Effects of instrumental materials on student's academic performance. Social studies in selected secondary schools in Nigeria


Bachelorarbeit, 2015
28 Seiten, Note: 2.1

Leseprobe

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 INTRODUCTION
2.1 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AUDITORY AND VISUAL SENSES.
2.2 NEED FOR THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
2.3 TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
2.4 THE INFLUENCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES
2.5 SUMMARY OF THE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 AREA OF THE STUDY
3.3 POPULATIONS
3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.6 VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENT
3.7 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS
4.1 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
4.2 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
4.3 DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
5.1 SUMMARY OF RESULTS
5.2 GENERAL CONCLUSION
5.3 IMPLICATION OF THE STUDY
5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS
5.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
5.6 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDY

REFERENCES

STUDENTS QUESTIONNAIRE

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to find out the effect of instructional materials on students’ academic performance in social studies in Etung Local Government Area of Cross River State. The researcher formulated three research questions to direct the study after a review of relevant and related literature in chapter two. The investigator, in his design, adopted the descriptive survey design which studied samples of both large and small populations to discover the relative incidence. The population of study was JSS two students of 2013/2014 session who were used for the random sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was a fifteen-item questionnaire and information coded therein was analyzed using the simple percentage. From the analysis some results were arrived at and based on the results and findings, recommendations were made:

1. The public should be aware of the uses of instructional materials which will aid in the understanding of social studies;

2. Emphasis must be placed on instructional materials inorder to inculcate the spirit of learning social studies; and finally, government and non-governmental agencies should assist in the provision of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools today is not absolutely new. What is new is the technological equipment that have been introduced recently into the teaching and learning process. With the evolving technology and the new communication media, efforts are on the increase in the application of instructional aids to learning; a development that has proven to be beneficial to learners.

Many teachers are not knowledgeable or find it difficult to use instructional materials when teaching because of lack of training on it’s application for effective use and dissemination of knowledge. Some teachers do not see the instructional materials for use. Hence, teachers are faced with the problem of talking about instructional materials without making bold attempts.

It is virtually important that teachers keep in mind the purpose for which instructional materials are used. The characteristics and special need for pupils to be taught by them and the bases for selecting the materials most likely use to help learners achieve the objective of their study. For example, teachers must know when to use a film to clarify important concepts rather than explaining it in a text book. When to use discussion alone, when to embark on a field trip with the showing and discussion of a related film strip, when to assign outside viewing of television programme of self-study of a programmed filmstrip or when to have the class produce diagrams or flannel boards illustrations as part of summarizing oral report on one aspect of class work.

The modern method of teaching is known as formal process. Therefore whether in a formal or informal situation, knowledge are easily assimilated.

This study attempts to find out how well equipped the teacher are to impact knowledge to their students, taking cognizance of information made available from both the electronic and print media.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The deteriorating state of our educational system is quite worrisome. The problem teachers and students encounter in our educational system include inadequate teaching and learning materials.

Instructional materials are bought into play along the line to enhance educational achievement whenever they are properly used. Nevertheless, it has been realized that there is a need for a coordinated source of information for pre-service teachers on the preparation and utilization of instructional materials. This will help to reduce most of the problems in the teaching and learning process. Inspite of this, the problem associated with this instructional materials is the procurement of the instructional materials. Other problems that hinder the effective use of instructional materials in schools include lack of electricity supply to operate some visual aids, lack of qualified educational technologists to operate them. However, curriculum planners should emphasize the use of instructional materials by teachers for a break-through in educational attainments. What ponders the mind of researchers and most educationalists is whether introduction of teaching aids during a lesson can achieve results no matter the level of qualification and experience of the teacher.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to :-

- Determine the effect of the instructional materials on the performance of social studies students in secondary schools in Etung Local Government Area.
- Determine whether the use of instructional materials has any influence in the teaching of social studies in secondary schools in Etung Local Government Area.
- Determine whether models and specimens are more effective in the teaching of social studies in secondary school in Etung Local Government Area than pictures and charts.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is therefore the researcher’s expectation that upon completion of this study, the findings of the study will be beneficial to teachers,students, government and the general public in more ways than one.

