Modern Technologies for Reshaping Libraries in the Digital Era


Anthology, 2017
173 Pages

Excerpt

CONTENTS

1. Access to Scholarly Literature in Jammu and Kashmir Higher Education Institutions under NLIST Programme Asmat Ali, Audil Hussain and Refhat-un-Nisa

2. Digital Consortia: UGC Infonet A Boon to University Libraries Dr. G. Prabhakar and P. Venkanna

3. E-Books Access Models, Suppliers and Readers Nisha Kumari

4. Enhancing Web 2.0 and its Application in Library Service All NITs in India: A Case Study Karan Singh

5. Information Literacy Concept, Need, Areas and Role of Libraries Arun Ruhela

6. Awareness of Web 2.0 among Participants of the Refresher Course in Library and Information Science held at UGC-ASC, Maulanaazad National Urdu University, Hyderabad Dr. Ayesha Sultana

7. Librarians as Plagiarism Detectives: A Perception Pawan Tripathi and Praveen Kumar

8. Application of RFID Technology in Libraries Dr. Gurdev Singh

9. Security System in Library Ajazul Hasan

10. Use of Mobile Technology in Library Environment for Capturing Knowledge: A Study Esha Mandal and Tumpa Saha

11. Use of E-Learning in Library and Information Science Education Dr. Maganlal S. Molia

12. Promotion of Electronic Knowledge Sharing in India: A Consortium for Educational Communication Approach Dr. R. Duraipandi and Mr. Rambir

13. Green Libraries: An Approach to Sustainability Charu

14. Cloud Computing Services in Academic Libraries Dr. G. Thamaraiselvi

15. Cloud Computing in Libraries M. Paul N Vijaya Kumar

FOREWORD

Quality of higher education continues to be a focus for national debate. The academic libraries are increasingly participating in strengthening the quality of higher education and research of the nation. The university and college libraries have a prominent role to play in supporting the higher education to fulfill objectives of its parent institutions. Students in these institutes are to be provided with the facilities necessary for mastering in subject matter, techniques, skill development, habits of thought and methods of work in their chosen field. Classroom instructions alone will not provide all the opportunities needed by students for attaining the complex educational objectives. The university and college libraries have to provide access to various resources and help the students and researchers in order to support teaching, learning and research activities. In this context, the role of academic libraries is immense in transformation of higher education in the digital era. The traditional academic libraries are the books and journals keepers and acts as facilitator for teachers and students’ in the learning process. They had also been the deposit centers of part of the products of scholarly publications – theses and dissertations, articles, technical reports, etc. But this scenario has shifting now towards the customized services to the users in addition to its basic nature. Digital revolution also has changed the face of libraries in the 21st century and it has posed a challenge to the academic libraries to digitize their services and resources through appropriate ICT application in order to remain current and relevant. This is possible only through the technological advancements and application of ICTs. Effective application of ICTs in libraries helps in performing library in house operations. This book titled “Modern Technologies for Reshaping the Libraries in Digital Era” is focused on elaborating almost every dimension of recent developments that took place in Library and Information Science. Mr. O.S.S. Prasad has been managing the learning resource centre (library) attached to Sri Venkateswara College since a long time and acquired a very good experience working in academic libraries. As an editor Mr. O.S.S.Prasad has tried to amass articles on all most all accepts of such latest ICT technological advancements used in LIS profession. This book contains 15 chapters and all these chapters are based on modern trends and technologies beneficial for LIS professionals. They are access to scholarly literature under NLIST programme, digital consortia, E-books and access models, web 2.0 applications in library services, information literacy, plagiarism, use of mobile technology in library environment, use of e-learning in library and information science education, consortium for educational communication, green libraries and cloud computing services in academic libraries. I congratulate the editor Mr. O.S.S. Prasad for his endeavor in bringing out this volume and wish him all success.

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PREFACE

Over the past several years, there has been tremendous change in the world of libraries from mainly print-based collections to today’s digital library environment. The libraries of the 21st century are no longer simply store houses for manuscripts, and librarians are not mere book keepers and custodians. Libraries have expanded, rethought and redesigned and now they are providing variety of information services using modern and cutting edge technologies, and reaching their users through a social networking and digital media than ever before. We live in the Information era, an era portrayed by technological advancements, extended access to digital information resources, use of cloud storages and social media. The libraries are influenced by these technologies and use of ICT has dynamic impact on modern library services. Similarly, digital technologies have transformed not only the way information is packaged, processed, stored, and disseminated, but also how users can access the required information from anywhere at any time through online in a customized manner. Many resources are now available in digital format, from reference titles to e-books, they are managing via integrated library systems, digital libraries and accessed using web based online public access catalogues, discovery tools and library portals. In addition, through social networking, such as Facebook, Twitter, SMS (Short Messaging Service) and online chat services, librarians now have new ways to communicate with other professionals and their users. Even academic libraries are no longer restrict themselves to traditional services such as collection development, classification and cataloguing, circulation and reference services, CAS and SDI, and other bibliographic services, and stretched their services through Information and communication technology (ICTs) applications. The libraries may use such technologies to promote library services, enhance access to information, redecorate library with updated amenities, encourage collaboration, share and develop communities, take feedback from users, mutual communication and to publicize events, services and news. Recently, libraries became hang out and happening places to the users by giving free wireless access to the Internet and scholarly literature through remote login. They are just around the corner for library users who bring their own laptop, notebook, tablet, kindly e-book readers as well as smartphones. This book focused primarily on topics related to new technologies that can be used in different libraries functioning in digital environment and it contains 15 chapters featuring different significant issues of library and information science. I thank all the contributors and all those who supported me n brining out this volume. I also thank GRIN publishing for bringing out this significant volume so nicely.

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CONTRIBUTORS

Ms. Asmat Ali has been working as Librarian, Govt. College for women, Nawakadal Srinagar, (Govt. of J&K Higher Education Department) since 2011. She has two years experience in teaching at Dept. of Library and Information Science at University of Kashmir. and five years’ experience in library administration. She has authored several works on library and information science, besides contributing about 15 articles in reputed journals and international conference proceedings. She has attended number of international and national conferences on Library and Information Science.

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Praveen Kumar is working in the library of Parliament of India. He has Master in Library and Information Science and qualified UGC NET.

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Mr. Rambir, working in Central Library, Jawaharlal Nehru University and presently discharging duty as in-charge of Centre for Political Studies (CPS) Library. He has more than 15 years in this field. He has completed his studies B.A. degree from Delhi University and B.L.I.Sc. from Kurukshetra University and M.L.I.Sc. Degree in Library and Information Science from Annamalai University His area of interest is ICT, Digital Libraries and Scientometrics.

