C# .NET module could contain these lines of code:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

An alternative way to express this same hierarchy is to combine the Namespace statements:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

By default, a C# .NET project declares a root namespace that has the same name as the project. If the above declaration was in a project called PowerLib, then the fully qualified name of the Button class would be PowerLib.PowerPlant.ControlPanel.Button. You can change the name of the root namespace by following these steps:

1. In Project Explorer, right-click the project and select Properties.
2. Click Common Properties.
3. Enter a new name for the Root Namespace. It's good practice to use a name such as CompanyName.Technology for the Root Namespace, to avoid conflicts with namespaces defined by other developers.
4. Click OK.

Note Strictly speaking, assemblies and namespaces are orthogonal. That is, you can declare members of a single namespace across multiple assemblies, or declare multiple namespaces in a single assembly. Unless you have a good reason for such an arrangement, though, it's best to keep things simple with one namespace per assembly and vice versa

The using Directive

Obviously, namespaces can grow rather long and tiresome to type, and the ability to indicate a particular class with such specificity may not always be necessary. Fortunately, C# allows you to abbreviate a class’s full name. To do this, list the class’s namespace at the top of the file, prefixed with the using keyword. Throughout the rest of the file, you can refer to the types in the namespace simply by their type names:

using System;

using Wrox.ProCSharp;

As remarked earlier, virtually all C# source code will have the statement using System; simply because so many useful classes supplied by Microsoft are contained in the System namespace.

If two namespaces referenced by using statements contain a type of the same name, you will need to use the full (or at least a longer) form of the name to ensure that the compiler knows which type is

to be accessed. For example, say classes called NamespaceExample exist in both the Wrox.ProCSharp

.Basics and Wrox.ProCSharp.OOP namespaces. If you then create a class called Test in the Wrox.ProCSharp namespace, and instantiate one of the NamespaceExample classes in this class, you need to specify which of these two classes you’re talking about:

using Wrox.ProCSharp;

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Because using statements occur at the top of C# files, in the same place that C and C++ list #include statements, it’s easy for programmers moving from C++ to C# to confuse namespaces with C++-style header files. Don’t make this mistake. The using statement does no physical linking between files, and C# has no equivalent to C++ header files.

Your organization will probably want to spend some time developing a namespace schema so that its developers can quickly locate functionality that they need and so that the names of the organization’s homegrown classes won’t conflict with those in off-the-shelf class libraries.

Namespace Aliases

Another use of the using keyword is to assign aliases to classes and namespaces. If you have a very long namespace name that you want to refer to several times in your code but don’t want to include in a simple using statement (for example, to avoid type name conflicts), you can assign an alias to the namespace. The syntax for this is:

using alias = NamespaceName;

The following example (a modified version of the previous example) assigns the alias Introduction to the Wrox.ProCSharp.Basics namespace and uses this to instantiate a NamespaceExample object, which is defined in this namespace. Notice the use of the namespace alias qualifier (::). This forces the search to start with the Introduction namespace alias. If a class called Introduction had been introduced in the same scope, a conflict would happen. The :: operator allows the alias to be referenced even if the conflict exists. The NamespaceExample class has one method, GetNamespace(), which uses the GetType() method exposed by every class to access a Type object representing the class’s type. You use this object to return a name of the class’s namespace:

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The Main() Method

C# programs start execution at a method named Main(). This must be a static method of a class (or struct), and must have a return type of either int or void.

Although it is common to specify the public modifier explicitly, because by definition the method must be called from outside the program, it doesn’t actually matter what accessibility level you assign to the entry-point method — it will run even if you mark the method as private.

Multiple Main() Methods

When a C# console or Windows application is compiled, by default the compiler looks for exactly one Main() method in any class matching the signature that was just described and makes that class method the entry point for the program. If there is more than one Main() method, the compiler will return an error message. For example, consider the following code called MainExample.cs:

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This contains two classes, both of which have a Main() method. If you try to compile this code in the usual way, you will get the following errors:

csc MainExample.cs

Microsoft (R) Visual C# Compiler version 9.00.20404 for Microsoft (R) .NET Framework version 3.5

Copyright (C) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

MainExample.cs(7,23): error CS0017: Program ‘MainExample.exe’ has more than one entry point defined: ‘Wrox.ProCSharp.Basics.Client.Main()’ MainExample.cs(21,23): error CS0017: Program ‘MainExample.exe’ has more than one entry point defined: ‘Wrox.ProCSharp.Basics.MathExample.Main()’

