Social Media and Christian Evangelism. A Study of the Facebook Activities of Some Ghanaian Pastors and its Influence on Evangelism


Master's Thesis, 2017

69 Pages, Grade: 4.00


Free online reading

Table of Contents
1 General Introduction
3
2 The Emergence of Facebook and its Potential Usage for Evangelism in Christianity
25
3 The Use of Facebook by Ghanaian Pastors
32
4 Discussing the Usage of Facebook by Ghanaian Pastors and its Influence on Evangelism
43
5 Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations
57
Bibliography
62

3
CHAPTERONE
GENERALI
NTRODUCTI
ON
1.
1Backgroundoft
heSt
udy
TheGospelmessagehasbeenpr
eachedsi
ncet
hecomi
ngofJesusChri
sti
nt
o
t
heworl
d.Therootofspreadi
ngt
heGospelofJesusChri
stcanbefoundi
n
Mat
t
hew28;19-
20sayi
ng,"got
heref
or
eandmakedi
sci
pl
esofal
lt
henat
i
ons,
bapt
i
zi
ngt
hem i
nt
henameoft
heFat
herandoft
heSonandoft
heHol
ySpi
ri
t
,
t
eachi
ngt
hem t
oobserveal
lt
hi
ngst
hatIhavecommandedyou;andl
o,Iam
wi
t
hyoual
ways,event
ot
heendoft
heage(
NewKi
ngJamesVersi
on)
.
"Jesus,
accordi
ngt
ot
heGospelofMar
k,agai
nsai
d,goi
nt
ot
heent
i
r
eworl
dandpreach
t
hegospelt
oal
lcr
eat
i
on(
Mar
k16:
15)
.Thesest
at
ement
sar
epopul
ar
l
yknown
as`
TheGreatCommi
ssi
on'
.
Jesust
ol
dt
hechur
cht
hemessaget
heyshoul
dpreachbutt
hemedi
um wasnot
cl
earl
yst
at
edi
nt
heBi
bl
e. Overt
heyears,t
echnol
ogyhasbeenusedasa
medi
um i
nspr
eadi
ngt
heGospelsi
ncet
heNewTest
amentages.Thel
et
t
er
sof
St
.Pauli
nt
heNew Test
amentaccor
di
ngt
oJust
i
nWi
se,wr
i
t
t
enandr
eadt
o
bel
i
ever
si
nhi
sdayandevenmanygener
at
i
onsl
at
eri
ndi
cat
et
hat
,heusedan
i
nkandwr
ot
eonscr
ol
l
.Bot
ht
hei
nkandscr
ol
lwerecut
t
i
ng-
edget
echnol
ogi
es
backi
nt
hei
rdays.
1
I
n1517,Chri
st
i
anhi
st
or
yt
al
ksofMart
i
nLut
her,aGermanmonk,whol
edt
he
Ref
ormat
i
onagai
nstbur
densomepr
act
i
ceswhi
chbet
rayedt
hegospelmessage.
1
Just
i
nWi
se,"Soci
alMedi
aandChr
i
st
i
anMi
ni
st
r
y:Reachi
ngt
heWorl
df
ort
heKi
ngdomof
God,
"
TheEdStetzerBl
og
,Febr
uary21,2014,www.
Chri
st
i
ant
oday.
com/edst
et
zer/2014/
f
ebr
uar
y/soci
al
-
medi
a-
andChr
i
st
i
an-
mi
ni
st
r
y-
r
eachi
ng-
woul
d-
for-
ki
ng.
ht
ml
/bmb=1,(
accessed
Mar
ch16,2015)