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Access to Scholarly Literature in Jammu and Kashmir Higher Education Institutions under NLIST Programme

Asmat Ali

Librarian, Govt. College for Women Nawakadal

Srinagar (J&K)

Email id: asmatali999@gmail.com

Audil Hussain

Asst. Prof. - Computer Applications

GCW Nawakadal, Srinagar (J&K)

Email id: audilhussain@gmail.com

Refhat-un-Nisa

Research scholar, University of Kashmir

Email id: refhat.dps1@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The Information and Communication Technology is progressively replacing the old methods of information collection, storage and retrieval. In the meantime, the ICT gave rise to electronic-technology, which made possible the electronic publishing. This made possible availability of information resources (Books, journals, Articles etc.) online for safe storage and easy retrieval, even in the traditional or academic libraries, where even computers were earlier missing. The NLIST Project provides access to E-resources to students, researchers, and faculty from college and other beneficiary institution(s) through servers installed at the Inflibnet centre. The present study provides an over view of access to scholarly literature in Jammu and Kashmir higher education institutions under NLIST Programme. The present study provides an over view of access to scholarly literature in Jammu and Kashmir higher education institutions under NLIST Programme. It is one of the useful consortia for the higher education institutions so far till May 2016, 5181 institutes have been registered in India and the number this number is increasing gradually. A total of 29 institutions out of 45 have joined the N-List programme from Jammu division followed by 21 institutions out of 46 from Kashmir. Recognizing the fact that, the use of ICT opens new avenues for better services in new found digital environment, the libraries in higher education are adapting to new technologies. Electronic journals consortiums are a boon to the libraries, as with this cooperation the cost of basic journals can be shared; and library budgets can be utilized in the right positive way.

Keywords: Scholarly Literature , NLIST, Consortia, ICT, E-resources

1. INTRODUCTION:

The prime motto of any educational or research institution, is to shape the society for its betterment by raising the standards of education and learning. The higher educational institutions in Jammu and Kashmir are working in this regard very adequately. In any educational institution Libraries play a pivotal role, Govt. College for Women Nawakadal College being no exception to this. It has a well-equipped and up-to-date library. With the resources (Digital, Non-digital) for various subjects – Medical, Non-medical, Humanities, Commerce, Management, Home science etc. The notion of the libraries as being a mere store house of books has drastically changed over a couple of decades to a space where one can find almost all the information he / she is looking for. The libraries got an edge with the advent of information and communication technology, commonly called as the ICT, which brought changes to the functions and dynamics of libraries. The ICT is progressively replacing the old methods of information collection, storage and retrieval. In the meantime, the ICT gave rise to electronic-technology, which made possible the electronic publishing. This made possible availability of information resources (Books, journals, Articles etc.) online for safe storage and easy retrieval, even in the traditional or academic libraries, where even computers were earlier missing. The ICT was significantly incorporated into academic libraries to make the accessibility of its services easier and quicker for its users.

In the present scenario electronic resources are fast gaining lime light due to its attributes to overcome Geographical barriers coupled with easy and fast access. Baljinder & Verma (2009). The Electronic Resources are Systems in which information is stored electronically and made accessible through electronic systems and computer networks. These resources include OPAC, CD-ROMs, online Databases, E-Journals, E-books, internet resources etc. In India some of these resources are available through Inflibnet. One of such initiative taken by Inflibnet is the Project entitled “National Library and Information services infrastructure for scholarly content”. (N-LIST) provides access to scholarly publications. The programme was an initiative of ministry of human resource development (MHRD) under the NME-ICT now funded by UGC, as college component under UGCINFONET Digital Library Consortium. The NLIST Project provides access to E-resources to students, researchers, and faculty from college and other beneficiary institution(s) through servers installed at the Inflibnet centre. The present study provides an over view of access to scholarly literature in Jammu and Kashmir higher education institutions under NLIST programme.

2. NLIST: RESOURCES COVERED UNDER CONSORTIA:

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State list (Number of Registrations: 5181, till 30th May 2016)

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3. GOVERNMENT DEGREE COLLEGES IN JAMMU & KASHMIR:

The number higher education institution in Jammu and Kashmir is 95. With (45) institutions in Kashmir division followed by Jammu division with (46) institutions. Ladakh division accounts for (4).

Table 1 (N= 95)

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4. COLLEGES REGISTERED UNDER N-LIST PROGRAMME:

It has been seen that already maximum higher educational institutions have shown interest in joining the programme (N-LIST). Out of 95 higher education institutions in Jammu and Kashmir 52 has already registered to it since 30-10-2015.out of 52 colleges (02) colleges fall under Access not Enabled.

The first college to register for this service was Govt. S.P.M.R College of commerce, Jammu 0n 13th of January 2010, followed by M.E.T College of Education, Sopore and Moulana Azad Memorial College, Jammu both registering on 11th June 2010.

A total of 29 institutions out of 45 have joined the N-List programme from Jammu division followed by 21 institutions out of 46 from Kashmir division. Higher education institutions from Ladakh division have not yet registered to it.

Table 2 (N=50)

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5. YEAR WISE GROWTH:

The colleges joining the programme have shown gradual decrease over time. First two years shown a great increase in the number of institutions to join with 12 institutions in year 2010 followed by 22 institutions in 2011.

Year 2011, showed a sweeping drop off in the number of institutions to join it. 5 institutions joining in year 2012 followed by 4 institutions each in years 2013 and 2014. In the year 2015 only three institutions registered to it.

Table 3 (N=50)

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6. CONCLUSION:

In the present scenario, electronic (e) resources for scientific research and development are gaining importance day by day. In recent years there has been a surge in the number of electronic resources available which has led to the shift in comparative growth from traditional to electronic publishing. Recognizing the fact that the use of ICT opens new avenues for better services in new found digital environment, the libraries in higher education are adapting to new technologies. Electronic journals consortiums are a boon to the libraries, as with this cooperation the cost of basic journals can be shared; and library budgets can be utilized in the right positive way. Thus the demand for electronic resources among the research community has increased over the years.

References:

Arora, J., & Trivedi, K. (2010). UGC-Infonet digital library consortium: Present services and future endeavours. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, 30 (2), 15.

Kaur, B., & Verma, R. (2009). Use and impact of electronic journals in the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India. The Electronic Library, 27 (4), 611-622.

Keralapura, M. (2009). Technology and customer expectation in academic libraries: A special reference to technical/management libraries in Karnataka. The International Information & Library Review, 41 (3), 184-195.