However, you can explicitly tell the compiler which of these methods to use as the entry point for the program by using the /main switch, together with the full name (including namespace) of the class to which the Main() method belongs:

csc MainExample.cs /main:Wrox.ProCSharp.Basics.MathExample

Passing Arguments to Main()

The examples so far have shown only the Main() method without any parameters. However, when the program is invoked, you can get the CLR to pass any command-line arguments to the program by including a parameter. This parameter is a string array, traditionally called args (although C# will accept any name). The program can use this array to access any options passed through the command line when the program is started.

The following sample, ArgsExample.cs, loops through the string array passed in to the Main() method and writes the value of each option to the console window:

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Your First C# Program

Let’s start by compiling and running the simplest possible C# program — a simple class consisting of a console application that writes a message to the screen.

The Code

Type the following into a text editor (such as Notepad), and save it with a .cs extension (for example, First.cs). The Main() method is shown here:

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Compiling and Running the Program

You can compile this program by simply running the C# command-line compiler (csc.exe) against the source file, like this:

csc First.cs

If you want to compile code from the command line using the csc command, you should be aware that the .NET command-line tools, including csc, are available only if certain environment variables have been set up. Depending on how you installed .NET (and Visual Studio 2008), this may or may not be the case on your machine.

Compiling the code produces an executable file named First.exe, which you can run from the command line or from Windows Explorer like any other executable. Give it a try:

csc First.cs

Microsoft (R) Visual C# Compiler version 9.00.20404 for Microsoft (R) .NET Framework version 3.5

Copyright (C) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

First.exe

This isn’t at all like Java!

Well, maybe that message isn’t quite true! This program has some fairly fundamental similarities to Java, although there are one or two points (such as the capitalized Main() function) to catch the unwary

Java or C++ developer. Let’s look more closely at what’s going on in the code.

Using Comments

The next topic — adding comments to your code — looks very simple on the surface but can be complex.

Internal Comments within the Source Files

C# uses the traditional C-type single-line (// ...) and multiline (/* ... */) comments:

// This is a single-line comment /* This comment

spans multiple lines. */

Everything in a single-line comment, from the // to the end of the line, will be ignored by the compiler, and everything from an opening /* to the next */ in a multiline comment combination will be ignored. Obviously, you can’t include the combination */ in any multiline comments, because this will be treated as the end of the comment.

It is actually possible to put multiline comments within a line of code:

Console.WriteLine(/* Here’s a comment! */ “This will compile.”);

Use inline comments with care because they can make code hard to read. However, they can be useful when debugging if, say, you temporarily want to try running the code with a different value somewhere:

DoSomething(Width, /*Height*/ 100);

Comment characters included in string literals are, of course, treated like normal characters:

string s = “/* This is just a normal string .*/”;

XML Documentation

In addition to the C-type comments, illustrated in the preceding section, C# has a very neat feature that we want to highlight: the ability to produce documentation in XML format automatically from special comments. These comments are single-line comments but begin with three slashes (///) instead of the usual two. Within these comments, you can place XML tags containing documentation of the types and type members in your code.

The tags in the following table are recognized by the compiler.

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To see how this works, add some XML comments to the MathLibrary.cs file from the “More on Compiling C# Files” section, and call it Math.cs. You will add a <summary> element for the class and for its Add() method, and also a <returns> element and two <param> elements for the Add() method:

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The C# compiler can extract the XML elements from the special comments and use them to generate an XML file. To get the compiler to generate the XML documentation for an assembly, you specify the /doc option when you compile, together with the name of the file you want to be created:

csc /t:library /doc:Math.xml Math.cs

The compiler will throw an error if the XML comments do not result in a well-formed XML document.

This will generate an XML file named Math.xml, which looks like this:

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Notice how the compiler has actually done some work for you; it has created an <assembly> element and also added a <member> element for each type or member of a type in the file. Each <member> element has a name attribute with the full name of the member as its value, prefixed by a letter that indicates whether this is a type (T:), field (F:), or member (M:).

Using Comments

Exception handling is an in built mechanism in .NET framework to detect and handle run time errors. The .NET framework contains lots of standard exceptions. The exceptions are anomalies that occur during the execution of a program. They can be because of user, logic or system errors. If a user (programmer) do not provide a mechanism to handle these anomalies, the .NET run time environment provide a default mechanism, which terminates the program execution.