4
Lut
herbel
i
evedt
hatt
hebot
t
om l
i
neoft
heGospelwas,everyoneshoul
dhave
unfet
t
eredaccesst
oGod,f
orf
or
gi
venessbutmosti
mport
ant
l
yfori
nt
i
mat
e
personalrel
at
i
onshi
pwi
t
hGod.Lut
her
,t
hr
ought
hecut
t
i
ngedget
echnol
ogyof
hi
sday,t
hepr
i
nt
i
ngpr
ess,di
st
r
i
but
edt
he`
Lut
herBi
bl
e't
oal
lGermans.
2
Today,
t
hrought
hepri
nt
i
ngpress,sever
alt
r
ansl
at
i
onsoft
heBi
bl
ehavebeenpri
nt
edt
o
hel
padvancet
hecauseoft
heGr
eatCommi
ssi
on.
I
naworl
dful
loft
echnol
ogy,el
ect
roni
candpri
ntmedi
a,suchasnewspapers,
magazi
nes,t
heradi
oandt
el
evi
si
onhavebeenusedast
ool
st
oi
mpactt
he
ki
ngdom ofGod.
3
Peopl
el
i
keBi
l
l
yGraham,Kennet
hE.Hagan,Kat
hrynKuhl
man,
BennyHi
nn,ThomasDext
erJakes,Kennet
hCopel
and,Morri
sCerul
l
o,Juani
t
a
Bynum,andJoelOst
eenar
ecl
assi
f
i
edasAmer
i
can'
sl
eadi
ngt
el
evangel
i
st
swho
haveusedt
heradi
oandt
el
evi
si
ont
oi
mpar
tt
hegospeloft
heLordJesusi
n
Amer
i
caandt
heworl
d.
4
I
ti
sa common obser
vat
i
on t
hat
,Dr
.Mensah Ot
abi
l
,Archbi
shop Ni
chol
as
Duncan Wi
l
l
i
ams,Bi
shop Char
l
es Agyi
n Asare,t
he Church ofPent
ecost
,
Pr
esbyt
er
i
anChurchofGhana,t
heMet
hodi
stChurchofGhanaandt
heChri
st
Apost
ol
i
cChurchofGhanabr
oadcastt
hei
rl
i
veorrecordedmessagesevery
weekonr
adi
ost
at
i
onsuchasJoyF.
M.andt
el
evi
si
onst
at
i
onssuchasTV3and
GTV.
2
Just
i
nWi
se,
TheSoci
alchurch:ATheol
ogyofDi
gi
talCommuni
cati
on
(
Chi
cago:Moody
Publ
i
shers,2014)
,1­27,CDNParabl
e.
com/cont
ent
/pr
evi
ew/9780802487469.
pdf
,(
accessed
Apri
l17,2015)
3
Pet
er
Whi
t
eandCor
nel
i
us
J.
P.
Ni
emand,"Ghanai
anPent
ecost
alChurches'Mi
ssi
on
Appr
oaches,
"
JournalofPentecostalTheol
ogy
24,no.2(
2015)
:241-69.
4
"FamousTel
evangel
i
st
,
"Ranker
,ht
t
p:
//www.
r
anker
.
com/l
i
st
/f
amous-
t
el
evangel
i
st
s/al
by-
t
hompson?var=5&ut
mexpi
d=16418821157.
KzX0YuO8RXOC1yj
YBgr
_2A.
4&ut
m_r
ef
err
er=
ht
t
ps%3A%2F%2Fwww.
googl
e.
com.
gh%2F,(
accessedFebruar
y24,2015)