Swain, D. K., & Panda, K. C. (2009). Use of e-services by faculty members of business schools in a state of India: A study. Collection Building, 28 (3), 108-116.

Digital Consortia: UGC Infonet A Boon to University Libraries

Dr. G. Prabhakar

Lecturer in Library Science

SDS Autonomous College

Shreeramnagar, Vizianagaram Dist.

Andhra Pradesh, India.

prabha_gudidesi@yahoo.co.uk

P. Venkanna

Lecturer in Library Science

PVR Trust Degree College

Kakinada, East Godavari Dist.

Andhra Pradesh – India.

ABSTRACT

A library consortium means co-operation, co-ordination and collaboration between and among libraries to share their resources. Different international as well national consortiums are available. An account of the development UGC INFONET along with the objectives and benefits of the consortium is mentioned. With the emergence of Internet, the WWW & Information and Communication Technology (ICT) the process of cooperation has under gone a transformation from print-based environment to digital environment, where we can have access to Web-based full-text online resources. The main aim of consortium is to provide scholarly journals at a better, faster and more cost effective access to core national and international e-journals. An account of UGC INFONET Consortium which subscribes to current as well as archival access to more than 7500+ core and peer-reviewed journals and 10 bibliographic databases from 26 publishers and 4 open access resources.

Keywords: Digital consortia, UGC Infonet, E-Resources, University Library

1. INTRODUCTION:

Library consortia refer to co-operation, co-ordination and collaboration between and among libraries to share their resources. Sharing or cooperation of library resources has been practiced for decades within the institutions, the main aim of establishing a library consortium is to share their physical resources including books and periodicals amongst members. But, with the emergence of Internet, the WWW & Information and Communication Technology (ICT) the process of cooperation has under gone a transformation from print-based environment to digital environment, where we can have access to Web-based full-text online resources. The publishers are using the Internet as a global way to offer their publications to the international community of scientists. The technology provides for delivery of information with greater speed and economy. Some of the major international consortiums are GALILIO, OhioLink, TexShare, VIVA and SUNY Connect in USA, CALIS in China, CONCERT in Taiwan, INDEST-AICTE Consortium, CSIR E-Journals Consortium, and UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium in India are some of the well-known library consortia. N-LIST (National Library and Information Services Infrastructure for Scholarly Content), a digital consortium of INFLIBNET, where the college students, researchers and faculty can have access e-resources and download articles required by them directly from the publisher's website. In this article we shall discuss benefits and advantages of UGC Infonet Digital Library Consortium.

2. UGC INFONET DIGITAL LIBRARY CONSORTIUM:

The UGC-Infonet Digital Library Consortium was formally launched in December, 2003 by the then President of India, Honourable Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, after providing Internet connectivity to the universities in the year 2003 under the UGC-Infonet programme. UGC-Infonet was an aid to the universities which were discontinuing subscription of scholarly journals because of “Serials Crisis” which means exponential and continuing increase in subscription cost of scholarly journals. The Consortium provides current as well as archival access to more than 7500+ core and peer-reviewed journals and 10 bibliographic databases from 26 publishers and aggregators in different disciplines. The programme has been implemented in phased manner. The programme is wholly funded by the UGC and executed by the INFLIBNET Centre. This programme is run in a phased manner. First phase began in the year 2004 and access to e-resources was provided to 50 universities who had Internet connection under the UGC-Infonet Connectivity, in the second phase, 50 more universities were added to the programme in the year 2005. Currently, there are 422 members having access to INFONET. The e-resources covered include almost all subject disciplines including arts, humanities, social sciences, physical sciences, chemical sciences, life sciences, computer sciences, mathematics and statistics, etc. The total annual cost for providing these resources is around Rs. 30 crores.

3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

The main objective of the UGC INFONET Digital Library Consortium is to provide access to qualitative electronic resources including full-text and bibliographic databases to academic institutions at a lower rates of subscription. The major aims and objectives of the UGC-Infonet Digital Library Consortium are as follows:

- To provide access to a high-quality and scholarly electronic resources to almost all the educational institutions including universities and colleges at considerably lower rates of subscription with utmost encouraging terms and conditions;
- to promote wider access to scholarly content for the users and to inculcate and promote use of ICT in teaching, research and learning in universities in India;
- To spread the benefit of Consortium to its associate members including private organisations;
- To orient and train the users, librarians, research scholars and faculty members of the institutions in use of electronic resources with an objective of best and optimal use;
- To encourage use of e-e-resources with continuing decrease in print subscription;
- To promote collaboration and inter-library cooperation amongst the participating and member universities;
- To evaluate the usage of the existing subscribed content and to identify new resources that are needed to subscribe further;
- To fetch qualitative change in teaching, learning and research in higher education in the country;
- To rise the research productivity of the academic institutions in terms of both quality and quantity of publications.

4. BENEFITS UGC-INFONET DIGITAL LIBRARY CONSORTIUM:

Major benefits of UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium are as follows

1. The Consortium acts as a single-window access point for a many universities with their diverse research and educational interest.
2. The Consortium, with its collective contributing institutions, invites highly discounted rates of subscription with most reasonable terms of agreement for an extensive range of e-resources. Most of the e-publishers have reacted positively to the response of the Consortium. The rates offered to the consortium are lower by 60% to 99% depending upon the type of institute.
3. Users have got instantaneous admission to scholarly information resources earlier not subscribed to, at no cost for accessing back files.
4. It improves the present library services and lessens the subscription expenditure.
5. The research productivity of beneficiary institutions is expected to progress with enhanced access to international databases and full-text online resources.
6. The Consortium is triggered amazing increase in sharing of both print and electronic resources amongst participating library through J-GATE Custom Contents for Consortia (JCCC).
7. The Consortium has been opened-up for all other educational institutions through its “Associate Membership Programme”. Private universities and other institutions can connect the Consortium and get the added advantage of not only highly discounted rates of subscription but also the promising terms and conditions.
8. Members of the Consortium have the benefit of cap on the annual increase in the rates of subscription. While the common increase in price of e-resources vary from 15 to 20%, the consortium owns the cap on increase in price ranging from 5% to 8%.
9. The Consortium is offered better terms of agreement for use, archival access and preservation of subscribed electronic resources, which would not have been possible for any single institutions. and
10. Since the subscribed resources is accessible online in electronic format, the beneficiary institutions have less pressure on space requirement for storing and managing print-based library resources. Likewise, all problems associated with print media such as their location, shelving, binding, organizing, quality etc. are not an issue for electronic resources.