C# provides three keywords try, catch and finally to do exception handling. The try encloses the statements that might throw an exception whereas catch handles an exception if one exists. The finally can be used for doing any clean up process.

The general form try-catch-finally in C# is shown below

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If any exception occurs inside the try block, the control transfers to the appropriate catch block and later to the finally block.

But in C#, both catch and finally blocks are optional. The try block can exist either with one or more catch blocks or a finally block or with both catch and finally blocks.

If there is no exception occurred inside the try block, the control directly transfers to finally block. We can say that the statements inside the finally block is executed always. Note that it is an error to transfer control out of a finally block by using break, continue, return or goto.

In C#, exceptions are nothing but objects of the type Exception. The Exception is the ultimate base class for any exceptions in C#. The C# itself provides couple of standard exceptions. Or even the user can create their own exception classes, provided that this should inherit from either Exception class or one of the standard derived classes of Exception class like DivideByZeroExcpetion ot ArgumentException etc.

Uncaught Exceptions

The following program will compile but will show an error during execution. The division by zero is a runtime anomaly and program terminates with an error message. Any uncaught exceptions in the current context propagate to a higher context and looks for an appropriate catch block to handle it. If it can't find any suitable catch blocks, the default mechanism of the .NET runtime will terminate the execution of the entire program.

//C#: Exception Handling

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The modified form of the above program with exception handling mechanism is as follows. Here we are using the object of the standard exception class DivideByZeroException to handle the exception caused by division by zero.

//C#: Exception Handling

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In the above case the program do not terminate unexpectedly. Instead the program control passes from the point where exception occurred inside the try block to the catch blocks. If it finds any suitable catch block, executes the statements inside that catch and continues with the normal execution of the program statements.

If a finally block is present, the code inside the finally block will get also be executed.

//C#: Exception Handling

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Remember that in C#, the catch block is optional. The following program is perfectly legal in C#.

//C#: Exception Handling

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But in this case, since there is no exception handling catch block, the execution will get terminated. But before the termination of the program statements inside the finally block will get executed. In C#, a try block must be followed by either a catch or finally block.

Multiple Catch Blocks

A try block can throw multiple exceptions, which can handle by using multiple catch blocks. Remember that more specialized catch block should come before a generalized one. Otherwise the compiler will show a compilation error.

//C#: Exception Handling: Multiple catch

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Catching all Exceptions

By providing a catch block without a brackets or arguments, we can catch all exceptions occurred inside a try block. Even we can use a catch block with an Exception type parameter to catch all exceptions happened inside the try block since in C#, all exceptions are directly or indirectly inherited from the Exception class.

//C#: Exception Handling: Handling all exceptions

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The following program handles all exception with Exception object.

//C#: Exception Handling: Handling all exceptions

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Throwing an Exception

In C#, it is possible to throw an exception programmatically. The 'throw' keyword is used for this purpose. The general form of throwing an exception is as follows.

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Re-throwing an Exception

The exceptions, which we caught inside a catch block, can re-throw to a higher context by using the keyword throw inside the catch block. The following program shows how to do this.

//C#: Exception Handling: Handling all exceptions

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Standard Exceptions

There are two types of exceptions: exceptions generated by an executing program and exceptions generated by the common language runtime. System.Exception is the base class for all exceptions in C#. Several exception classes inherit from this class including ApplicationException and SystemException. These two classes form the basis for most other runtime exceptions. Other exceptions that derive directly from System.Exception include IOException, WebException etc.

The common language runtime throws SystemException. The ApplicationException is thrown by a user program rather than the runtime. The SystemException includes the ExecutionEngineException, StaclOverFlowException etc. It is not recommended that we catch SystemExceptions nor is it good programming practice to throw SystemExceptions in our applications.

-System.OutOfMemoryException
- System.NullReferenceException
- Syste.InvalidCastException
- Syste.ArrayTypeMismatchException
- System.IndexOutOfRangeException
- System.ArithmeticException
- System.DevideByZeroException
- System.OverFlowException

User-defined Exceptions

In C#, it is possible to create our own exception class. But Exception must be the ultimate base class for all exceptions in C#. So the user-defined exception classes must inherit from either Exception class or one of its standard derived classes.

