Extent of the application of ‘Objective Orientated Project Planning’ Approach to Design and Delivery of Development Assistance Projects

Research Paper (postgraduate), 2015

17 Pages











Development projects are particular in nature that affords social economic support to the emerging countries or to besiege faction of addressee (Khang and Moe, 2008). A development project is based on its contribution, on definite events, and on production which are projected to add to the preferred purposes and ultimate goal. The aims of the development assistance projects are poverty alleviation, improvement of living standards, environment protection, human rights protection etc. thus the projects are significant and justified. In aid of development assistance a number of methods for planning, design and management are practicing to facilitate the livelihood upgrading of the poor communities (Roduner et al, 2008).

Over the time different approaches have been developed to improve the system analyses and design processes. Lin (2011) stretched-out three approaches such as traditional waterfall approach, agile approach and object-oriented approach. The assignment devotes with the Objective-Oriented Project Planning (OOPP) approach. Despite enormous criticisms, one of the key implemented methods in current instances by a range of multilateral and bilateral donors, NGOs and developmental agencies is the OOPP approach. A debate is subsisting in relation to the degree of effectiveness of the approach to design and delivery of the development assistance projects though an enormous appreciation by various institutes. The rationale of development projects is to persuade transform whose consequences are most wanted within the limited scope.

The main idea of this assignment is to assess the application of the OOPP approach for contributing the design and delivery of development assistance projects. In addition with introduction and conclusion, the assignment covers the logical steps of OOPP approach and stages of project design with a conceptual framework, the critical assessment of extent of OOPP approach for design and delivery, and the criticisms of OOPP approach in development assistance project planning and execution.


The OOPP is a contributory planning procedure, in which all recipients are occupied to recognize and analyze the predicaments for addressing the project design, and to get ready a real and pragmatic project plan in a logical sequence/order. This portion is conferred with OOPP approach, project life-cycle, and project design to formulate a conceptual framework.

The OOPP approach is one of the instruments to design a project, initially devised by the German Aid Agency (GTZ, 1988). Objective-oriented project planning means the situation of leaving of the planning procedure is the problem scrutiny, which guides to the purposes and lastly makes it feasible to prefer the appropriate actions (Ortengren 2004). OOPP approach consists of a series of tools that allow developing a project design. According to Potts (2002), the approach starts with analysis of four crucial aspects such as participation analysis, problem analysis, objective analysis, and alternative analysis. He also stated that the logical framework is the ultimate step in this process (Figure-1) and it is contributed to the project design.

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Figure-1: Different steps of OOPP approach (adapted from Potts, 2002)

Consequently, ILO (2002) proposed the OOPP comprises with three distinct phases as preparatory phase, analysis phase, and planning phase. In preparatory phase, the appropriate subject matter is identified and relevant parties are selected. Discussion on cause-effect relationship and objectives are decided during analysis phase. A planning matrix is prepared in planning stage using the information from analysis. After stakeholders consent the problems, objectives, and strategies are organized into a logical sequence. Then, these objectives are transformed into Planning Matrix or Logical Framework. The Logical Framework Approach (LFA) was originally devised for USAID in early 1970s. It is an instrument for objective oriented project planning. As a planning tool LFA is comprised with participation analysis, problem analysis, objectives analysis, alternatives analysis, defining project elements, determining assumptions, and establishing indicators (NORAD, 1999). While Ryan (2014) is referred ‘the LFA is a broader approach relating to OOPP integrates some practices as stakeholder analysis, problem analysis and the logical framework’.

Projects typically move through a set of phases such as initiation and definition, planning/design, execution and control, and handover/closure (Gardiner, 2008). Design phase is the foremost important of any projects. In order to design a good quality project the identification of project, formulation of project, planning for implementation, and planning of monitoring & evaluation are four subsequent steps (ILO, 2010) that illustrated in Figure-2. Identification is a contributory counseling practice that examines the circumstances and the crisis. Formulation of the project establishes concrete outcomes to accomplish, and draw the actions to be seized. Implementation plan devise with require schedule, budget, and resource. Monitoring & evaluation plan for project progress and performance evaluation.

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Figure-2: Different steps of project design in development projects (adapted from ILO, 2010)

Participation can uphold at any stage of the project cycle and steps can be taken to promote stakeholder participation at the implementation phase (AfDB, 2001). The extent OOPP approach to project implementation/delivery and management is largely reliant on the excellence of project design. Stakeholders are consulted particularly for identification of project objectives through problem analysis.

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Figure-3: Conceptual framework- application of OOPP approach in design and delivery (by Author)

For assessing the extent of application of the OOPP approach that contribute to improving the planning and execution of the projects, a conceptual framework is developed (Figure-3) based on Ryan (2014) proposal that indicates the assignment is confined to assessing the approach by situation analysis, strategy analysis, and logical framework (planning matrix). For critical assessment, this approach will be linked with project design and delivery. After all, the extent of OOPP approach will be justified with examples for design and delivery of development assistance projects.


The OOPP approach is the most distinct and unparallel tool for design and delivery of development projects are agreed by some researchers and users. In this segment, the extent of application of OOPP approach for improving design (planning) and delivery (execution) of the development assistance projects is assessed in support with arguments and concurrent literatures based on different steps.

For assessing the extent of OOPP approach for design and delivery of development assistance projects, the stakeholder analysis, problem analysis, and objectives analysis are made for situation appraisal.

Stakeholder Analysis: The design starts with stakeholder analysis to identify the target or interest groups for understanding their roles and interests in project. By stakeholder analysis, project design gets organized groups and also gives a classification of groups by relative importance and influence (Figure-4). This design identifies both supporters and opponents with their characteristics, and motivations or aggressions and appropriates the stakeholder needs (Appendix-1.1 and 1.2). ODA (1995) categorized the stakeholders into primary, secondary, or external based on comparative significance in aid deliverance projects that would be assistance to apposite design. Whereas AfDB (2001) argued that the design drawn based on local knowledge and expertise is ensuring the stakeholder priorities and needs.


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Extent of the application of ‘Objective Orientated Project Planning’ Approach to Design and Delivery of Development Assistance Projects
University of Bradford  (BCID)
MSc in Project Planning and Management
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ISBN (Book)
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Object Oriented Project Planning Approach
extent, orientated, project, planning’, approach, design, delivery, development, assistance, projects
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M Sc Mohammad Abdul Salam (Author), 2015, Extent of the application of ‘Objective Orientated Project Planning’ Approach to Design and Delivery of Development Assistance Projects, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/292640


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