Managers' Brain Health and the Blood Sugar Destructive Effects

Blood Sugar Effects in Decision Making

Textbook, 2009

99 Pages





1. Introduction
1.1. Defining the Problem:
1.2 The Research Questions

2. Supportive Bibliography
2.1. Need for a New Approach
2.2. Human Brain Operations
2.4. Need for innovation
2.5. Personality and Company
2.6. Big Five Model
2.6.1. Extraversion
2.6.2. Agreeableness
2.6.3. Conscientiousness
2.6.4. Neuroticism
2.6.5. Openness to experience
2.7. Brief Architecture of the Brain

3. Cognitive Activity
3.1. Memory and Retention of Information
3.2. Brain Fitness
3.3. Brain Feed
3.3.1. Energize it
3.3.2. Convert to a cutter
3.3.3. Lower glycemic index
3.3.4. Understand the Fats
3.3.5. Self-knowing Company’s share

4. Life style and Brain
4.1. Brain Cell Fertilizer
4.1.1. Lifestyle Factors That Reduce BDNF
4.1.2. Lifestyle Factors That Increase BDNF

- Vitamin D

- Companionship

5. Recommendations: Tips for Brain Fog Decrease
5.1. Recover diet and digestion operation.
5.1.1. Detoxify.
Free radicals
5.1.2. Maintenance of cell power
5.1.3. Regulate stress.
5.1.3. Workout
5.2. Coffee
5.2.1. Consume coffee in small but frequent amounts.
5.2.2. Performance to cognitive powers while activate
5.2.3. Caffeine’s strengths Sugar: Soy: Grapefruit: Nicotine:
5.3. Find when to consume and frequency of consumption
5.4. Coffee and cardiovascular system:
5.5. Coffee and addiction:
5.6. Caffeine sources
5.7. Recommendations: Tips for Blood Sugar Control
- Cinnamon:
- Carnosine:
- Biotin:
- Carnitine:
- Chromium:
- Lipoic acid:
- Coenzyme Q10:
- Vitamin C:
- Vitamin E:
- DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone):
- Essential fatty acids:
- Omega-3:
- Fiber:
- Magnesium:
- NAC (N-acetylcysteine):

5.8. Diabetic Foods to Avoid For Good Blood Sugar Control
- Table sugar:
- White Pasta:
- White Rice:

5.9. How to consume pasta and rice?
- Bagels:
- Potatoes:
- Ketchup:
- Fruit Juice:
- Sport Drinks:
- Energy Bars:
- Greek Yogurt:
- Artificial Sweeteners:


About the author:


This book aimed at answering the question trying to explore to way in which the blood sugar influence brain functions of the top executive decision-makers. Further to that, does food intake result in the brain fog effect? What is the problem represented to be? What presuppositions underlie the conceptions concerning the decision-making process?

I searched for ways to make may brain function again effectively. The result to this search drove me to hormones such as insulin and blood sugar that is easily affected by the food we consume. I have used these ways of consumption to myself with good results, and through this book I intend to share what I have learned and achieved with you.

It takes only your understanding of the brain situation, and the feeling that others, such as me, for instance, are willing to provide assistance.


Manager; Decision-Making; Brain; Brain Fitness

1. Introduction

The major goal of the present book is not to tell you what to do in order to maintain the good healthy condition of your brain through controlling the blood sugar. The major goal is to make you think that in our professional lives, our main asset is not the knowledge we have gained from our Universities, certified by the attained degrees. Our main asset is not the experience we have gained from our involvement in the continuously changing environment in the market-place. It is not even the people we have met all these years as customers, policy-makers, vendors, or other stakeholders. Our major asset is our brain and the functions it serves. The way the brain processes the information required, acquired, collected, chosen, used, interpreted, and disseminated is essential for the direction of the business companies we lead and of course our own career path.

The major goal of this book is to make you understand that we have to take care of the ultimate asset we possess and make you turn to a life-style that will easily enhance the operations of the brain, through healthy practices. The sugar level in our blood has a negative effect on the brain health.

This book aimed at answering the question trying to explore the way in which the blood sugar influence brain functions of top executive decision-makers. Further to that, I will try to explore the way the food we consume causes the brain fog effect? What is the problem represented to be? What presuppositions underlie the conceptions concerning the decision-making process? What effects are produced by such representations?

1.1. Defining the Problem:

Cognitive Pattern:

- The focus of the book is on the way in which the blood sugar influence brain functions of top executive decision-makers

1.2 The Research Questions

The overall strategic question to be answered is:

- In which way does the way in which the blood sugar influence brain functions of the top executive decision-makers?

The secondary questions the present study is answering are:

- Does food intake result to brain fog?
- What is the problem represented to be?
- What presuppositions underlie the conceptions concerning the decision-making process?
- What effects are produced by such representations?

