Table of Contents
Reduplication in English
Reduplication in Urdu language
Total Reduplication in English
Total Reduplication in Urdu
Partial Reduplication in English and Urdu
Partial Reduplication in English
Partial Reduplication in Urdu
Reduplication is an important phenomenon in language studies. This study aims to explore the process of Reduplication in Urdu and English language. The method used for research is document analysis. Various books, Articles, researches, dictionaries and online media are used for the collection of data.
Reduplication, Productivity, Reduplicant, Repetition.
“Reduplication is a process similar to derivation, in which the initial syllable or the entire word is doubled, exactly or with a slight morphological change”
Laurel J, Brinton: A linguistic Introduction (1991, p.91)
Reduplication is not an alien concept to begin with. It is a type of compounding process in terms of “reduplication compound or repetitive compound”. Reduplication is a morphological process in which word, stem or root is doubled. This process takes place in two major types; total reduplication and partial reduplication. Total reduplication doubles the entire word whereas partial reduplication copies some phonological features of the word, stem or root.
The process of reduplication is found in many languages and has the quality of linguistic productivity. The productivity of reduplication process in Urdu and English language is reverse. English language has less productivity of Reduplication process but the linguistics has done a lot of work on it. There are two online dictionaries on reduplicated words in English language, where they present reduplicated words with their meanings and etymological origins. On the other hand, the productivity of reduplication process is immense in Urdu language but there is no online availability of literature on Reduplication in Urdu language. If material of some kind available online it is not very reliable.
Word Reduplication can be traced back to the 16th century from Latin word “Reduplication” or “reduplicationis” which means “doubling” and “folding”. The term “Reduplicator” is used for the base word in reduplication even the reduplicated element is called “Reduplicant”.
Reduplication plays central role in word formation process which undergoes in many languages and language groups. Reduplication process is very productive in Urdu language but the process remains almost unexplored in Pakistan. It is a rich field of linguistic investigation.
Purpose of the study was to explore the different phenomena responsible for the process of Reduplication in Urdu and English languages. And to compare Reduplication process in English and Urdu language at word level.
Purpose of the Study:
To explore what is Reduplication and the process of reduplication in Urdu and English language.
1) How does the reduplication process take place in Urdu and English language?
2) What is the reduplication process in Urdu?
3) What is the Reduplication process in English?
The process of Reduplication always treats as constituents copying which undergo through with some rules (Katamba, 1993). Two phonological processes mainly responsible for total reduplication are; prosodic unit (syllables) and segmentation sequences of consonants/vowels) whereas morphologically it repeats the base, stem or roots of the word. Full reduplication repeats the entire base form of a word. On the other hand partial reduplication takes place as vowel alternation, rhyming words.
(Bernhard Hurch, Motomi Kajitani “Other Reduplication Phenomena” 2008) Lexical reduplication is then more often encountered. Lexical reduplication can still be productive, in that the reduplication regularly serves to express specific semantic (or pragmatic) categories, e.g. a reduplicative word class changing operation. In some languages, a less strict distinguishment is made between derivational and inflectional operations, thus rendering lexical reduplication an almost inflectional process, such as the reduplication of verbs in order to express some lexical or aspectual value.
Reduplication in English
Okamura states in his article that the process of reduplication in English is very poor but reduplicative compound mostly used for natural sounds which is productive and very common. The term “echoism” has been investigated from 1890-1950 as sound symbolism. Echoism includes onomatopoeia, the formation and use of the word that imitate the sound associated with the object or action they refer to. Its origin is from Greek word “onomatapoios” Onomat, name + poiein, to make the tendency to create word that reflects the sound of an object makes.
Rastall (2004) believes that a word is common in all languages and some are meaningless and some of them are tongue-twisters, Reduplication of an expression only enriches the vocabulary in English and it can be several kinds. Often there is alteration of zero consonant, initial consonant or ending like itsy-bitsy, flower-power, and see-saw. Assonance o vowels and changes at consonantal level show some duplication in words like hilly-Billy.
Marantaz, A. (1982) states that reduplication process is classified into repetition of sounds, syllables or words contrasted with the alteration of consonants, vowels or groups of sound in which there could be sameness and alternation. Full reduplication identifies the components of expression like gee-gee, bye-bye and in partial reduplication there is “juxtaposition” of reduplication forms.
Reduplication in Urdu language
Abbi (1991) illustrate that the use of reduplication in South Asian languages is quite frequent like Urdu/Hindi. “All the content words can generally be reduplicated and the effect of the reduplication is to either strengthen the original word" (M. Butt, 2007).
Rajinmwale (2006) states "Reduplication is the process of repetition of the part or whole of one element creates a new word." In Asian languages, the process is extremely rich and often new forms can easily be coined. It is very easy for the native of those language speakers. In English language, this process is used as reduplicative compound or repetitive compound but in Urdu language there are various processes to make the word double.
Abrar Hussain Qureshi, Dr. Bhezad Anwar & Mehmood Awan (2012) in their research Morphology of the Urdu Language write about the prefix and suffix in Urdu language. Prefixes in the Urdu language do not generally alter the word class of the base. Prefixes have a light stress on their first (or only) syllable. The main stress of the word coming on the base. Un Unthak (Untried), Bay BayDin (Secular) where Suffixes frequently alter the word class of the base for example, the suffix Andose. When this suffix would be added with Zakhira it will change the entire meaning of the base Zakhira Andose (black marketing).
- Quote paper
- Amina Khalid (Author), 2015, Reduplication of Urdu and English Words. Methodology and Data Analysis, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/296200