First, this study will assist the teachers in secondary school in Etung Local Government to adopt the consistent use of instructional materials in the classrooms to make learning interesting and enhance better understanding by the students.

Since the use of instructional materials in teaching in a formal or informal situation has positive results in the sense that it enhance effective understanding in the learners, it will therefore enable government to produce more instructional materials to all the schools, to enhance productivity in education.

Moreso, it is seen and believed that the use of instructional materials will immensely help in creating picture interaction in the mind of those that are slow to learn in the school learners.

For proper discussion and understanding of abstract concepts and themes, materials must be used to drive home the learning, and in concrete terms.

This research will also serve as a point of inquiry and reference for both students and members of the public who want to know or carryout related study on this area.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to guide this study:-

1. What effect does instructional materials exert on student academic performance in social studies in secondary schools ?.
2. To what extend does the use of instructional materials facilitate and enhance effective teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools. ?
3. Does the use of models and specimens increase knowledge and appreciation of the subject content ?.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study on the effect of instructional materials on students performance in social studies in Etung Local Government Area is due to constraints such as inadequate finance and settlement. The researcher therefore limited her investigation to five secondary schools in the study area in Etung Local Government Area.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Instructional Aids:- This can be used interchangeably as instructional materials. They are aids used by the teacher in classroom to supplement the transmission of knowledge with a view to emphasizing clarification of instructions.

Audio-Aids: This are instructional materials that apply only to the sense of hearing e.g radio, cassette recorder.

Visual Aids:- This are instructional materials that apply only to the sense of sight e.g film, chart.

Audio-Visual Aids:- This is a term derived out of audio and visual, to indicate a variety of communication materials used to send out message, ideas and experiences through the active participation of sense organs of both sight and hearing e.g television, video tapes.

Secondary Schools:- This refers to the formal academic programmes meant for children who have completed their primary school course and are between the age of eleven to seventeen years and above.

Academic Performance:- This refers to the level of grade or scores that a student obtains in class test or internal and external examination after due process of evaluation.

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0 INTRODUCTION

It is the intention of the researcher in this chapter, to review the works of scholars and researchers, which are related to this topic. This will be done under the following topics.

1. The effectiveness of auditory and visual senses.
2. Need for the use of audio visual materials
3. Types of audio visual materials
4. The influence of audio visual materials in the teaching of social studies.
5. Summary of review

2.1 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AUDITORY AND VISUAL SENSES.

Bello opined that more is retained when students use both their auditory and visual sense organs simultaneously. In the teaching of social studies, just like in other areas of instructions, instructional materials are indispensable, as seeing, is said to control a greater part of all sensory information. to buttress the usefulness of instructional materials in creating social awareness when used in teaching social studies in secondary schools.

Bonska, explained that “one remembers only 10% of what is heard and 90% of what is heard, seen, and done. Accordingly, Berry and Buktenica explained that instructional materials are very important in education. This was equally due to the realization of the immense influence which audio visual materials creates on a recipient. Also Bouska in realization of the significant role of instructional materials onlearning advised that since resourcefulness is a basic quality for a successful life, classroom teaching activity should involve more problems that are resourcefulness oriented. Thus, the influence of audio visual materials in creating social awareness is more effective than words alone if they are related to the learning process.

This is so because it is believed that some learn better when they hear and see, while others, the sense of hearing, touch, smell, dominate them in acquiring knowledge. This may also confirm the saying that “what we hear we forget, what we see we tend to remember, and what we see and hear we remember more”.

Therefore for proper discussion and understanding of social concepts, instructional materials are more often used to drive home the message especially with a non-literate audience. Hence, the use of instructional materials play an important role because they work more effectively and used to supplement the text books.

It is widely said and believed that, the best way of helping learners is to bring them face to face with instructional materials.

According to Akkinson, the result of the use of resources is more effective than words or verbalization. This can only be done through the influence of instructional materials which represent real life situations. This is because they are capable of conveying the intended message to the recipient as they received it, understand and apply the experience gained to real life situations.

Beside, considering the high level of literacy, poverty, traditional beliefs, ignorance e.t.c. of the rural people, the use of instructional materials can help arouse their interest, provide a clear mental picture, speed understanding, help memory retention and provide a shared experience which in the end creates historical awareness.