2. Supportive Bibliography

2.1. Need for a New Approach

People have a different experience and they get impacted by events (Bolger & Zuckerman, 1995). They voluntarily share their troubles and frustrations with others, to receive reassurance, affirmation, encouragement, esteem, advice, aid, or information (Jonker & Botma, 2012). This is the main reason why I am writing this book. At some point in the past I experience a situation where I felt that my brain was in a foggy condition. I could not make a decision; I was forgetting events, meetings, and names. All the decisions I had to make, seemed to be very bad. Due to the fact that my professional life, up to the point I felt the fog was filled with success, I read an article published by Chris Argyris, “Why smart people can’t learn”. If the manager feels as smart, the learning capabilities of the brain diminish. I searched for ways to make may brain function again effectively. The result to this search drove me to hormones such as insulin and blood sugar that is easily affected by the food we consume. I have used these ways of consumption to myself with good results, and through this book I intend to share what I have learned and achieved with you.

It takes only your understanding of the brain situation, and the feeling that others, such as me, for instance, are willing to provide assistance. Sometimes we need other and we have to expect their assistance. Expectations that others will be available to provide support when needed is associated with a range of positive outcomes, including performance, organizational commitment, and diminished work stress (Chiaburu & Harrison, 2008).

The expectation of support refers to an exchange between individuals where one provides resources (psychological, emotional, and informational) to the other, in order to enhance the receivers’ psychological well-being and help function better within the environment (Shumaker & Brownell, 1984).

Expectancies that others will provide support, influence the appraisal process where individuals consider what they can do to cope with a threatening situation (Folkman & Lazarus, 1985). Perceptions that support is available reduce the extent to which people evaluate events as stressful and feel more relieved to keep up their work (Lazarus, 1984). Also, expectancies influence the extent to which people seek out others when they express stress (Geddess & Callister, 2007), and can promote positive well-being directly by promoting belonging and allowing people to feel good about their environment (Cobb, 1976).

2.2. Human Brain Operations

Everyone from the business world knows how important decision making is for the future of the company and to the individual future of the decision-maker.

Human brain was replaced human muscle power successfully (Porat, 1998) and those worked with intangible resources (Drucker, 1959). The brain can be thought as a complex, hierarchical network, in which billions of neurons are organized into circuits, columns, and (He et al., 2007). In these functional areas information processing comes from specific patterns of activity over the neurons, linking brain structure and function which are limited by the structure of brain net (Kamsaris, 2014).

The connection between perception and action is done by a sequence of neural operations, which act as stimulus to guide a behavior to make a decision, choose a particular action or response (McGuire, 1968).

Brain is the human organ that helps managers makes decisions. The only resource and raw material that is needed in order to make decisions is information. As far as I have learned so far through my academic life about information, the previous statement is correct. On the other hand the results I have collected from my managerial life are quite different. We will see about these results during the different part of the present book.

Let us see what information is. Information is a piece of data that has been collected through various methods, subjective and objective, and have been placed in a certain conceptual framework, in order to make sense to the user. The user of the information, in the present case, the decision maker, takes the piece of information pass it through the brain network composed of billions of neurons, circuits, and functional areas, in order to produce the decision. The information processing on the way to decision-making comes from specific patterns of activity within the neurons.

As we have stated earlier, the brain contains circuits. These circuits have a three-dimensional structure which constrains the network dynamics towards a decision-making (Sur and Rubenstein, 2005).

The network dynamics can reshape the physical structure of the network for better processing of the information required, acquired, collected, chosen, used, interpreted, and disseminated (Majewska and Sur, 2006).

The network, as it is not stable, has a structural progress through life and it is ruled by biological events and the experiences that people gain. These factors play essential role for the effectiveness of the network operations. We cannot do much about the genetically prescribed roots, but as far as the experiences, involvements, understandings, and familiarities are concerned, we can do much. The network description and its root across the lifecycle are explained by neuroscience (Sporns et al., 2005) and this knowledge is out of my discipline.

The brain network mechanisms have been examined genetically and biochemically for:

- Cortical patterning and circuit development (Sur and Rubenstein, 2005), and
- Neuroanatomical tracing studies have refined our conceptions of local and distributed connectivity patterns (Felleman and Van Essen, 1991).

2.4. Need for innovation

Companies search for innovation to get differentiated in the competitive markets in order to gain a competitive advantage (Porter, 1985). The companies innovate by continuously developing new products, services, or processes to satisfy customer’ needs and in order to make profits (Afuah, 2003).