5. ELECTRONIC RESOURCES:

The Consortium subscribes to electronic resources covering all major subject discipline being taught in universities. It includes wide variety of materials e.g. e-journals, bibliographic databases, reviews published by scholarly societies, university presses, institutional and commercial publishers. The Consortium subscribes to full-text resources and 6 bibliographic databases from 26 publishers and aggregators. The resources subscribed by the Consortium can broadly be divided into full-text electronic resources and bibliographic databases.

5.1 Full-text Electronic Resources:

Full-text electronic resources contain complete articles along with their bibliographic details. The consortium subscribes to full-text e-resources from scholarly societies, university presses, commercial publishers and aggregators including American Chemical Society, American Institute of Physics, Oxford University Press, Cambridge University Press, Cell Press, Springer Link, Jstor, Project Muse, etc. All full-text resources subscribed by the Consortium contain electronic journals.

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5.2 Bibliographic Databases:

Bibliographic databases contain references to articles published in journals, conference proceedings or chapters in books. Most bibliographic databases contain abstracts of the articles along with links to their full-text.

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5.3 Open Access Resources:

The INFLIBNET Consortium encourages open access through institutional repositories in its member institutions. Open access is a publication model wherein neither a reader nor the reader's institution is charged for access to articles or other resources. Users are free to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles.

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6. CONCLUSION:

The UGC INFONET Consortium is providing access to electronic resources covering all major subject discipline being taught in universities. This is very useful to the academic community which includes students, research scholars and staff. Hence proper awareness and orientation regarding these electronic resources of the consortia should be given. The user can gain knowledge in his discipline and be up-to-date with current information, he can also get existing information on the areas in which research is being done and it is also helpful to research scholars who are doing research where he/she can have access to a package of electronic journals. It includes wide variety of materials e.g. e-journals, bibliographic databases, reviews published by scholarly societies, University presses, institutional and commercial publishers. Thus, UGC INFONET Consortium, of INFLIBNET is a boon to the universities.

References:

Bhatt, R.K. (2010). Use of UGC-InfoNet Digital Library Consortium resources by research scholars and faculty members of the University of Delhi in History and Political Science: A study. Library Management, 31 (4/5), 319-343.

Chauhan, S.K., & Mahajan, P. (2013). Library consortia in India with special reference to UGC-Infonet digital library consortium. The International Information & Library Review, 45 (3-4), 127-138.

Londhe, N.L., & Deshpande, N.J. (2013). Usage Study of UGC-INFONET E-resources at University of Pune. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, 33 (5), 385-393.

Madhusudhan, M. (2008). Use of UGC-Infonet e-journals by research scholars and students of the University of Delhi, Delhi: A study. Library Hi Tech, 26 (3), 369-386.

Purushotama Gowda, M. (2007). UGC.INFONET: An Indian consortium model for higher Education, Indian journal of library and information science, 1 (2), 47-55.

Shailendra Kumar & Roy, Projes. (2007). Electronic journals in Indian academic libraries: Issues and challenges, ILA Bulletin, 43 (4), 30-34.

E-Books Access Models, Suppliers and Readers

Nisha Kumari

V.V. Giri National Labour Institute

Sector-24, Noida-201301, Uttar Pradesh.

Mobile: 9871343805 / Email: nisha741992@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Electronic books (e-books) had shown a very slow uptake in comparison to other e-publications such as e-journals, e-newspapers, etc. The possible reasons for this could be the under-developed technology for creating and accessing e-books. However, the recent involvement of many commercial publishers and aggregators in e-books industry has triggered their use. An attempt is made in this article to identify the different e-book access models with their features. It provides an overview of the e-book marketplace players and their services against a context in which e-books are becoming an increasingly significant category of digital resource. Brief discussion is laid on identifying the user and library oriented features of e-books. Variety of e-book readers are produced in the market with advancements at every stage since 19th century. Pricing models for e-books acquisition varies among different publishers. Piracy, Copyright and DRM are the challenging issues in e-books collection development. Discussion over benefits and disadvantages of E-books always being weighed in libraries across the country. Library and Information Science (LIS) professionals also need to adopt new skills and competencies for the development and management of e-books collection. This article is useful for all the stakeholders of e-book industry viz., creator/author, publisher, aggregator, librarians, LIS researchers and users of e-books.

Keywords: E-books, E-book Access models, Suppliers, Pricing models, Copyright and DRM (Digital Rights Management)

1. INTRODUCTION:

Books have shown a huge transformation from being a physical entity to somewhat electronic or an e-book. E-books are considered as one of the recent developments in the information and communication technology. Stakeholders such as authors, publishers, aggregators, libraries, information/documentation centres and users are directly related with e-book media. Other indirectly associated agencies may be government departments, professors, lecturers, researchers and others. E-books have emerged as marketable products in 1990s but could not persist for long. From 2007 onwards, it started thriving. It is forecasted that in the next coming years’ e-books will be the evolving technology that will have a wide effect on teaching and learning approaches in schools, colleges and universities. E-books are books in different file formats in the computer, which can be read with specific piece of software such as Acrobat e-book reader and others. E-books can be ordered online and delivered electronically to the computer. E-books are steadily becoming a substitute to paper books and thousands of e-books are downloaded every day. Mainly, there are two types of e-books, one which represent an electronic version of a print book and second those which exist solely as e-books offered by different publishers and aggregators.

2. DEFINITIONS:

An electronic book is simply the content of a written script translated into a format that can be read electronically. E-book can be defined as a printed book or text converted into digital form and can be displayed on a computer through network or read on a personal computer or mobile device. It may be preferred over print forms as it includes specific features such as hyperlinking, bookmarking, annotating, full-text searching, cross reference functions and multimedia content.

According to The New Concise Oxford English Dictionary, E-book is “an electronic version of a printed book which can be read on a Personal Computer or hand-held device designed specifically for this purpose”.

According to American Library Association, “An e-book is literary work in the form of digital object consisting of one or more unique identifiers, metadata and a monographic body of content, indented to be published and accessed electronically”. E-book is digital medium for communication of information. It may be in CD-ROM form, may be available on-line with the help of Internet. It is easily accessible and is available 24x7.

3. HISTORY OF E-BOOKS:

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4. Access models of e-books

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5. ONLINE ACCESS MODEL:

- It involves reading e-books via web browser.
- Web interface along with text reading also facilitates full-text searching, utilization of dictionaries, linking to other resources available and so on.
- Online accessibility to e-books can be assisted through EBSCO, Proquest, Dialog, Gale, Wilson, Questia and Project Gutenburg.

