How to discover a new element? The synthetic creation of the yet hypothetical element ununennium.


Research Paper (postgraduate), 2014

6 Pages


Excerpt

I. Experiment

We direct a low-energy lead-208-ionbeam out of the LINAC 3 on rubidium-87-targets in order to create the new element ununennium with the atomic number 119. Either directly with the Lead Crystal Calorimeter or indirectly with the specific energy of the alpha particles that occur by the decay, we may prove the existence of single atoms.

Hopefully, this project doesn't take too much effort and an ion beam of such low kinetic energy will not make any problems in terms of radioprotection.

We decided to use the naturally present educts Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten and Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten, whose sum of nucleons and protons equals exactly the numbers of Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten.

As projectile we utilize Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten, because all essential equipment for that isotope is already in place. The lighter weight of the target should cause no complications. The relative kinetic energy between the two cores is constant. A little hindrance could be that the metallic grid of the target lead would have smaller mashes as the one of rubidium, so that the collision's probability and the number of products could be lessened.

We assume a central collision of lead-ions with rubidium-atoms, which should transform moving to binding energy. The new ununennium-ion should therefore not be animated, but will be left with a rest momentum.

We need to calculate the speed necessary for a fusion of the lead-projectile with the rubidium target to the new element ununennium.

For this purpose we will first have to find out the part of the kinetic energy that is transformed into binding energy. With the conservation of momentum we detect the speed of the lead-ion as well as of the ununennium-ion.

The Bethe-Weizsäcker-formula is an accurate approximation of the mass of huge unknown cores.

The Bethe-Weizsäcker-formula1 and its constants1 for the calculation of the core intern binding energy are:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

A =Z+N means the amount of nucleons of the particular atom, Z the quantity of protons and N the quantity of the neutrons. Gg-cores are nuklei of atoms with even numbers of Z and N, for ug- or gu-cores only one of these variables is even, and for gg-cores none of these.

Using these values in the formula of binding energy gives these results:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Referring to this, the arisen 54 times positive ununennium has the mass2 of:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

With lead-208 and rubidium-87 we use the known core masses for calculating the binding energy in order to get more accurate values. In this process the following relation to the proton'3, electron'4, and neutron'5 masses applies, if we assume that the core's mass equals the mass of the atom less the electrons:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The in u stated core masses have to be converted6 into Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten.

These input parameters for lead-2087 amount to:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

and with rubidium-878:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The magnitude of difference between the core intern binding energies

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Excerpt out of 6 pages

Details

Title
How to discover a new element? The synthetic creation of the yet hypothetical element ununennium.
Course
CERN beamline for schools competition
Authors
Year
2014
Pages
6
Catalog Number
V289334
ISBN (eBook)
9783656895817
ISBN (Book)
9783656895824
File size
447 KB
Language
English
Tags
element, ununennium, 119, neues Element, particle, accelerator, Teilchenbeschleuniger, Physik, physics, new, fusion, energy
Quote paper
Moritz Lehmann (Author)Fabian Tatai (Author)Markus Dietel (Author), 2014, How to discover a new element? The synthetic creation of the yet hypothetical element ununennium., Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/289334

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