Brown wrote that “Looking at something with the person with whom you are trying to communicate there is something in common, and that is the thing both of you see” as this is shared, the words used are better understood because both the speaker and the listener relate them to a common instructional materials. For effective use of instructional materials, care must be taken of what is taught and advised if we are not to waste time rather than aid the teaching finally, the use of instructional materials compels attention through their combined influence of movement, sound and a great range of instructional materials.

2.2 NEED FOR THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Aktakefi opined that instructional materials are needed to make the best use of information explosion and possibilities presented by technological development.

Instructional materials according to Bello are varieties of equipment and materials that have instructional values that are simultaneously used with the teachers voice to facilitate learning.

Lewis and Hareland are of the view that the need for instructional materials came with extensive development since 1990. This is due to the social and economic change which made new demands on educational thinking and population shortage and need for greater efficiency.

In social studies which involve the creation of social awareness just like in other areas of instructions, instructional materials are needed due to the situation. It is prominent to note that, instructional materials are not teachers aids but learners. This is because they aid in the area of learning than teaching. However, the important fact to note is that, these materials do not or cant not in themselves achieve the desired or attributed values. Rather, it depends on what the teacher makes out of them through their intelligent handling of the necessary materials in the domain of teaching and learning of social studies.

Edger, opined that instructional materials such as films, pictures, maps, charts and pictorials make learning and understanding more effective, saves time, and powers communication.

2.3 TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Ogumidlade grouped these materials into types namely the temporary materials, pictures which do not have direct learning values.

Duyer and Yakius also divided the various materials into projected and non-projected materials. The non-projected materials are materials that do not require electric power and have infinite variety of shapes, sizes and colours easily procured and makeable enough to be patterned to suit the requirements of the subject.

Longford, says projected materials are those materials that need a source of light for their projections. These materials include the following: Tape records, overhead projectors, televisions, films e.t.c.

While the non-projected materials include chalkboard, flamed graphs, magnetic boards, models, specimens and mock-tips, photographs, pictorials, pamphlets and textbooks, plays, drama, posters, charts and real objects e.t.c.

2.4 THE INFLUENCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES

The term instructional or audio-visual is not a universal language but it refers to relevant materials which when used effectively with sight in either formal or informal classroom situation are generally and easily well understood.

This is because, there are closely related to the way people do things in their everyday life. It is generally assumed that students will understand the things they see very easily than listen to abstract ideas presented in words. Udomior. The above statement therefore justifies a discussion of influence of instructional materials on both the learners and educator during teaching and learning in any given situation.

In accordance with Shneck who said “A look worth a thousand words”.

Instructional Materials Arouse Interest: It is said that one does not learn so much except he pays attention and shows and interest in a subject. This cannot be effectively achieved except something vital that can captivate the expected interest is presented to the learners as aids.

Finally teaching with instructional materials like the television as well as other aids according to Ogunimilade, ease the problems the learners find in the lesson which teachers teach and also help remove any of the disadvantages associated with the system if teaching was limited from a teacher to learners’ direction only.

2.5 SUMMARY OF THE REVIEW

In summary therefore, instructional materials can introduce demonstration in the classroom which is synonymous to taking the learners to parts of the world they could not otherwise experience having in the class room situation, a teacher with special expertise e.t.c.

From the above therefore, if instructional materials are excepted as capable of creating a remarkable effect on the learners when used in a lesson in teaching social studies, it suffice to believe also that the use of those instructional materials can help create the expected awareness toward teaching and learning of social studies in selected school in Etung Local Government Area of Cross River State.

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 RESEARCH METHOD

This chapter is aimed at explaining the methodology used in gathering data for the study. It gives reasons for adoption. The following are the sub-headings under which the chapter is discussed.

(i) Research design

(ii) Area of the study

(iii) Population

(iv) Sample and sampling techniques

(v) Instrument for data collection

(vi) Validity for instrument

(vii) Method of data collection

(viii) Method of data analysis

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

The research design adopted for this study was the descriptive survey design. This design studies both large and small population in selecting and studying samples chosen from the population to discover the relative incidence.

3.2 AREA OF THE STUDY

This study was conducted in Etung Local Government Area of Cross River State. Etung is one of the eighteen (18) Local Government of Areas that make up the present Cross River State.