6. OFFLINE ACCESS MODEL:

- It implicates downloading the e-book from e-book service providers and reading it via e-book reader software.
- There are variety of e-book stores available that offer downloadable e-books such as Amazon Kindle store, Google eBooks, Project Gutenberg, Barnes and Noble Nook Store, Kobo books, ebook.com etc.
- There are many e-book reader softwares which are format specific can be directly downloaded from internet such as Microsoft reader/.lit format; eReader/.pdb format; Adobe Reader/.pdf.

7. ACCESS VIA HAND-HELD DEVICES AND PERSONAL DIGITAL ASSISTANTS (PDAS):

- Hand-held devices and PDAs allow anytime, anywhere access.
- E-books are read by installing specific piece of software (e.g. Adobe ebook, PDF, eReader, Microsoft’s Reader).

8. ACCESS VIA SPECIFIC DEVICES USED FOR E-BOOKS:

- There are number of devices available in the market which are designed solely for reading e-books. Example: Rocket ebook series by Gemstar
- The advantages of using e-book devices are: (i) Good storing capacity i.e. about 40 books or 16,000 pages (ii) Portable (iii) Large screen size and hence prevents eyesight problems.

9. SUPPLIERS OF E-BOOKS:

9.1. E-book Publishers:

- Penguin Random House
- Harper Collins
- Cambridge University Press
- Elsevier
- Hachette
- Macmillan
- Springer
- Simon & Schuster
- Taylor & Francis
- Routledge

9.2. E-book Aggregators:

- EBSCO Information services
- ProQuest
- Dialog
- Books@Ovid
- Credo Reference
- Gale Virtual Reference Library
- Emerald Insight
- Ebook Library (EBL)
- ebrary
- Safari Books Online

10. Other Suppliers E-books:

- Google Books venture has built up a computerized book biological community which can be gotten to through any web-empowered gadget, for example, PC and cell phones. A beneficial element of Google Books is its gadget nonpartisanship.
- The OvidSP (Registered) data administration is another digital book supplier. It offers a bound together stage to get to an extensive variety of data assets (e-diaries, ebooks, and so forth). A critical component is its extra data recovery capacities.
- Baker and Taylor, the main supplier for open, school and scholarly libraries, has gone into eBook conveyance through its new unit called “eContent Delivery”.

11. Features of E-books:

A variety of e-book features are offered by aggregators and publishers to their customers, including end users and librarians. Main features are given below:

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12. E-BOOK READERS:

E-book readers are the devices designed primarily for the purpose of reading e-books. These are portable electronic devices which has a better screen readability in comparison to faster screen capable personal computers. E-book readers are also referred as e-readers, mobile reading devices, book devices, devices for reading on-the-go, etc. E-book readers are mostly used to read fictions and textbooks.

There are a variety of e-book readers. Some of them are listed below:

1. Kindle’s Oasis, Voyage and Paperwhite by Amazon
2. Barnes and Noble’s Nook Glowlight plus
3. Kobo Glo HD and Aura H20
4. Boox N96 and Max by Onyx Inc.
5. Manta’s Ebook04
6. T62+ by Boyuge
7. eReader Prestigio
8. Aldiko
9. Wattpad
10. Apple’s iPad

13. FEATURES TO BE CONSIDERED WHILE SELECTING AN E-BOOK READER:

1. Hardware: Front lighting (LED lights surrounds the screen and makes reading easier for eyes), Rubberized backsides, Touch Screen, Screen size (upto 6 in.), note-taking capability, long battery life.
2. Processor: High speed processors for quick scrolling and turning of pages.
3. Electronic paper display: Higher the e-reader’s pixel density (measured in pixels per inch (ppi)) clearer will the text appears. Quality of electronic paper displays varies among e-readers as Kindle’s Oasis, paper white and voyage had E Ink Carta screen type which offers display of 300 ppi over Nook Glowlight plus which has E Ink Pearl screen with display of 200 ppi.

14. E-BOOKS PRICING MODELS:

1. On the basis of cost involved:

- Free E-books
- Paid E-books
- Wholesale model
- Agency model

2. On the basis of subscription schemes:

- Patron-driven acquisition model
- Bulk purchase
- Selective purchase model
- Aggregators
- Consortia model

3. On the basis of access/usage:

- Annual access
- Perpetual access
- Pay-per-use model
- Pay-per-view (PPV) model
- FTE (Full Time Equivalent) Model
- Simultaneous access model

15. PROMOTION OF E-BOOKS:

‘Promotion’ of products and services involves informing potential users about the product, its features, functions, etc. Promotion is noticed as very important activity for educating the use of any product or service. After promotion, a feedback mechanism should be developed to improve e-books usage with the help of LIS professionals as they have better exposure to the information needs of their potential patrons. Two ways are identified by librarians for promoting the use of e-books:

- Marketing: Marketing will raise awareness about e-books among its potential users. It involves highlighting the advantages of e-books, creating online discussion forums on social websites to initiate usage intention discussions and mouth-to-mouth publicity techniques.
- Literacy programmes: It is observed that the level of knowledge about e-books is still very less among current generation users who are highly computer literate. Therefore, they need to be educated about navigation, using e-books and e-book readers. E-book literacy should be the part of user education programmes in libraries.

16. E-BOOK PIRACY, COPYRIGHT AND DIGITAL RIGHTS MANAGEMENT (DRM):

Electronic piracy is one of the fastest growing cybercrimes occurring today. The interaction between copyright and technology represents one of the greatest challenges for regulators as the technology is constantly evolving and the copyright needs to adapt its constant evolution. E-book piracy is growing especially with the e-reader devices such as kindle, ipad and others. Piracy directly affects the copyright laws because it is a direct copyright infringement. The primary purpose of the DRM technology is to prevent piracy of literary works and infringement on author and publishers’ copyrights. DRM prevents illegal copying, sharing and selling of the ebook.

It should be the prime concern of libraries to protect the author's copyright when distributing books via electronic format. Libraries must consider copyright and licensing issues for eBook management. Digitizing printed books which are still in copyright and making them available over network is again a challenging task for libraries. The tool called ARROW, supported by European Commission’s eContentplus programme had developed certain mechanisms to connect those seeking to digitize books with those who are able to give them the necessary permission. It allows streamlining the process of identification of authors, publishers and other right holders of a work, including whether it is orphan, in or out of copyright or if it is still commercially available.

17. ADVANTAGES OF E-BOOKS:

E-books have several advantages over traditional paper books. Therefore, forward-looking librarians should consider their place in the collection.

