Specific Learning Disabilities in a Self-Contained Classroom. A Reading Remediation Program

Research Paper (undergraduate), 2015
23 Pages



1 Introduction

2 Specific Learning Disability

3 Discussion of the Problem

4 Objective of this Study

5 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

6 Definition of terms

7 Research Methodology

8 Research Locale

9 Respondents of the Study

10 Sampling Procedure

11 Research Instruments

12 Statistical Treatment

13 Findings

14 Conclusion

15 Recommendation

16 Bibliography


1 Introduction

Background of the Study

Learning Disability (LD) has been defined by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) as a heterogeneous group of disorders of presumed neurological origin manifested differently and to varying degrees during the life span of an individual. Various manifestations of LD may be seen at different ages and as a result of varying learning demands (NJCLD, 1985/2001a, 1990/2001c) .

Learning disabilities (LD) vary from person to person. One person with learning disabilities may not have the same kind of learning problems as another person with learning disabilities. One person may have trouble with reading (dyslexia), writing(dygraphia) and another person may have problems with understanding math (dyscalculia) Galeos (2010) . Still another person may have trouble in each of these areas, as well as with understanding what people are saying. Thus, by identifying LD earlier, children will get the help they need to reach their potential (Boyse 2008).

Gingoog City Comprehensive National High School in the Division of Gingoog City is the only secondary school accepting Special Education (SPED) students. The increasing number of enrollees at risk with LD each year among other exceptionalities is so alarming that a Self- Contained classrooms are opened to address these students’ needs (GCCNHS Principal’s Report 2011)

However, many problems exist in the classroom environment of these learners because their learning styles, difficulties and academic performance vary from one student to another. Most of the subject teachers and the advisers find difficulty in teaching them for the absolute reason that these students at risk are not yet identified as to what specific LD they belong; either dyslexic, dyscalculic and dysgraphic. Furthermore, since this year is still its second year of its implementation as Self-Contained LD Program under SPED , teachers are not yet trained sent to seminars and workshops for teaching strategies of handling children with specific disorder except for SPED orientation on how to handle students with Special needs in general.

The problem compounded when almost all of them struggle in reading, writing, spelling , organizing their ideas do mathematical operation and their families are hopeless of their professional endeavor in the future.

For generations, teachers didn’t understand why some students were unable to succeed in school or even understand the basic classroom tasks whereas others were doing extremely well. Although there might be many explanations to the academic failures of some children we will focus our studies on the learning disabilities (Levine 2002).

Research documents the devastating social, and emotional outcomes that can occur when individuals with LD go unidentified specifically and/or receive inappropriate educational interventions and services. These negative Outcomes are usually multi-faceted and can result in devastating outcomes such as dropping out of school, subject failures, showing behavioral problems (Shaywitz 2009)

Experts in the field of learning disabilities believe that many children identified with specific learning disabilities are “victims of poor teaching. The statement that many children identified as LD are “teaching disabled” is often accurate. Almost all children can learn to read if taught appropriately, but many do not get the help they need because their teachers are not adequately prepared. (Lyon and Fletcher 2010)

The benefits in identifying the specific type of Learning Disabilities in children among the group of LD help the SPED teachers and subject teachers in self-contained LD classrooms address the specific needs of children in terms of their difficulties and to understand the nature of specific deficits help a special educator design instructional strategies and intervention to help the disabled learners overcome their difficulties well. Hence, this study.

Related Literature

This study specifically identifies the type of learning disabilities the second year students at risk with LD belong and to design an intervention plan for such area of difficulties to improve the reading levels of the Self-Contained Classroom of Gingoog City Comprehensive National High School, Gingoog City for SY 2010-2011 using Reading Level Materials prepared by the researcher.

Specific Learning Disability is a group of disorders which are significantly unexpected, specific and persistent difficulties in the acquisition and use of reading (dyslexia) , writing (dysgraphia) or mathematical ability (dyscalculia) abilities despite the conventional instruction, normal intelligence and adequate socio-cultural opportunity (Mann 2010)

LD impedes the normal progress of academic achievement in 2%- 3% of the school population. The lack of progress is exhibited in school performance that remains below expectation for chronological and mental ages, even when provided with high-quality instruction. The primary manifestation of the failure to progress is significant underachievement in a basic skill area (i.e., reading, math, writing) that is not associated with insufficient educational, interpersonal, cultural/familial, and/or sociolinguistic experiences (Kavale, 2009)

2 Specific Learning Disability

Bhatti (2010) defined dyscalculia as a specific learning disability or difficulty involving innate difficulty in learning or comprehending mathematics. It is akin to dyslexia and can include confusion about math symbols. The word dyscalculia comes from Greek and Latin which means: "counting badly". The prefix "dys" comes from Greek and means "badly". "Calculia" comes from the Latin "calculare," which means "to count". The word "calculare" comes from "calculus", which means "pebble" or one of the counters on an abacus.