Geographically Etung is located at the central senatorial district of Cross River State. It is bounded in the North by Ikom and Boki Local Government Areas, in the south by Odukpani Local Government Area, in the east by the Republic of Cameroon and in the west by Biase Local Government Area.

Etung is blessed with a very thick vegetative growth and a very fertile soil which supports the growth of crops such as palm oil, bananas, cassava, yam, coca among others.

Etung has a landmass of 2.622.962 square km and population of 70, 839 for the males and 50. 736 for the females as at 2005 census result.

3.3 POPULATIONS

The population for the study consisted of all the secondary schools in Etung Local Government Area.

There are 52 secondary schools in Etung Local Government Area, out of which ten (10) secondary schools were randomly selected for the study.

3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

The sample used for the study were given equal opportunity of being selected. The “hat and draw” approach of the simple random sampling techniques was adopted.

Pieces of papers were written alphabetically to represent the ten (10) schools to be used as sample. The sample size was considered appropriate as this could reduce sampling error and enable generation of results to cover the whole Local Government Area.

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3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION

To gather the data for this study, a carefully structured questionnaire to elicit the necessary information that will help determine whether instructional materials exercise some basic effects on students’ performance in social studies in secondary schools in Etung Local Government Area was designed.

The questionnaire consist of part A and B, part A contained bio-data information while part B contained fifteen (15) items questionnaire which respondents were expected to respond by ticking either agreed or disagreed according to the extent of which the statement appealed to them.

3.6 VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENT

To ensure that each item selected for inclusion in the questionnaire were capable to eliciting responses needed to measure the set objectives for the study, the items were submitted to my supervisor an experts in the field for scrutiny in which a final approval was given for the retention of the instrument as being valid in both face and content.

3.7 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

The questionnaire was administered by the researcher to the subject by hand with the instructions carefully read out and explained to the understanding of the students. They were given enough time to respond to the various questions after which the questionnaires were collected back on the spot to avoid any type of bias that may arise as a result of filling the answers to the questionnaires at home.

3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

After collection of data, the number of response were assembled under Agreed or Disagreed using the table.

The raw scores were added together and analyzed using the sample percentage method.

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS

In this chapter, the researcher presents the data obtained, analyzed the data and discuss the results. To do so, each of the research question will be related one after the other.

4.1 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

The results of the findings will be presented according to the order of the research question formulated.

RESEARCH QUESTION 1

Does instructional materials have effect on students’ academic performances in social studies in secondary schools ?

Table 1: the effect of instructional material on students’ academic performance.

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In table I from the sample size, 150 representing (75%) of the respondents agreed that instructional materials make the lesson interesting, while 50 representing (25%) of the respondents disagreed with the statement that it does not make social studies lesson interesting.

Question 2, also revealed that 120 representing (60%) of the respondents agreed that instructional materials used in teaching social studies make the lesson realistic, whereas 80 representing (40%) of the respondents said not to the statement.

In item 3, 140 representing (70%) of the respondents were of the opinion that instructional materials create opportunities for participation in the lesson, while 60 representing (30%) of the respondents disagreed with the facts.

Question 4 also showed that 130 representing (65%) of the respondents responded positively to the item, while 70 representing (35%) gave a negative response.

In question 5, it was affirmed that 170 representing (85%) of the respondents said instructional materials help in representing concrete facts, whereas 30 representing (15%) of the respondents said it does not.

RESEARCH QUESTION 2

Does the use of instructional materials facilitate and enhance effective teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools ?.

TABLE 2:

The use of instructional materials as it facilitates and enhances effective teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools.

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As reflected in table two above, 120, respondents representing (60%) agreed that instructional materials simplified and saves time in teaching. Whereas 80 (40%) of the respondents are not in support of the statements.

Item 7 also indicate that 110 representing (55%) of the respondents agreed that instructional materials make easy. The presentation of lesson topic, while 90 representing (45%) of the subject sounded positively, while 75 representing (37.5%) respondents sounded negatively.

In item nine (9), 115 representing (57.5%) of the respondents agreed that instructional materials also help to arouse learners interest, while 70 representing (42.5%) disagreed.