17.1. Advantages from Users Point of View:

1. Easy access to wide range of eBooks off campus/out of the library.
2. Simultaneous user access
3. Provide multimedia information, full text searching, reference linking, flexibility in searching and browsing, and interoperability on a variety of devices.
4. E-book reading devices can hold a number of volumes in a portable, light weighted hand-held device.
5. E-books can be set for larger type and backlit to aid the visually impaired or for general ease in reading.

17.2. Advantages from Librarians Point of View:

1. Usage maximization as electronic versions have high turnover rate than print.
2. Requires no handling and can be issued and returned instantly.
3. Staff will be freed from stock maintenance tasks such as shelving, stock verification and others.
4. Physical spaces at shelves of libraries will be saved.
5. Issues of vandalism, hidden/missing and damaged books will be solved.
6. Updated frequently and with relatively little expense.
7. Cost effective for short-life titles.
8. E-books are available for purchase before the print version is released in the market because they do not require printing.

18. CHALLENGES BEFORE E-BOOKS:

E-books are not all advantageous. There are still several fundamental challenges that need to be addressed before e-books become universally accepted additions to the library collections. They are as follows:

1. Raise concerns over piracy and copyright issues, and reduce control over plagiarism.
2. Technical and authentication issues in providing remote access to e-books.
3. Standardization of devices for reading eBooks.
4. E-books are less discounted as compared to print books.
5. Some users lacks technology and IT skills.
6. Archiving and preservation issues for perpetual access.
7. Lack of relevant titles in eBooks collections offered by suppliers.
8. Pricing models are too restrictive.
9. No standards for cataloguing and adding e-book titles to a library's electronic catalogue.

19. SKILLS AMONG LIS PROFESSIONALS FOR E-BOOKS MANAGEMENT:

Searching appropriate information from the e-book require some skills. For efficient and effective e-books collection handling, the LIS professionals should equip themselves in the following areas:

1. E-Books Collection Development:

LIS professionals must be aware of availability of eBooks and their suppliers. They should possess skills to develop and maintain a sound collection keeping in view the user needs. LIS curriculum should include those components which can impart e-book handling skills to the professionals.

2. Technological Skills:

LIS professionals should be aware of latest technological developments and how to harness them for promoting e-books among users. They should be able to use Web 2.0/3.0 tools for marketing of e-books and imparting ebook literacy among users.

3. Negotiation Skills:

LIS professionals should be able to compare different pricing models for acquiring eBooks and negotiate with suppliers in order to incorporate pro-library terms and conditions in license agreement and making consortia adjustments.

4. Interpersonal Skills:

LIS professionals should possess the skills to convince authorities to grant funds for digital projects. It involves many issues such as budget for e-books and e-book reading devices, their maintenance, etc.

5. Copyright and DRM (Digital Rights Management):

The LIS professionals must be able to resolve the copyright and DRM issues.

20. CONCLUSION:

In this electronic era, libraries had adopted the technology and started delivering their resources and services in electronic format. At present, there are several issues related to e-books such as copyright, intellectual property rights, standards, archiving and preservation which should be resolved. It is predicted that in the next few years the availability of e-books will increase and they will be the vital part of library resources. Libraries should adopt and integrate the electronic collection with traditional library collection. Various suppliers’ offers different pricing models but then the responsibility lies with the librarians to make comparison and choose the best out of them according to their budget and needs. Apart from developing skills and competencies for e-books management, librarians should also update the technical infrastructure in the libraries to handle the higher bandwidth of e-books with multimedia content and a large number of pages which makes the file size quite big. Librarians need to come together to discuss policies regarding development and management of e-books collection in libraries.

References:

Anuradha, K.T. and H.S. Usha (2006). E-books Access Models: An Analytical Comparative Study. The Electronic Library, 24 (5), 662-679.

Kumbhar, Rajendra (2012). E-books: Review of Research and Writing during 2010. The Electronic Library, 30 (6), 777-795.

Long, Sarah Ann (2003). The case for e-books: An Introduction. New Library World, 104 (1/2), 29-32.

Singh, S.P. (2005). Special Libraries in Electronic Environment. New Delhi: Bookwell Publishing.

Singh, Gurdev (2009). Information Sources, Services and Systems. New Delhi: PHI Learning.

Vasileiou, Magdalini, Richard Hartley, and Jennifer Rowley (2009). An Overview of the e-book Marketplace. Online Information Review, 33 (1), 173 – 192.

Enhancing Web 2.0 and its Application in Library Service All NITs in India: A Case Study

Karan Singh

Librarian of Vikash Degree College

Bargarh, Odisha.

Email: karan4u358@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to examine the adoption and application of web 2.0 the library and information science NIT of India. Published which express and growth and development of library and information science in NIT Libraries in India. Web 2.0 tools used by NIT libraries in delivering their services, factors influencing the use of Web2.0 tools, challenges and prospects in their usage. Web 2.0 applications augment this, providing many more opportunities for input, social interaction and collaboration with such as wikis, blogs, and podcasts. As Web 2.0 applications become main-stream, developments in this exciting field are likely to continue apace. Explains and presents an analysis of 31 NIT Libraries usages of web 2.0. The present study significantly displays and elaborates the various aspects of the research papers from the ground of systematic outlook, such as State wise NIT in India, web 2.0 tools, frequency tools, and purpose of work, etc. The prediction of the authors gives a contribution to the area of LIS research by assisting the researchers, librarians and professionals as a whole.

Keywords: Web 2.0, Library 2.0, Library Information Science, Blog, wiki, NIT

1. INTRODUCTION:

Web 2.0 is a buzzword introduced in 2004, first coined by Dale Dougherthy (O’Reilly, 2005, in Anderson, 2007) is a second generation of World Wide Web. Web 2.0 technologies are collectively a tool for bringing together the contributions of millions of peoples and making them matter. Some important Web 2.0 tools are blogs, wiki, social networking, book-marking, web application, podcasts and RSS. The development of Web 2.0 tools and techniques has drawn attention of cross-sections of communities including computer professionals, library professional, educationists, business and many more. The trend of research in Web 2.0 has boosted the growth of literature of this subject from the inception as because of its multi-disciplinary applications and research interest. It has been observed that the literature, especially in field of Web2.0 is growing at an exponential rate like other science and technology literature. Librarians and library users are struggling to acquire skills to effectively utilize web 2.0 tools for creating online catalogues, social bookmarking, collaborating and sharing content. Beneficiaries of Web 2.0 technology have no regrets since the advantages override its disadvantages.