Dyscalculia is a specific type of learning disability. It causes the child to struggle with math and numbers. It can be a very frustrating disability for anyone, especially children. Children with dyscalculia, may have difficulty understanding simple number concepts, lack of intuitive grasp of numbers, and have problems earning facts and figures. ( Siders 2006). These might be the reason why many pupils struggle in Math and their school achievement is very low.

The Mathematical Brain (1999), Butterworth describes how dyscalculic learners rely on counting on fingers to perform even the simplest calculation. It may be that an approach that develops this strategy could offer the beginnings of a compensatory approach. Other multisensory techniques used in dyslexia or dyscalculia may also be useful. In the Davis method, for example, learners use clay to make number arrays and to form the digits themselves. Another specific type of LD is "Dysgraphia" is a learning disability resulting from the difficulty in expressing thoughts in writing and graphing. It generally refers to extremely poor handwriting (Wikipedia)

When a student's writing or graphing difficulties are severe enough to meet these criteria, special education services are indicated. Problems arise because "dysgraphia" has no clearly defined criteria. A student with any degree of handwriting difficulty may be labeled "dysgraphic" by some educational specialists, but may or may not need special education services (NCLD 2006). LD Online updated 2011 reported that most learning disabled students experience difficulty with handwriting and probably could be considered "dysgraphic". However, the term is seldom used within public schools because of the lack of any generally recognized or measurable criteria.

In the LDA Minnesota Journal (2005) Dyslexia and dysgraphia may be related because significant language processing problems can impact both reading and spelling. It suggests further that if dysgraphia severely impacts written expression, then reasonable accommodations and assistive devices is necessary.

Accommodations include: reduced copying or writing assignments, extended time for writing assignments, not counting off for spelling errors, peer note taker , peer proofreader, use of a word processor use of a scribe (someone who writes down what the person dictates, but does not assist with organization) alternative oral presentation (Minnesota Journal 2005).

3 Discussion of the Problem

The main purpose of this study is to design an intervention plan for specific learning disabilities of students at risk with learning disability at Gingoog City Comprehensive National High School, Gingoog City in Self-Contained classroom of Second Year for the school year 2011 -2012.

Specifically, this study sought to:

1. identify the type of learning disability do the respondents manifest in terms of the following:
1.1 Dyslexia
1.2 Dysgraphia
1.3 Dyscalculia
2. find out the reading levels of the students at the beginning of the year.

2. design a remediation program using Reading Level Materials suited to students’ Reading levels for the specific learning disability which dominates among other the following components:
2.1 Rationale
2.2 Objectives
2.3 Activities
2.4 Procedures
2.5 Time frame
2.6 Persons Responsible
2.7 Source of funds

3. What is the reading level of the respondents at the end of the intervention plan?

4 Objective of this Study

The purpose of this study is to design an intervention plan for students at risk with LD particularly, the LD dyslexics, to address the needs of reading, spelling and organizing thoughts in order for the dyslexic to improve their reading levels .

5 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study was limited only to the specific learning disability of students at risk with LD such as dyslexia, dyscalculia and dysgraphia at the Self-Contained LD second year specifically section Villar classroom of Gingoog City Comprehensive National High School, Gingoog City for SY 2010 to 2011.

Students at risks with specific learning disabilities were being identified using the Adult Learning Disability Checklists to identify the presence of Dysgraphia, Dyslexia and Dyscalculia among the respondents. The Mann Suiter Word Reading Screen to identify the reading levels of each respondent and the Reading Level Materials for such levels were used in this study.

6 Definition of terms

The following terms are defined based on their use in the study:

At Risk With LD. This term refers to certain condition of the high school students at GCCNHS identified having most sign and symptoms of learning disability through the assessment tool introduced by Ian Smyth measuring moderate, mild, profound and no sign of LD. This term also has been technically used in Special Education studies of de Brasee and Elise et al.(2007) in their title “ Brain Responses to Lexical Semantic Training in Children At Risk With Dyslexia” and from Nease (2004) in her study titled” The Advantage of STEEP as a Method to Identify Elementary School Children who are At Risk for Learning Disability.

Dyscalculia. A specific disorder under learning disability where students who suffer this disorder found difficulty in doing mathematical operations specially in solving problems plus the inversion of some numbers in their writing activities like numbers 5 to 2; 52 to 25 and others.


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Specific Learning Disabilities in a Self-Contained Classroom. A Reading Remediation Program
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Learning disabilities, dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, special education
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Susan Aparejo (Author), 2015, Specific Learning Disabilities in a Self-Contained Classroom. A Reading Remediation Program, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/306305


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