The Rise of Hooliganism in Sport Events


Term Paper, 2013

16 Pages, Grade: 2,7


Excerpt

Table of contents

List of figures

List of tables

1 Introduction

2 Method and data

3 Impacts of hooliganism
3.1 Change of welfare
3.2 Increasing tax payments for state troops

4 Possible solutions and preventive measures as tools for risk management

5 Conclusion

6 List of literature

Abstract

Hooliganism is growing alarmingly at sport events, especially during football matches. This phenomenon has its roots in medieval times. Different peoples waged fights against each other when a kind of ball was in the near trying to show power. Later it is distinguished between disorder and disaster describing kinds of incidents during games. As a result, additional costs for the population and sport clubs are generated and sustainably affect public expenditures. The population is exposed to the danger of destruction, violence and aggression before, during and after the games. Internalising these negative effects, more means of the tax payer are used to pay policemen operating hours. Regarding the German football seasons of the first and second league in 2007/2008 and 2011/2012 there has been an increase of 32 % in terms of working hours. Furthermore sport clubs recruit stewards having other rights than policemen. These employees are allowed to stick to the stadium’s house rules and may throw people out although they have not broken the law. More and more stadiums tend to install new, high developed cameras, namely CCTV, to monitor the spectators. So-called smart cards help to identify people very fast and the sport clubs know who enters the stadium. Without incorporating and implementing an adequate strategy, state and sport clubs hardly succeed in weakening or controlling hooliganism.

Key words: hooliganism, externality, tax payments, risk management.

List of figures

Figure 1: Market balance without any externalities (Mankiw & Taylor, 2008, p. 231).

Figure 2: Impact of hooliganism on the economic welfare (Mankiw & Taylor, 2008, p. 232).

Figure 3: Injured people during a season (ZIS Jahresbericht Fußball 2010/2012, p. 26).

Figure 4: Police operating hours at football seasons (ZIS Jahresbericht Fußball 2011/2012, p.26).

List of tables

Table 1: Crime scenes of a season (ZIS Jahresbericht Fußball 2011/2012, p.26).

Table 2: Added up numbers of police working hours (ZIS Jahresbericht Fußball, p. 26).

1 Introduction

It is undisputable that sport events have reached in the context of the increasing commercialization, socialisation procedures and professionalization, a status enabling to sustainably influence economy and society. In literature, these kinds of impacts are called externalities. A general definition is provided by Jean-Jaques Gouguet and Eric Barget (Handbook on the Economics of Sport, 2006, p. 168) saying that “an externality is defined as the impact of the actions of an individual on the well-being of other people […]”. With each coin having two sides, it has to be differed between positive and negative externalities. Regarding sport events, job creation, urban development from an economic and improved social integration from a sociological point of view belong to positive external effects. In contrast the destruction of the natural environment and the lack of integrity and credibility, due to match-fixing and doping, are representative for negative ones. On account of the vast range of externalities, this work completely neglects positive externalities and focuses on hooliganism, particularly in the football scene. This main topic requires more attention as it is “the most common form of the negative impact of sporting events on social cohesion” (Jean-Jacques Gouguet & Eric Barget, 2006, p. 169) and often controversially discussed in the media.

Usually hooliganism is linked with football. So the historical background refers to the development of football. It is associated with violence and has its origins in medieval times. There was just a ball and villages fought against each other to solve land disputes and conflicts of opinion. Of course there was a high level of aggression. During the fourteenth century the demand for controlled football occurred as the violent consequences of football were negative for the towns and their businesses. In the next centuries a couple of attempts were made to set up rules for football without any success. In the early 1900s society was separated in upper and working class communities whereby aggressive tenses increased. Steve Frosdick and Peter Marsh (Football Hooliganism, 2005) distinguish between disorder and disaster through hooligans. The first one describes that match attending people frequently tend to throw missiles, fight against other and make racist remarks by organizing themselves in groups. A good example for disorder is the Zuisism1 wave where the media reported about bloody knife attacks on referees and fighting with firearms. However, a lot of spectators2 throw missiles just for joy and walk on the field not having the intention to hurt anybody. This fact indicates that hooliganism has an ambiguous meaning. The second phenomenon is caused if people unintentionally are being hurt or killed such as in 1998 where “96 Liverpool fans were crushed to death against a pitch perimeter fence” (Steve Frosdick & Peter Marsh, 2005, p. 23). Another horrible incident took place in 1985 at the Heysel-Stadium with 39 deaths and 600 injured people. In 1989 there was a tragedy at the HiIlsborough-Stadium. 96 people died and 766 got hurt (Mohler, 2008). German football clubs are also exposed to the danger of violence as the number of wounded people is on the rise. It is obvious that disorder and disaster are quickly growing concerns. Besides social and demographic backgrounds play an important role such as unemployment and foreign origins.

Regarding these introducing sentences for the phenomenon hooliganism, the assignment distracts from sociological aspects. Instead the topic is viewed from an economic as well as management perspective. The following research questions should be answered: What are the consequences of hooliganism? Are there preventive and solution approaches?

At first the method and available data is delineated. After that impacts on the population’s welfare are examined and consequences are presented. Furthermore measures against hooliganism are given. Finally the assignment ends with a conclusion and a prospect for the future.

2 Method and data

Since hooliganism is frequently associated with football, the assignment focuses on this kind of sport. Analysing and showing up the increasing costs for the tax payer caused by hooliganism, the amount of police missions during the football seasons from 2008/2009 to 2011/2012 is used. The information is provided by ZIS3 which measures police appearance in Germany’s top football leagues, especially in the first and second soccer league. There is no legal base saying that the participating sport clubs have to compensate the costs for police missions. There are still discussions findable in the media who has to bear the costs (http://www.lto.de/recht/hintergruende/h/polizeikosten-bei-bundesligaspielen-fussball-risikospiel-zweckveranlasser-sicherheitseuro/, access on 18/06/2013.