The need for Managers is becoming more imperative and of highest importance since they are in the company to generate new ideas, create new knowledge and to produce new products (Galbraith, 1982). Since the need for innovation is very demanding, companies should attempt to provide managers with an environment that facilitates the process of generating and exchanging new ideas and enables them to apply their skills, for the benefit of the company (Hamel & Breen, 2007).

The companies that provide their executives with the necessary assistance and environment to innovate tend to be more likable than other organizations (Hamel & Breen, 2007). Usually, these companies are structured in a unique way that facilitates innovation processes (Galbraith, 1982).

2.5. Personality and Company

The degree to which there is a fit between the manager and the company is relevant to the degree to which there is a match between the characteristics of individual personality and organizational climate (Kristof, 1996).

Personality involves individuals’ stable and intrinsic mental structures that provide general direction for their choices and behaviors (Hogan, 1991).

Theories of vocational choice support the interaction between the personality of an individual and the job choice and the choice of a vocation is an expression of personality (Holland, 1966). Furthermore, career is considered to be a function of the person's self-concept and the realities of the environment provided by the organization (Super, 1953).

Also, organizational values are considered to be important determinants of job choices and individuals job seekers preferred jobs in organizations that had values similar to their own (Judge and Bretz, 1992). In other words people are attracted to organizations that have a character similar to their own personality (Tom, 1971).

Personality measures are useful for identifying the types of people who cluster in different organizations (Schneider, 1987). A shock occurs when an managers finds that the actual environment inside the organization is incompatible with their personality and their own values (Lee et al, 1999).

2.6. Big Five Model

The Big five model is a framework to study personality (Goldberg, 1990) and is compose of the following factors:

- Extraversion, which describes the tendency to be sociable, assertive, active, directive and spontaneous,
- Agreeableness, which represents the tendency to be likable, cheerful, adaptable, and cooperative,
- Conscientiousness, which captures measures of achievement and dependability,
- Neuroticism, which reflects the tendency to exhibit poor emotional adjustment and experience negative effects such as fear and anxiety, and
- Openness to experience, which represents the tendency to be curious, creative, nonconforming, and autonomous (Goldberg, 1990).

The five factors have been much examined in the literature of job choice and career success. There has been investigation on how applicants with high scores in those factors are attracted to different organizational cultures (Judge and Cable, 1997). Also there is a discussion on how those factors are related to individuals’ career success (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, and Feldman, 2005). A recent meta-analysis examined how the model affects employees’ turnover and intentions to quit (Zimmerman, 2008).

2.6.1. Extraversion

Extroverts are sociable, assertive, bold, and spontaneous people (Goldberg, 1990; Wiggins, 1996). Innovation suggests that collaboration among functional units is supreme for innovation (Teece, 1996). Sociable employees are more likely to succeed in innovative organizations where they need to cooperate with employees from various departments (Afuah, 2003).

The assertiveness and boldness natures of extroverts reflect an aggressive personality. Innovators continuously develop new products that cause discontinuity and disruptions in the market (Christensen, 1997). The aggressive people are attracted to aggressive organizations (O’Reilly et al, 1991).

Innovators are individuals inside the organization who spontaneously come up with new ideas (Galbraith, 1982).

2.6.2. Agreeableness

Agreeable are the individuals who are dependent on others and tend to avoid conflict with others (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Agreeable employees are less likely to leave their jobs because they tend to respect their contractual obligations with their company (Zimmerman, 2008). Agreeableness is a behavior associated with passivity and conformance (Judge & Cable, 1997). People in passive and conformance state avoid the new.

Research in the area suggests that agreeableness is negatively related to aggression (Zuckerman, Kuhlman, Joireman, & Teta, 1993).

Let us not forget that innovative organizations strive aggressively to differentiate themselves in competitive markets (Porter, 1985).

2.6.3. Conscientiousness

Research shows that conscientious individuals are cautious with their actions and risk- adverse (Costa & McCrae, 1992). These characteristics (being careful and opposing to the different that involves risk) are not compatible with innovative cultures that value risk-taking (O’Reilly et al, 1991). Innovators do not fear failure and continue to try the new ideas till they find the implementable and promising ones (Galbraith, 1982).

Further, conscientious individuals tend to be controlled, rule-bounded, and have a need for order (Goldberg, 1990). Research shows that the need for order is negatively related to innovation (Diener, Larsen, & Emmons, 1984). The companies that have a highly controlled systems are less innovative than those with more freedom given to employees (Hamel and Breen, 2007). People scoring high in conscientiousness are less attracted by innovative organizational cultures (Judge and Cable, 1997). A negative relationship between conscientiousness and turnover is obvious because conscientious employees usually have a fear of losing their jobs (Zimmerman, 2008).