5
Therei
sanewwayofi
nt
er
act
i
onknownassoci
almedi
ausedbysomepast
ors
i
nGhana.Tel
evangel
i
st
ssuchasDuncan-
Wi
l
l
i
ams,MensaOt
abi
l
,Dag-
Heward
Mi
l
l
s,andChar
l
esAgyi
nAsarearepr
omi
nentGhanai
anpast
orswhousesoci
al
medi
a.
Somecal
l
shavebeenmadebyChr
i
st
i
anl
eadersfort
heuseofsoci
almedi
at
o
propagat
et
heGospel
.NanaKof
iAdj
eiI
mbeah,t
heWest
ernRegi
onalChai
r
man
ofScri
pt
ureUni
on,Ghana,onJune2
nd
2013encouragedChri
st
i
anst
ouse
soci
almedi
af
orevangel
i
sm si
ncei
thasbecomet
het
oolt
hroughwhi
cht
he
yout
harebei
ngl
edast
r
ay.
5
Thest
udyt
her
ef
oreexpl
oredt
heuseofsoci
almedi
af
orChri
st
i
anevangel
i
sm
wi
t
ht
hef
ocuson t
heFacebookact
i
vi
t
i
esofsomeGhanai
anpast
or
sandt
he
i
nf
l
uenceoft
heseact
i
vi
t
i
esonevangel
i
sm.
1.
2Probl
em St
at
ement
Chri
st
i
ani
t
yhasusedt
echnol
ogyt
oadvancei
t
scour
seovert
hecent
uri
es.
Just
i
nWi
seasser
t
st
hatMar
t
i
nLut
herusedt
hepri
nt
i
ngpresst
opri
ntBi
bl
est
o
ai
di
nspr
eadi
ngt
heGospelofJesusChr
i
st
.
6
I
nt
hewor
kofFr
ancesBenyahont
heuseoft
hemassmedi
aandi
t
si
nf
l
uences
onact
i
vi
t
i
esofchar
i
smat
i
cchurchesi
nGhana,heemphasi
sedt
hatt
hemass
medi
ahavei
nf
l
uencesonchar
i
smat
i
cchur
chesi
npar
t
i
cul
arandgeneral
l
yon
5
"Chri
st
i
ansshoul
dusesoci
almedi
a-
SU,
"GhanaNewsAgency,l
astmodi
fi
edonApri
l2,2013,
ht
t
p:
//www.
ghananewsagency.
or
g/soci
al
/chr
i
st
i
ans-
shoul
d-
use-
soci
al
-
medi
a-
su-
60632,
(
accessedJune15,2015)
6
Wi
se,
Thesoci
alchurch:
,
27

6
Chri
st
i
ani
t
yi
nGhanai
nt
heareaofevangel
i
sm amongot
hers.
7
Benyahagai
ni
n
hi
srecommendat
i
onsproposedt
hatst
udi
esi
nt
heareaofsoci
almedi
ai
san
emergi
ngoneandt
heref
or
eresear
chi
st
obecarri
edoutt
oascert
ai
nt
he
cont
r
i
but
i
onofsoci
almedi
ai
nr
espectofsoci
o-
t
echnol
ogi
caldevel
opment
.
8
However,SusanCodonerecommendedt
hatf
ut
ureresearchshoul
dconsi
der
howsoci
almedi
acanbeusedt
oservi
cet
hemi
ssi
onoft
hechurch.
9
Mor
eover
,oneoft
hegr
eat
estmi
ssi
onsoft
hechurchi
st
hemi
ssi
onofworl
d
evangel
i
zat
i
onandi
spopul
ar
l
yknownast
heGreatCommi
ssi
on.Ont
hatnot
e,
t
hi
sst
udyexpl
oredt
hepr
obl
em ofhow t
heuseofsoci
almedi
aespeci
al
l
y
Facebook by some Ghanai
an past
or
s i
nf
l
uences evangel
i
sm.Al
so,how
Facebookasacommuni
cat
i
ont
oolcanbeusedforevangel
i
st
i
cworkonsoci
al
medi
a.
1.
3ResearchQuest
i
ons
Agai
nstt
hi
sbackgr
ound,t
hef
ol
l
owi
ngr
esearchquest
i
onswer
esetfort
he
st
udy:
7
Fr
ancesBenyah,"TheUseofTheMassMedi
aByChari
smat
i
cChurchesi
nGhana:ACase
St
udyofPerezChapelI
nt
er
nat
i
onal
"(
MPi
lt
hesi
s.
,Uni
ver
si
t
yofGhana,Legon,2015)
,
5.
8
Benyah,"TheUseofTheMassMedi
aByChar
i
smat
i
cChurchesi
nGhana:
,
5
9
SusanCodone,"Megachur
chPast
orTwi
t
t
erAct
i
vi
t
y:AnAnal
ysi
sofRi
ckWarr
enandAndy
St
anl
ey,t
woofAmer
i
ca'
sSoci
alPast
or
s",
JournalofRel
i
gi
on,Medi
aandDi
gi
talCul
ture
3,no.2
(
August2014)1-
32,ht
t
p:
//j
r
mdc.
com/paper
s-
ar
chi
ve/vol
ume-
3-
i
ssue-
2-
august
-
2014/,
(
accessedFebr
uary15,2015)