Evaluating the costs for sport clubs and stadium facilities first of all the hooligans’ consumption opportunities are examined by using a model of the welfare economy4. Supposing that fundamental knowledge in microeconomics is assumed, the appropriate instruments are transformed into this case.

3 Impacts of hooliganism

3.1 Change of welfare

Hooliganism leads to higher costs for the sport clubs and the operator of the stadium as well as for society5. The supply as well as the demand curve contains useful and significant information about use and costs. Figure 1 represents the economic welfare without having any externalities, neither positive nor negative ones. The fan’s consumption worth mirrors the falling line. Each amount is allocated a defined price. Likewise, the increasing line shows the costs for the population and sport clubs. Without hooliganism and measures the consumption price turns into a certain point, so that offer and demand is balanced. The equilibrium quantity Q is efficient since the consumer and producer surplus is maximized. In this case the consumers are the none-violent fans, who are quite satisfied. The producers, of course, are the sport clubs providing football matches.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1: Market balance without any externalities (Mankiw & Taylor, 2008, p. 231).

On account of facility destruction, in-house disasters, pitch invasions, injuries, smoke bomb attacks etc. (Steve Frosdick & Peter Marsch, 2005) before, during and after the match, the costs increase. In their aggregated status they clearly exceed the economic costs of the producers as shown in figure 2. The supply line shifts left and a new optimum will be reached. The distraction of the new one from the old one results in the population’s costs line. Consequently, the consumption price as well as quantity deeply changed. The new price level is much higher, and the consumption quantity is reduced. The aggregated economic optimal balance is smaller than the previous equilibrium quantity Q_market. Consequently the caused negative impact of hooliganism on society and the sport clubs has to be compensated by internalising this external effect (Mankiw & Taylor, 2008). Implementing an effective and efficient preventive system in form of improved security systems and several solution approaches could be a solution. According to the theorem of Ronald coase, negative externalities can be solved by the market parties, in this case sport clubs and fans, themselves if there are no transaction costs (Mankiw & Taylor, 2008).6

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 2: Impact of hooliganism on the economic welfare (Mankiw & Taylor, 2008, p. 232).

3.2 Increasing tax payments for state troops

Table 1 gives a clear overview of committed crimes during a football match in the German soccer leagues7. On average 761 games took place in the five regarding time slots. From the season 07/08 to 08/09, almost 1500 more illegal criminal actions have been detected. In the season 10/11 the report contains fewer incidents. But figures of 11/12 show an interesting and huge jump that more than 8100 fans became delinquent. It is a difference of 2300 to the previous season. This fact implicates that the willingness for violence of the spectators has massively been transformed. However, this finding does not have empirical evidence as a closer research would go beyond the scope of this assignment.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Table 1: Crime scenes of a season (ZIS Jahresbericht Fußball 2011/2012, p.26).

In the next picture, the amount of people hurt is depicted. It is obvious that more and more people get harmed during the attendance of a game (black pillars). The grey pillars represent the proportionate persons who are innocent victims of excesses. There is also a permanent increase detectable.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 3: Injured people during a season (ZIS Jahresbericht Fußball 2010/2012, p. 26).

The first graphics should have clarified that the security situation urgently needs improvements. Police support is necessary.

The following table is an array of working hours by the police8 per season from 2008 until 2012.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Table 2: Added up numbers of police working hours (ZIS Jahresbericht Fußball, p. 26).

Using the provided data, the last image reveals an advancing tendency in police operating hours. The season 10/11 seems to be a special one as there has been reported a decrease of operating hours. In the season of 11/12 there were around 500000 more working hours necessary than in in 07/08. This equals a change of +34%. One weekend first soccer league in season 11/12 cost 1,1 mio. € (http://www.welt.de/regionales/muenchen/article108742325/Wer-uebernimmt-die-Polizeikosten-fuer-die-Bundesliga.html, access on 31/05/2013). One German football season consists of 34 match days. Finally, only the first league expends resources of around 38 mio. €. Estimating that the second league needs half of it on account of smaller stadiums and fewer fan capacities, there is a total expense of 57 mio. € per season. Since sport clubs do not have to pay for the police appearance the whole burden is turned on the tax payer.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 4: Police operating hours at football seasons (ZIS Jahresbericht Fußball 2011/2012, p.26).

[...]


1 Zuisms comes from ZUS. It is “an acronym of the Serbo-Croat words for slaughter, kill, annihilate” (Steve Frosdkick & Peter Marsh, 2005, p. 19).

2 Spectators and fans are used as synonyms.

3 ZIS= Zentrale Informationsstelle Sporteinsätze

4 Models never represent the complex reality. They are an epitome of the reality distracting from details and only show important facts.

5 It is supposed that sport clubs are coeval the stadium operator.

6 It is quite difficult solving negative effects without transaction costs. The next paragraph highlights the risen tax payments.

7 The data in this abstract equals the sum of the first and second league.

8 The operating hours include the local police and the federal police.

Excerpt out of 16 pages

Details

Title
The Rise of Hooliganism in Sport Events
College
Sport Academy Cologne  (Sportmanagement)
Course
Sport Event Management
Grade
2,7
Author
Year
2013
Pages
16
Catalog Number
V284128
ISBN (eBook)
9783656842224
ISBN (Book)
9783656842231
File size
449 KB
Language
English
Tags
risk management, externality, hooliganism, tax, payment, equity
Quote paper
Oliver Götz (Author), 2013, The Rise of Hooliganism in Sport Events, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/284128

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