Web 2.0 is the term prone to describe a second generation Web of the World Wide Web that is focused on the ability of for people to collaborate and share information online. Web 2.0 mainly refers to the transition from static HTML web pages to a more energetic web that is more organized and is based on serving web applications to users. The term was popularized by Tim O’ Reilly and Dale Dougherty at the O’Reilly media web 2.0 conferences in late 2004 through it was coined by Darcy DiNucci in 1999. Library 2.0 is a concept taken from Web 2.0 with a vision of offering a different library service, geared towards the needs and expectations of today’s library users. In this vision, the library makes information available wherever and whenever the user requires it, and seeks to ensure that barriers to use and reuse are removed.

2. NIT LIBRARIES USES:

- Blog
- Wiki
- Library Mashups
– Library Thing
– Book price
– Bookfinder for you
– TOCRoss

BookJetty

3. OBJECTIVES:

The study is primarily aims at the following objectives:

i. To find the state-wise NIT in India the trends of research in the field
ii. To identify their website of NIT
iii. To recognize Purpose of Use of Web 2.0 Tools
iv. To identify the Usage frequencies of Web 2.0 tools
v. To identify Purpose of work Web2.0 NIT Libraries.

4. METHODOLOGIES:

In this research the key word “Web2.0” has been taken as search term to search the Scopus database. The study is based on observation method is used for survey. Tools of library 2.0 will be listed from the published literature. Thoroughly literature review will be made to find out most popular library 2.0 tools being used among the libraries and those popular tools will be taken for the study. NIT and IIT website will be visited to collect information regarding the uses of library 2.0 tools for providing library services. Information collected from individual library site will be made available excel sheet for necessary analysis and drawing of conclusion. In this research all types of secondary data have been included for analysis.

5. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:

I. The all NIT library in India and not any other institution.
II. Available of other library 2.0 tools, the researcher analyzes Blog, Wiki, Library mash up only.
III. The researcher has collected data about the usage of library 2.0 tools of all NIT of India and not any other services
IV. This study has been conducted from the library’s point of view and not from the user’s point of view.

6. LITERATURE REVIEW:

Review of related literature is highly essential for a researcher planning to carry out his/her research. The study of related literature primarily implies locating, reacting, and evaluating of reports and findings of the researcher who have carried out similar work earlier. In any worthwhile study, the researcher must have an adequate knowledge with the works that has already been carried out in the area of his/her research. Review of such literature, therefore provides an opportunity to the researcher to acquaint himself with the current knowledge in the field of area of his/her own interest in which he/she is going to conduct his/her own research.

Aharony N (2009) in his study “Web 2.0 use by librarians” The current research explores whether librarians, whose main work focuses on information, are familiar with new technological changes and innovations, and whether they make use of different Web 2.0 applications. The research examines whether personality characteristics (resistance to change, cognitive appraisal, empowerment and extroversion or introversion), as well as computer expertise, motivation, importance and capacity towards studying and integrating different applications of Web 2.0 in future, influence librarians’ use of Web 2.0. Different questionnaires were distributed to 168 randomly Israeli librarians throughout the country. The information world is in a state of constant change, and Web 2.0 is playing a central part. According to this study’s findings, Israeli librarians are quite exposed to these changes. They understand that in order to survive, remain relevant, attract new patrons, and be professional, they should master the newest technological applications and apply them in their changing work environment. These findings echo the professional literature (Grealy, 2000; Pollack and Brown, 1998; Stoddart, Bryant, Baker, Lee, and Spencer, 2006) that emphasizes the challenges and innovations librarians face. These innovations force the librarians to acquire new skills and attitudes and to adapt to this new and changing environment.

Xu C, Ouyang F & Chu H (2009) in their study “The Academic Library Meets Web 2.0:Applications and Implications” As described earlier, we explored the websites of the 81 academic libraries in the New York State to find out to what extent Web 2.0 tools were adopted. Fig. 1 shows that 34 (42%) institutions out of the total introduced Web 2.0 tools to their libraries while 47 (58%) did not. In other words, only less than half of the 81 academic libraries surveyed used one or more Web 2.0 applications (e.g., blogs and wikis) for various purposes. Many libraries included in this study, however, still rely on traditional means such as email, telephone phone or regular web pages for providing services to their users. Mobile Phone or regular web pages are providing services to their users.

Falagas et.al. (2006) studied on “A bibliometric analysis of research productivity in Parasitology by different world regions during a 9-year period (1995-2003)”. By Using the PubMed database they retrieved articles from journals included in the “Parasitology” category of the “Journal Citation Reports” database of the Institute for Scientific Information for the period 1995-2003.

Harande (2011), in his study on “Exploring the literature of diabetes in Nigeria: a bibliometrics study”, examines the increasing diabetes-related literature in Nigeria, using a bibliometric approach. The National Library of Medicine PubMed was used as the database for this exercise. A bibliometrics tech­nique and Bradford–Zipf distribution were utilized. A list of periodical articles on diabetes in Nigeria published during 1966–2009 was compiled for the study.

Meho and Spurgin, (2005), in their study on “Ranking the Research Productivity of Library and Information Science Faculty and Schools: An Evaluation of Data Sources and Research Methods”, evaluated the data sources and research methods used in earlier studies to rank the research productivity of Library and Information Science (LIS) faculty and schools taking 2,625 items published between 1982 and 2002 by 68 faculty members of 18 American Library Association (ALA)-accredited LIS schools by searching hundreds of databases.

A study conducted by Maharana et. Al., (2006) on “Scholarly use of web resources in LIS research: a citation analysis. In India the essential purpose of this paper is to measure the amount of web resources used for scholarly contributions in the area of library and information science (LIS). The study revealed that 292 (34.88 per cent) out of 837 were web citations, proving a significant correlation between the use of Internet resources and research productivity of LIS professionals in India.”

7. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:

Present study the data are collected from the various NIT website in India. Indicated in different tables of this paper varies from it because, the papers have been gathered for this study are indexed under the web 2.0 .Hence, the chronological classification of papers is made considering their actual year of publications in the concerned journals. However, for more clarity and well understanding it may be said here that, Analysis of data involves a number of closely related option that are performed with the purpose of summarizing the collected data and organizing in such a number that they will yield answer to the research question. The data for the present study has been collected by visiting individual library websites of all the NITs. The data collected is stored in Microsoft excel worksheet for further analysis and interpretation as described in this chapter.

Table 7.1 – State wise analysis of NITs in India:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

From the above table 4.1 shows that the lists of 31 NITs in India have distributed their state and union territory along with websites list.