7
Whoar
et
hefol
l
ower
sofGhanai
anpast
ors
10
onFacebook?
Whydopeopl
ef
ol
l
owpast
or
sonFcaebook?
HowusefulhasFacebookbeent
ot
hechurchesofGhanai
anpast
ors?
Whatar
et
het
hemesofFacebookpost
i
ngsofGhanai
anpast
ors?
How has Ghanai
an past
or
s'usage ofFacebook cont
ri
but
ed t
o
ful
fi
l
l
i
ngt
heGr
eatCommi
ssi
on?
How canFacebookusageserveasat
oolforevangel
i
st
i
cworkon
soci
almedi
a?
1.
4Ai
msandObj
ect
i
vesoft
heSt
udy
Fr
om t
heseresear
chquest
i
ons,t
her
esear
cherai
ms:
Tof
i
ndoutt
hef
ol
l
ower
sofGhanai
anpast
orsonFacebook.
Tof
i
ndoutt
her
easonpeopl
ef
ol
l
owpast
orsonFacebook.
Toexpl
or
ehow usefulFacebookhasbeent
ochurchesofGhanai
an
past
ors.
Toexpl
or
et
het
hemesofFacebookpost
i
ngsofGhanai
anpast
or
s?
10
Fol
l
owersofGhanai
anpast
orsonFacebook:
Thesear
eusersofFacebookwhohavel
i
kedorhavebeenaccept
edasFacebookf
ri
endsof
Ghanai
anpast
or
sonFacebook.TheseusersseewhateverpostorcommentaGhanai
anpast
or
makesonFacebook

8
Toest
abl
i
shhow t
heusageofFacebookbyGhanai
anpast
orshas
cont
ri
but
edi
nf
ul
f
i
l
l
i
ngt
heGr
eatCommi
ssi
on.
Toexpl
or
ehowFacebookusagecanserveasat
oolforevangel
i
st
i
c
wor
ki
nsoci
almedi
a.
1.
5ScopeandFocusoft
heSt
udy
Thi
sst
udywasdonewi
t
hi
nt
heper
i
odofMayt
oSept
ember2015.Thest
udy
focusedonsoci
almedi
ausi
ngFacebookasaparadi
gm t
ohel
pt
heresearcher
t
oascert
ai
nt
heusesofFacebookbyGhanai
anpast
orsandi
ti
nfl
uenceon
evangel
i
sm.
Thest
udyexpl
or
edhow Ghanai
anpast
or
suseFacebookandi
t
si
nfl
uenceon
evangel
i
sm.Ther
esear
chersoughtt
hevi
ewsofexpert
s(
consul
t
ant
s)onsoci
al
medi
a,l
ect
ur
ers wi
t
h r
esear
ch i
nt
er
esti
n soci
almedi
a and fol
l
owers of
Ghanai
anpast
or
swhopat
r
oni
seFacebookact
i
vi
t
i
esofGhanai
anpast
orssuch
asAr
chbi
shopPal
merBuckl
eoft
heRomanCat
hol
i
cChurch;Apost
l
eOpoku
Onyi
nah oft
he Chur
ch ofPent
ecost
;Apost
l
e St
ephen AmoaniofChri
st
Apost
ol
i
cChurchI
nt
er
nat
i
onal
;Rev.Fr
i
mpongMansooft
heAssembl
i
esofGod
Chur
ch,Ghana; Ar
chbi
shop Ni
col
as Duncan-
Wi
l
l
i
ams of Act
i
on Chapel
I
nt
er
nat
i
onal
;Bi
shopChar
l
esAgyi
nAsar
eofPer
ezChapelI
nt
ernat
i
onal
;Bi
shop
DagHeward-
Mi
l
l
sofLi
ght
houseChapelI
nt
er
nat
i
onalandPast
orMensaOt
abi
l
ofI
nt
ernat
i
onalCent
r
alGospelChur
ch.