Research Question 3

Does the use of models and specimens increase knowledge and appreciation of the subject content ?.

Table 3: The Use of Models and Specimens

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A quick glance at table 3 shows that 120 respondent representing (60%) of the subject agreed that instructional materials create a mental picture in the students, while 80 representing (40%) said it does not. similarly in question twelve (12) 140 representing (70%) of the respondents agreed that when pictures and charts are used students understand the lesson they are taught very fast, while 60 representing (30%) of the respondents said they do not.

in item 13, 150 representing (75%) of the respondents revealed that teaching becomes effective when film strips, maps, and other pictorial materials are used, while 50 representing (25%) disagree with the opinion.

Question fourteen (14), also affirmed that models also make lessons interesting when used. This represents 120 (60%) as against 80 (40%).

In the last item, fifteen, 100 individuals representing (50%) of the respondents agreed that teacher used appropriate and relevant instructional materials to deliver his/her lesson, while 100 representing (50%) of respondents of the same figure disagreed.

4.2 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

From the above analysis it was revealed that;-

1. Instructional materials havea significant effect on the academic performance of students in social studies in secondary schools.
2. The use of instructional materials facilitates and enhances effective teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools.
3. The use of models and specimens increase the knowledge and appreciation of the subject content.

4.3 DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS

The discussion will be focused on the research questions analyzed in table 1, 2 and 3 as presented in the chapter.

Research Question 1

Does instructional materials have any effect on students’ academic performance in social studies in secondary schools ?

This research question was tested using items 1,2,3,4, and 5 in the questionnaire. The findings revealed that instructional materials have a significant effect on students’ academic performance in social studies in secondary schools.

In support of this claim Udomior (1999) states the instructional materials have an effect on learning, with good understanding in less time as well as means of communication between teachers and learners. Akinson (1999), says that it gives rise to a more effective learning than lecturing.

Research Question 2

Does the use of instructional materials facilitate and enhance effective teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools ?.

To answer research question two, items 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 were used. The result of the findings indicate that the use of instructional materials facilitate and enhance effective teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools.

In line with the above, Bonka and Gollonary (1991) opined that it is generally assumed that students or learners will understand the things they see very easily than listen to abstract ideas presented in words.

Bello (1999) opined that instructional materials influence both the learners and educator during the teaching and learning process in any given environment.

Research Question 3

Does the use of models and specimens increase knowledge and appreciation of the subject content?.

To analyze this research question, items 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 in the questionnaire were used.

The result of the findings shows that the use of models and specimens increase the students’ knowledge and appreciation of the subject content in social studies and other similar courses.

Awoniye (1988) in confirmation bolds that models and specimens are a kind of short cuts or substitutes for the study of real things and are sometimes even more effective than reality.

Akinson (1999) describes models as being particularly useful for limited class room teaching and learning process.

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

5.1 SUMMARY OF RESULTS

This study was undertaken to stimulate a critical discussion on the effects of instructional materials on students’ performances in social studies in selected secondary schools in Etung Lonal Government Area.

To make a thorough scientific inquiry, three research questions were formulated;

1. Does instructional materials have any effect on students’ academic performance in social studies in secondary schools?.

2. Does the use of instructional materials facilitate and enhance effective teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools ?.

3. Does the use of models and specimens increase knowledge and appreciation of the subject content ?.

4. From the results of the data analysis which involved the treatment of research questions, the findings revealed thus;

(1) Instructional materials have a significant effect on the academic performance of students in social studies in secondary schools.

(2) The use of instructional materials facilitates and enhances effective teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools.

(3) The use of models and specimens increase the knowledge and appreciation of the subject content.

5.2 GENERAL CONCLUSION

Based on the finding, the following conclusions were drawn.

1. Instructional materials havea significant effect on the academic performance of students in social studies in secondary schools.
2. The use of instructional materials facilitate and enhance effective teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools.
3. The use of models and specimens increase the knowledge and appreciation of the subject content.

5.3 IMPLICATION OF THE STUDY

This research, has a lot of implication for the students teachers, as well as policy makers in education. From the findings, instructional materials have a significant effect on the academic performance of students in social studies in secondary schools. There is, therefore, the need for proper education of teachers on the importance and use of instructional materials in teaching of social studies in secondary schools.