2.6.4. Neuroticism

Neurotic individuals are likely to be rigid and un-adaptable (Goldberg, 1990). Innovation in companies is associated with a dynamic environment and with a continuous changing situation (Anderson & Tushman, 1990). On the other hand, innovative organizations are not characterized by rigidity or by high stability (O’Reilly et al, 1991). As a result, employees in innovative organization are continuously challenged to generate new ideas and to develop new methods and processes (Wiggins, 1996).

Research suggests that the notion that individuals who score high in neuroticism are prone to fear and anxiety in novel situations (Judge & Cable, 1997). This fact contradicts with the characteristics that the innovative organizations require in their employees. Employees in innovative organizations are given the permission to confidently attempt to develop new ideas with the belief that one of those ideas could be the next innovation (Hamel & Breen, 2007).

2.6.5. Openness to experience

The people who are open to new experience tend to be more imaginative, unconventional, and creative (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Goldberg, 1990). Furthermore, research shows that openness to new experience is associated with creativity and divergent thinking (McCrae et al, 1987).

People, who are characterized as innovators, are creative individuals who strive to generate new ideas. In order to develop new products, organizations have to go through new experiences via the use of new markets (Afuah, 2003).

Furthermore, openness to experience implies characteristics such as willingness to change and being autonomous (Judge & Cable, 1997). Support to that is provided by research that indicates the positive relationship between innovation and willingness to change (Damanpour, 1991). Due to the fact that people are the essence of the organization (Schneider, 1987) and innovative organization is built on the individual creativity of their employees (Woodman, Sawyer, & Griffin, 1993).

2.7. Brief Architecture of the Brain

- Cerebrum is the largest and “newest” part of the human brain. It is made up of the cortex. Major regions of the cortex are responsible for the processing of our sensations, how we receive the world.
- Frontal Lobe is implicated in motor control, complex thoughts, associations, and social thinking.
- Parietal Lobe is the key for all perceptions.
- Occipital Lobe processes all visual input.
- Temporal Lobe processes both auditory (hearing) and olfactory (smell) input.
- Homunculus is the somatotopic organization of the brain.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Limbic is the system composed of the:

- Hypothalamus,
- Pituitary gland,
- Amygdala, and
- Hippocampus.

These structures are necessary for basic survival functions as well as emotions and are some of the most primitive part of our brain.

All sensory information is processed at least partially in the limbic system.

Notion of objectivity is compromised.

Humans are unable to receive sensory input or stimuli from the surrounding world without instantaneously associating emotions.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Hippocampus is a relatively small structure of the limbic system which is vital for learning and memory in all mammals.

The Hippocampus is the brain regions that has a highly complex innervation patters and looks like the shape of a “sea horse”.

3. Cognitive Activity

Organizations struggle to increase the competitive advantages through continuous innovation and creativity (Mohrman et al., 2002). Sophisticated thinking skills can be used such as naturalistic decision making. In the naturalistic decision making, the experts make instinctive decisions based on cognitive skills developed on patterns formed from previous experiences.

The decision maker is unable to communicate the process or provide justification for the decision choice and integrative thinking (Kahneman & Klein, 2009).

The decision-making process does not include the choice among alternatives (Lipshitz et al., 2006) but people take options created from their analysis of environmental signals related to experiences they already have (Kahneman & Klein, 2009).

The integrative thinkers take into account irrelevant factors and have the ability to calculate relationships by keeping all the parts of the puzzle in their mind simultaneously, and resist simple-minded options (Martin, 2007). Cognitive work requires people to reliably complete un-monotonous tasks, by persistently using new knowledge and abilities (Hackman and Oldham, 1980).

Metacognition is a term that refers to the second-order thoughts (Petty, Brinol, Tormala, & Wegener, 2007). It has taken main role in the domain of the social psychology (Jost, Kruglanski, & Nelson, 1998), in the memory research (Koriat & Goldsmith, 1996), the clinical practice (Beck & Greenberg, 1994), and the advertising (Friestad & Wright, 1995).

Self-validation hypothesis is a term that describes that generating thoughts are not sufficient to have an impact on judgments, but must also have confidence in them (Petty, Brinol & Tormala, 2002).

It makes some predictions such as:

- Confidence is used in determining which attitudes guide behavior (Fazio & Zanna, 1978).
- Attitude / thought correlations were increased as measured thought confidence increased (Petty et al., 2002).
- When positive thoughts had been generated toward the message, experiencing confidence following thought generation, led to higher persuasion (Brinol, Petty and Barden 2007).
- Happy people relied more on their thoughts than the sad individuals (Kamsaris, 2014).


Excerpt out of 99 pages


Managers' Brain Health and the Blood Sugar Destructive Effects
Blood Sugar Effects in Decision Making
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Professor Dimitrios Kamsaris (Author), 2009, Managers' Brain Health and the Blood Sugar Destructive Effects, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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