9
1.
6Researchmet
hodol
ogy
Thest
udyempl
oyedqual
i
t
at
i
veappr
oacht
oresearch.Qual
i
t
at
i
veapproachor
met
hodi
s"bui
l
tonapostposi
t
i
vi
st
i
c,phenomenol
ogi
calworl
dvi
ew,whi
ch
assumest
hatreal
i
t
yi
ssoci
al
l
yconst
r
uct
edt
hr
oughi
ndi
vi
dualorcol
l
ect
i
ve
defi
ni
t
i
ons oft
he si
t
uat
i
on".
11
I
n qual
i
t
at
i
ve research,t
he emphasi
s i
s on
col
l
ect
i
ng dat
a t
hatl
ead t
o dependabl
e answers t
o i
mport
antquest
i
ons,
repor
t
edi
nsuffi
ci
entdet
ai
lt
hati
thasmeani
ngt
ot
hereader.
12
Accordi
ngt
o
Ansel
m L.St
r
aussandJul
i
etM.Cor
bi
n,qual
i
t
at
i
veapproachi
saresearch
approach whi
ch does notempl
oy st
at
i
st
i
calprocedures ormet
hods of
quant
i
fi
cat
i
onaspr
i
mar
yt
ool
susedi
nunder
st
andi
ngobj
ect
sofr
esearch.
13
Theresearcherusedaphenomenol
ogi
calappr
oachofresearchdesi
gn.Thomas
Gr
oenewal
d assert
s t
hat"att
he r
ootofphenomenol
ogy,i
s t
he i
nt
entt
o
under
st
andt
hephenomenai
nt
hei
rownt
er
ms.
"
14
Zi
nkerexpl
ai
nst
hatt
het
erm
"phenomenol
ogi
cali
mpl
i
es a pr
ocess,whi
ch emphasi
ses part
i
ci
pant
s own
11
Dougl
asE.Wel
ch,Mer
l
eD.St
r
ege,andJohnH.Auker
man,
Gui
detoGraduateTheol
ogi
cal
Research
,ed.Davi
dNei
dert
,JohnH.Auker
man,andJanetBrewer
,
(
AndersonUni
versi
t
ySchool
ofTheol
ogyWr
i
t
i
ngGui
de:
2010edi
ti
on
)
,10,ht
t
p:
//www.
anderson.edu/si
t
es/def
aul
t
/
f
i
l
es/mi
gr
at
e/sot
/r
esour
ces/sot
-
wr
i
t
i
ng-
gui
de.
pdf
,(
accessedApri
l2,2015)
12
Wel
ch,St
r
ege,andAuker
man,
Gui
detoGraduateTheol
ogi
calResearch,
10.
13
A.L.St
r
aussandJ.M.Corbi
n,
Basi
csofQual
i
tati
veResearch:Techni
quesandProceduresfor
Devel
opi
ngGroundedTheory
.2nded.
,(
Cal
i
f
or
ni
a:SagePubl
i
cat
i
ons,1998)
,10,ht
t
p:
//www.
st
i
bamal
ang.
com/upl
oadbank/pust
aka/RM/BASI
C%20OF%20QUALI
TATI
VE%20
RESEARCH.
pdf
,(
accessedJune29,2015)
14
ThomasGr
oenewal
d,"Aphenomenol
ogi
calResear
chDesi
gnI
l
l
ust
r
at
ed,
"
I
nternati
onalJournal
ofQual
i
tati
veMethods
3,no.4(
Apri
l2004)
:
8-
23,ht
t
ps:
//www.
ual
ber
t
a.
ca/~i
i
qm/
backi
ssues/3_1/pdf
/groenewal
d.
pdf
,(accessedApr
i
l9,2015)