On the other hand, teaching of social studies without instructional materials makes teaching and learning difficult. But if instructional materials are used in teaching social studies it will arouse the interest of learners. There is a saying that one does not learn much except he pays attention and show interest on the subject.

5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS

The following recommendations are made:

1. The public should be aware of the uses of instructional materials which will aid in the understanding of social studies.
2. Emphasis must be placed on the use of instructional materials in order to inculcate the spirit of learning social studies to students.
3. Government and non-governmental agencies should assist in the provision of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools.

5.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The following factors acted as constraints to this study:

1. Geographical Terms: It was not easy for the researcher to travel from one school to another because they do not cluster together.

2. Attitude of the Respondents: Attitude of respondents also constituted a constraint in the course of carrying out this research project.

3. Time Factor: Before anything should be done, time should be considered first. In this case, time factor constituted a problem to this research work.

5.6 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDY

Since the scope of this research project only limited to Etung Local Government Area. It is therefore necessary for a further research work of this nature to be carried out in a wider scope that will comprise all the eighteen (18) Local Government Areas of Cross River State on the effect of instructional materials on students’ performance in social studies in secondary schools so as to present a holistic view and profer solutions that will cover the whole state.

REFERENCES

Akkinson, N.J (1999) Modern Teaching Aids: A Practical Guide to Instructional Techniques in Education.

Altalef, N, (1994) Reading Screening Test, Jerusalem, Isreal, Henrietta Institute, Isreal National Centre of Behavioural Science and Pedagogury Administration.

Awoniyi, A (1988) Instructional in The Classroom: Problems and Prospects of Educational Technology in Nigeria.

Beery K.E and Buktenica, M, (1997) The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Instructional Motor Integration (Test Manual) Cleveland OH: Modern Curriculum Press.

Bellow, S. (1999). The Significance of Television for Childhood Education. Majes. Maiduguri, Journal of Educational Studies, Vol.3, No. 1. PP. 133-143.

Bouska, M. J and Gallonay, M (1991). Primary Visual Deficits in Adults With Brain Danger: Management in Occupational Therapy, Practice.

Brown, I. W. (1997). Instructional, Technology Preparation: Problems and Prospects of Educational Technology in Nigeria.

Brown, J. W, Levis R. B and Haroleroad (1999) Instructional Media and Methods New York: McGrew-Hill Book Company.

Cermark, S. A et al. (2002). What is Developmental Coordination Disorder ? In S.A Cernmark and D. Lakin (Eds), Developmental Coordination Disorder (PP. 2. 22). Albany, N. Y. Delmar.

Campbell, D. T. (2013). The Indirect Assessment of Social Attitudes.

Edward, C. (2014). Teaching Elementary School Studies. A Competency Based Approach. New York; Preger Publishers.

Cobb, T. A. (2013). Relationship of Discreate Classroom Behaviours to Fourth Grade Achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology.

Ebel, J. T. (2014). Learning Theory and Behaviour. New York John Wile and Sons Inc.

Fredrick, R. J. (2014). Affective Correlation, Academic Achievement.

STUDENTS QUESTIONNAIRE

CROSS RIVER STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AKAMKPA

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL STUDIES/MUSIC

BASIC ATTITUDE TEST FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL

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Below are statement which represents your feeling towards social studies learning.

Please tick in the column that correspond to the level of your honest feelings based on the likert seale.

SA Strongly Agree

A Agree

SD Strongly Disagree

D Disagree

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[...]

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Details

Titel
Effects of instrumental materials on student's academic performance. Social studies in selected secondary schools in Nigeria
Veranstaltung
Adult Education
Note
2.1
Autor
Jahr
2015
Seiten
28
Katalognummer
V338942
ISBN (eBook)
9783668290518
ISBN (Buch)
9783668290525
Dateigröße
469 KB
Sprache
Englisch
Schlagworte
INSTRUMENTAL MATERIALS, instructional materials, student academic performance, secondary schools
Arbeit zitieren
Kenobi Krukru (Autor), 2015, Effects of instrumental materials on student's academic performance. Social studies in selected secondary schools in Nigeria, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/338942

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