//C#: Exception Handling: User defined exceptions

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Chapter 2: C# - Basics

Introduction to C# .NET Language

C# is a simple, modern, object oriented, and type-safe programming language derived from C and C++. It will immediately be familiar to C and C++ programmers. C# aims to combine the high productivity of Visual Basic and the raw power of C++.

In addition to C#, Visual Studio supports Visual Basic, Visual C++, and the scripting languages VBScript and JScript. All of these languages provide access to the Microsoft .NET platform, which includes a common execution engine and a rich class library. The Microsoft .NET platform defines a “Common Language Specification” (CLS), a sort of lingua franca that ensures seamless interoperability between CLS-compliant languages and class libraries. For C# developers, this means that even though C# is a new language, it has complete access to the same rich class libraries that are used by seasoned tools such as Visual Basic and Visual C++. C# itself does not include a class library.

The canonical “hello, world” program can be written as follows:

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The source code for a C# program is typically stored in one or more text files with a file extension of .cs, as in hello.cs. Using the command-line compiler provided with Visual Studio, such a program can be compiled with the command line directive

csc hello.cs

Which produces an executable program named hello.exe. The output of the program is:

hello, world

Close examination of this program is illuminating:

The using System; directive references a namespace called System that is provided by the Microsoft .NET Framework class library. This namespace contains the Console class referred to in the Main method. Namespaces provide a hierarchical means of organizing the elements of a class library or program. A “using” directive enables unqualified use of the types that are members of the namespace. The “hello, world” program uses Console.WriteLine as a shorthand for System.Console.WriteLine.

The Main method is a member of the class Hello. It has the static modifier, and so it is a method on the class Hello rather than on instances of this class.

The main entry point for a program—the method that is called to begin execution—is always a static method named Main.

The “hello, world” output is produced through the use of a class library. The language does not itself provide a class library. Instead, it uses a common class library that is also used by languages such as Visual Basic and Visual C++.

Variables

You declare variables in C# using the following syntax:

datatype identifier;

For example:

int i;

This statement declares an int named i . The compiler won ’ t actually let you use this variable in anexpression until you have initialized it with a value.

Once it has been declared, you can assign a value to the variable using the assignment operator, =:

i = 10;

You can also declare the variable and initialize its value at the same time:

int i = 10;

This syntax is identical to C++ and Java syntax but very different from Visual Basic syntax for declaring variables. If you are coming from Visual Basic 6, you should also be aware that C# doesn ’ t distinguish between objects and simple types, so there is no need for anything like the Set keyword, even if you want your variable to refer to an object. The C# syntax for declaring variables is the same no matter what the data type of the variable.

If you declare and initialize more than one variable in a single statement, all of the variables will be of the same data type:

int x = 10, y =20; // x and y are both ints

To declare variables of different types, you need to use separate statements. You cannot assign different data types within a multiple variable declaration:

int x = 10;

bool y = true; // Creates a variable that stores true or false

int x = 10, bool y = true; // This won’t compile!

Notice the // and the text after it in the preceding examples. These are comments. The // character sequence tells the compiler to ignore the text that follows on this line because it is for a human to better understand the program and not part of the program itself.

-Initialization of Variables

Variable initialization demonstrates an example of C# ’ s emphasis on safety. Briefly, the C# compiler requires that any variable be initialized with some starting value before you refer to that variable in an operation. Most modern compilers will flag violations of this as a warning, but the ever - vigilant C# compiler treats such violations as errors. This prevents you from unintentionally retrieving junk values from memory that is left over from other programs.

C# has two methods for ensuring that variables are initialized before use:

- Variables that are fields in a class or struct, if not initialized explicitly, are by default zeroed out when they are created (classes and structs are discussed later).
- Variables that are local to a method must be explicitly initialized in your code prior to any statements in which their values are used. In this case, the initialization doesn ’ t have to happen when the variable is declared, but the compiler will check all possible paths through the method and will flag an error if it detects any possibility of the value of a local variable being used before it is initialized.

C# ’ s approach contrasts with C++ ’ s approach, in which the compiler leaves it up to the programmer to make sure that variables are initialized before use, and with Visual Basic ’ s approach, in which all variables are zeroed out automatically.

For example, you can ’ t do the following in C#:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Notice that this code snippet demonstrates defining Main() so that it returns an int instead of void .