10
uni
queexper
i
ences.
"
15
Gr
eeneandHol
l
owayassertt
hataresearcherusi
ng
phenomenol
ogyi
s"concer
nedwi
t
ht
hel
i
vedexperi
encesoft
hepeopl
ei
nvol
ved,
orwhowerei
nvol
ved,wi
t
ht
hei
ssuet
hati
sbei
ngr
esearched.
"
16
Theabove
schol
arl
y di
scoveri
es made on phenomenol
ogy made t
he researcheruse
phenomenol
ogi
calappr
oachsi
ncesoci
almedi
ai
sanew phenomenonunder
st
udy.I
nt
hecont
extofphenomenol
ogi
calapproach,t
heresearcheri
nt
ervi
ewed
t
went
y-
onepar
t
i
ci
pant
swhohavel
i
vedexper
i
encei
nregardst
osoci
almedi
ai
n
t
hei
rownways.Fi
veoft
hesearesoci
almedi
aexpert
s,t
hreearel
ect
urerswi
t
h
resear
chi
nt
er
esti
nsoci
almedi
aandt
hi
rt
eenarefol
l
owersofGhanai
anpast
ors
onFacebook.
Al
so,t
heresear
cherusedexpl
or
at
oryr
esearchdesi
gn.Accordi
ngt
oCat
heri
ne
Mar
shal
landGret
chenB.Rossman,expl
or
at
or
yr
esearchdesi
gni
susedwhena
r
esear
cherwant
s"t
oi
nvest
i
gat
el
i
t
t
l
e-
under
st
oodphenomena,t
oi
dent
i
fyor
di
scoveri
mpor
t
antcat
egor
i
es ofmeani
ng and t
o generat
e hypot
hesi
s for
f
ur
t
herr
esear
ch.
"
17
Ther
esear
cherusedexpl
or
at
oryresearchdesi
gnbecause
soci
almedi
ai
sanewar
eawi
t
hl
i
t
t
l
eknowl
edgeandespeci
al
l
yhowi
thasbeen
used as a t
ooli
n evangel
i
sm.The r
esear
cherexpl
ored soci
almedi
a and
di
scover
edt
hati
tcanbeusedasat
oolf
orevangel
i
sm,churchpl
ant
i
ngi
n
di
f
f
erentnat
i
ons,keepi
ngcont
actwi
t
hchur
chmembersi
ndi
fferentgeographi
c
l
ocat
i
ons.Fur
t
her
mor
e,t
he r
esear
cheri
dent
i
fi
ed t
hatf
urt
herresearch can
15
Gr
oenewal
d,"Aphenomenol
ogi
calr
esear
chdesi
gni
l
l
ust
rat
ed"8
16
Gr
oenewal
d,"Aphenomenol
ogi
calr
esear
chdesi
gni
l
l
ust
rat
ed"9
17
Cat
heri
neMar
shal
landGret
chenB.Rossman,
Desi
gni
ngQual
i
tati
veResearch,
3
rd
ed.
(
London:SagePubl
i
cat
i
ons,1999)
,33,
ht
t
p:
//dept
s.
washi
ngt
on.
edu/met
hods/r
eadi
ngs/com501_marshal
_t
he_what
_of
_st
udy.
pdf
,
(accessedApr
i
l9,2015)