Table 7.2 - Purpose of Use of Web 2.0 Tools

illustration not visible in this excerpt

In this above table shows that most of the NITs are using web 2.0 tool in library for different purpose. The most using tools are face book, twitter, wiki, Google+, you tube. Face book are using for information sharing forthcoming seminar advertisement, video audio images sharing. Twitter for using video sharing, information sharing. Blog for information sharing, Wiki for commenting and editing information. Google + for information sharing, image sharing, and Google class room. You tube for the video lecture, commenting, video sharing and image sharing.

Table 7.3 - Usage frequencies of Web 2.0 tools

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1 - Usage frequency of Web 2.0 tools

illustration not visible in this excerpt

The table 4.3 and figure 1 indicate here the highest frequency of web 2.0 tools I found here on face book 31 (64.58%) and lowest frequency of both blog 1 (2.08%) and wiki1 (2.08%) are same. Followed by YouTube 8(16.66%), twitter 4(8.33%) and goggle + 3 (6.25).

Table 7.4 - Purpose of work and its frequency

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure: 4.2 - Purpose of work and its frequency

illustration not visible in this excerpt

The Table 4.4 and figure 2 shows that the purpose of work and the frequency of nits. Advertisement 23(41.81%) is the high impact factor purpose .and the lowest impact factor purpose is virtual labs 2(3.63%). Followed by the fourth coming ceremony, 8(14.54%), information sharing 8 (14.54%), announcing forthcoming seminar, and audio, video and image sharing 7(12.72%).

8. MAJOR FINDINGS:

The final step of any research process demands a critical and logical thinking in summarizing the findings of the study as a result of a systematic analysis of data obtained for the present study in the previous chapter, the investigators observes the following findings on the Web 2.0 and its application in library service: a case study of all NITs in India

As a result a systematic analysis of data obtained for the present study in the previous chapters, the researcher observes the following findings about the Web 2.0 and its application in library service: a case study of all NITs in India;

- The list of 31 NITs in India. Distributed their state and union territory along with websites list.
- Most of NITs from India using web 2.0 tool in library for different purpose. The most using tools are face book, twitter, wiki, Google+, you tube. Face book are using for information sharing forthcoming seminar advertisement, video audio images sharing. Twitter for using video sharing, information sharing. Blog for information sharing. Wiki for commenting and editing information. Google + for information sharing, image sharing, and Google class room. You tube for the video lecture, commenting, video sharing and image sharing.
- Uses frequency of web 2.0 tools I found here on face book highest 31 (64.58%) and lowest frequency of both blog 1 (2.08%) and wiki1 (2.08%) are same. Followed by YouTube 8(16.66%), twitter 4(8.33%) and goggle + 3 (6.25).
- Purpose of works of frequency in NITs using like Advertisement 23(41.81%) is the high impact factor purpose .and the lowest impact factor purpose is virtual labs 2(3.63%). Followed by fourth coming ceremony, 8(14.54%).information sharing 8 (14.54%), announcing forthcoming seminar, and audio, video and image sharing 7(12.72%).

9. SUGGESTIONS:

After of carefully study of the findings of the survey and a depth analysis web 2.0 and its application in library service: a case study of all NITs in India, the investigator represents the following suggestion.

- There is need to have a well development of all NITs library in India to support web 2.0 for implementation and sustainability.
- Every Institution should have well internet connectivity 24/7 hours.
- User should be trained continuously on the application and use of web 2.0 tools in order to generate impact.
- The top managers of libraries of India should be fully involved and support the adoption of web 2.0 for success to be realized.
- LIS professional need more time in the working hours in Library and Information Science.
- The user were more familiar to web 2.0 tools so LIS professional provide sufficient time to web 2.0 for the betterment of their work .

10. CONCLUSION:

Web 2.0 tools though relatively a new concept in various NIT Libraries in India so seems to have gained considerable presence in the last few years. Of significance is the fact that many information scientists exhibit confidence in their abilities to adopt and use many of these tools. Web 2.0 and Library 2.0 is yet another wave of rapid development driven by user centred change that revolutionize and evolves libraries to deliver a new range of functions and services to meet the varying and new demands of its web ability of users. Web 2.0 tools have led to enhancement in awareness of Library resources by patrons. Web 2.0 uses have also improved communication between staff and patrons as well as generating interest in the Library by users. If Library 2.0 encourages constant and purposeful change, engages users in the creation of physical and virtual products and services that are being constantly evaluated through feedback, contribution and conversations. Many libraries around the whole have embraced these changes quickly and we now witness a proliferation of new services and functionalities that are unheard of three years ago. Web 2.0 and Library 2.0 education is proposed.

References:

Andersen, P. (2007). What is Web 2.0?: ideas, technologies and implications for education (Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-64). Bristol: JISC reports.

Retrieved from http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/techwatch/tsw0701b

Arya, C., & Sharma, S. (2011). Authorship trends and collaborative research in veterinary sciences: A bibliometric study. Chinese Librarianship: an International Electronic Journal, 34, 1-9. Retrieved from http://www.iclc.us/cliej/cl34AS.pdf

Chua, A.Y., & Goh, D.H. (2010). A study of Web 2.0 applications in library websites. Library & information science research, 32 (3), 203-211.

Cuong Linh, N. (2008). A survey of the application of Web 2.0 in Australasian university libraries. Library hi tech, 26 (4), 630-653.

Harinarayana, N.S., & Vasantha Raju, N. (2010). Web 2.0 features in university library web sites. The Electronic Library, 28 (1), 69-88.

Kim, Y.M., & Abbas, J. (2010). Adoption of Library 2.0 functionalities by academic libraries and users: a knowledge management perspective. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36 (3), 211-218.

Maness, J.M. (2006). Library 2.0 theory: Web 2.0 and its implications for libraries. Webology, 3 (2), 2006.

Sodt, J.M., & Summey, T.P. (2009). Beyond the library's walls: using Library 2.0 tools to reach out to all users. Journal of Library Administration, 49 (1-2), 97-109.

[...]

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Details

Title
Modern Technologies for Reshaping Libraries in the Digital Era
College
University of Delhi
Author
Year
2017
Pages
173
Catalog Number
V367578
ISBN (eBook)
9783668479159
ISBN (Book)
9783668479166
File size
3409 KB
Language
English
Tags
modern, technologies, reshaping, libraries, digital
Quote paper
Sivasankar Prasad (Editor), 2017, Modern Technologies for Reshaping Libraries in the Digital Era, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/367578

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