When you attempt to compile these lines, you will receive this error message:

Use of unassigned local variable ‘d’

Consider the following statement:

Something objSomething;

In C++, this line would create an instance of the Something class on the stack. In C#, this same line of code would create only a reference for a Something object, but this reference would not yet actually refer to any object. Any attempt to call a method or property against this variable would result in an error.

Instantiating a reference object in C# requires use of the new keyword. You create a reference as shown in the previous example and then point the reference at an object allocated on the heap using the new keyword:

objSomething = new Something(); // This creates a Something on the heap

-Variable Scope

The scope of a variable is the region of code from which the variable can be accessed. In general, the scope is determined by the following rules:

- A field (also known as a member variable) of a class is in scope for as long as its containing class is in scope (this is the same as for C++, Java, and VB).
- A local variable is in scope until a closing brace indicates the end of the block statement or method in which it was declared.
- A local variable that is declared in a for , while , or similar statement is in scope in the body of that loop. (C++ developers will recognize that this is the same behavior as the ANSI standard for C++. Early versions of the Microsoft C++ compiler did not comply with this standard but scoped such variables to remain in scope after the loop terminated.)

Contants

As the name implies, a constant is a variable whose value cannot be changed throughout its lifetime.

Prefixing a variable with the const keyword when it is declared and initialized designates that variable

as a constant:

const int a = 100; // This value cannot be changed.

Constants will be familiar to Visual Basic and C++ developers. C++ developers should, however, note that C# does not permit all the subtleties of C++ constants. In C++, not only could variables be declared as constant, but depending on the declaration, you could have constant pointers, variable pointers to constants, constant methods (that don ’ t change the contents of the containing object), constant parameters to methods, and so on. These subtleties have been discarded in C#, and all you can do is declare local variables and fields to be constant.

Constants have the following characteristics:

They must be initialized when they are declared, and once a value has been assigned, it can never be overwritten.

The value of a constant must be computable at compile time. Therefore, you can ’ t initialize a constant with a value taken from a variable. If you need to do this, you will need to use a read - only field.

Constants are always implicitly static. However, notice that you don ’ t have to (and, in fact, are not permitted to) include the static modifier in the constant declaration.

At least three advantages exist to using constants in your programs:

Constants make your programs easier to read by replacing magic numbers and strings with readable names whose values are easy to understand.

Constants make your programs easier to modify. For example, assume that you have a SalesTax constant in one of your C# programs, and that constant is assigned a value of 6 percent. If the sales tax rate changes at a later point in time, you can modify the behavior of all tax calculations simply by assigning a new value to the constant; you don ’ t have to hunt throughout your code for the value .06 and change each one, hoping that you will find all of them.

Constants help to prevent mistakes in your programs. If you attempt to assign another value to a constant somewhere in your program other than at the point where the constant is declared, the compiler will flag the error.

Strings

A string is basically a sequence of characters. Each character is a Unicode character in the range U+0000 to U+FFFF.

System.String is a class specifically designed to store a string and allow a large number of operations on the string. In addition, due to the importance of this data type, C# has its own keyword and associated syntax to make it particularly easy to manipulate strings using this class.

You can concatenate strings using operator overloads:

string message1 = “Hello”; // returns “Hello”

message1 += “, There”; // returns “Hello, There”

string message2 = message1 + “!”; // returns “Hello, There!”

C# also allows extraction of a particular character using an indexer - like syntax:

char char4 = message[4]; // returns ‘a’. Note the char is zero-indexed

String class Members

String class provides two properties - Chars and Length. The Chars property returns the character at a specified position in a string and the Length property returns the number of characters in a string.

String class provides two types of methods - static and instance. Static methods can only be used by String class, not by an instance of the String class. The instance methods are used by instances of the String class.

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Table 1: The String class static methods

[...]

Excerpt out of 220 pages

Details

Title
C# Programming Made Easy. Visual Studio 2008
College
Saurashtra University
Course
C# Programming
Grade
5.9
Author
Year
2013
Pages
220
Catalog Number
V274606
ISBN (eBook)
9783656675877
ISBN (Book)
9783656675860
File size
2034 KB
Language
English
Tags
C#.NET, C# Programming, .NET Framework
Quote paper
Vimal Ghorecha (Author), 2013, C# Programming Made Easy. Visual Studio 2008, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/274606

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