11
consi
derot
hersoci
almedi
apl
at
f
ormsbesi
desFcaebookt
oaffi
rm someoft
he
fi
ndi
ngsmadei
nt
hi
sresear
ch.
1.
6.
1Met
hodsofDat
aCol
l
ect
i
on
The researcheradopt
ed t
he phenomenol
ogi
calapproach as a met
hod of
gat
heri
ngt
hedat
aneededf
ort
hework.GreeneandHol
l
owayassertt
hata
resear
cher usi
ng phenomenol
ogy shoul
d be concerned wi
t
h t
he l
i
ved
experi
encesoft
hepeopl
ei
nvol
ved,orwhower
ei
nvol
ved,wi
t
ht
hephenomenon
underst
udy.
18
Semi
-
st
ruct
uredi
nt
er
vi
ewgui
deswer
eusedbyt
heresearcheri
nordert
ohave
bot
h f
ormaland i
nf
ormalat
mospher
e t
o getdeep underst
andi
ng oft
he
phenomenonrel
evantt
ot
hi
sst
udy.
19
Ther
esear
cherusedasemi
-
st
r
uct
ur
edi
nt
er
vi
ewgui
det
oexpl
oret
hevi
ewsof
t
hei
nf
or
mant
sr
el
evantt
ot
hi
sst
udy.Ther
esearcherchosesemist
ruct
ured
i
nt
er
vi
ewgui
debecause,CohenandCr
abt
r
eeemphasi
set
hati
t"provi
desacl
ear
setofi
nst
ruct
i
ons f
ori
nt
er
vi
ewer
s and can provi
de r
el
i
abl
e,compar
abl
e
qual
i
t
at
i
vedat
a.
"
20
Semi
-
st
r
uct
uredi
nt
er
vi
ew gui
degi
vest
heresear
cherpri
or
knowl
edgeoft
heki
ndofquest
i
onst
hatar
er
el
evantt
ot
heresearchquest
i
ons
r
ai
sed i
n t
he st
udy and br
i
ngs a f
or
m i
nf
ormalrel
at
i
onshi
p bet
ween t
he
18
Gr
oenewal
d,"Aphenomenol
ogi
calr
esear
chdesi
gni
l
l
ust
rat
ed"9
19
"Qual
i
t
at
i
veResearchGui
del
i
nesPr
oj
ect
,
"Rober
tWoodJohnsonFoundat
i
on,l
astmodi
f
i
ed
Jul
y2006,ht
t
p:
//www.
qual
res.
or
g/HomeSemi
-
3629.
ht
ml(
accessedApr
i
l2,2015)
20
"Qual
i
t
at
i
veResearchGui
del
i
nesPr
oj
ect
,
"Rober
tWoodJohnsonFoundat
i
on,

12
resear
cherandt
hei
nf
ormant
sf
orf
ol
l
owupquest
i
onduri
ngt
hei
nt
ervi
ew.
21
1.
6.
1.
1
Parti
ci
pantsoftheResearch
Thepart
i
ci
pant
scompri
sedofsoci
almedi
aexpert
s,l
ect
urerswi
t
hresearch
i
nt
eresti
nsoci
almedi
af
rom t
heDepar
t
mentofCommuni
cat
i
onSt
udi
esat
Chri
st
i
anServi
ceUni
versi
t
yCol
l
ege(
CSUC)andGhanaI
nst
i
t
ut
eofJournal
i
sm
(
GI
J)
.Ot
herpart
i
ci
pant
sarefol
l
ower
sofGhanai
anpast
orsonFacebooki
n
AccraandKumasi
.
Thefol
l
owi
ngpar
t
i
ci
pant
swer
ei
nt
er
vi
ewed:Fi
ve(
5)soci
almedi
aexpert
s,t
hree
(
3)l
ect
urer
s wi
t
h r
esearch i
nt
eresti
n soci
almedi
a and t
hi
rt
een (
13)are
fol
l
owersofGhanai
anpast
orsonFacebook.Thet
ot
alnumberofpart
i
ci
pant
s
wast
went
y-
one(
21)
.
1.
6.
1.
2
Pri
marySources
Theresear
cherusedi
nt
er
vi
ewsi
ncol
l
ect
i
onofpri
mar
ydat
a.
1.
6.
1.
3
SecondarySources
Ther
esear
cherusedr
epor
t
s,books,t
heweb,andj
our
nal
si
ncol
l
ect
i
ng
secondar
ydat
a.
1.
6.
2 Sampl
e/Sampl
i
ngProcedureorTechni
que
I
nor
dert
oanswert
her
esearchquest
i
onsoft
hi
sst
udy,
Pur
posi
vesampl
i
ngwas
used.Wel
man and Kr
ugerasser
tt
hatpur
posi
ve sampl
i
ng i
s "t
he most
i
mpor
t
ant ki
nd of non-
pr
obabi
l
i
t
y sampl
i
ng, t
o i
dent
i
fy t
he pri
mar
y
21
"Qual
i
t
at
i
veResearchGui
del
i
nesPr
oj
ect
,
"Rober
tWoodJohnsonFoundat
i
on,

13
part
i
ci
pant
s.
"
22
Throughi
nt
er
netsearchandt
el
ephonescal
l
s,fi
ve(
5)soci
al
medi
aexpert
s,t
hr
ee(
3)l
ect
urer
swi
t
hr
esearchi
nt
eresti
nt
hear
eaofsoci
al
medi
a were i
nt
ervi
ewed.Thi
s i
s because t
hese part
i
ci
pant
s have i
n-
dept
h
knowl
edgeandi
nfor
mat
i
onont
heuseofsoci
almedi
a.
Fur
t
hermor
e,Snowbal
lsampl
i
ngt
echni
quewasempl
oyedbyt
heresearchert
o
expandt
henumberofpart
i
ci
pant
sori
nfor
mant
s.Grei
gandTayl
orexpl
ai
n
snowbal
l
i
ngasamet
hodusedi
not
hert
oexpandt
hesampl
ebyaski
ngone
i
nfor
mantorpart
i
ci
pantt
or
ecommendot
her
sfori
nt
ervi
ewi
ng.
23
Theresearcher
askedot
herpart
i
ci
pant
ssuchast
heexpert
si
nsoci
almedi
at
orecommend
ot
herpart
i
ci
pant
s(
fol
l
ower
sofGhanai
anpast
or
sonFacebook)rel
evantt
ot
he
st
udy.
Mar
i
aLuca
ar
guest
hatt
her
ei
snor
ul
east
ot
henumberofpart
i
ci
pant
sneeded
i
naqual
i
t
at
i
ver
esear
ch.However,sheasser
t
st
hatt
oachi
eveaqual
i
t
at
i
ve
met
hodofdesi
gnt
omeett
r
ust
wor
t
hi
ness,t
hi
ck,ri
chdat
a,aresearcherneeds
t
oi
nt
er
vi
ew atl
eastt
wel
vei
nt
er
vi
ewees,butmustensuret
hepart
i
ci
pant
sare
t
hehol
dersofknowl
edgei
nt
hear
eai
nt
endedfori
nvest
i
gat
i
on.
24
Therefore,
t
went
y-
onepar
t
i
ci
pant
swer
ei
nt
er
vi
ewedt
hr
oughf
ace-
t
o-
faceandt
el
ephone
i
nt
er
vi
ews.
1.
6.
3Dat
aAnal
ysi
s
22
Gr
oenewal
d,"Aphenomenol
ogi
calr
esear
chdesi
gni
l
l
ust
rat
ed"9
23
Gr
oenewal
d,"Aphenomenol
ogi
calr
esear
chdesi
gni
l
l
ust
rat
ed"10
24
"Qual
i
t
at
i
veResearchGui
del
i
nesPr
oj
ect
,
"Rober
tWoodJohnsonFoundat
i
on,

14
I
neval
uat
i
ngt
hedat
at
hatwasgat
her
edduri
ngfi
el
dwork,aqual
i
t
at
i
veanal
ysi
s
was empl
oyed.The researcherused t
he i
nduct
i
ve approach t
o qual
i
t
at
i
ve
anal
ysi
swhi
chi
nvol
ves"anal
ysi
ngdat
awi
t
hl
i
t
t
l
eornopredet
ermi
nedt
heory,
st
ruct
ureorframewor
kandusest
heact
ualdat
ai
t
sel
ft
oderi
vet
hest
ruct
ureof
anal
ysi
s.
"
25
Thi
sappr
oachi
smostsui
t
abl
ewherel
i
t
t
l
eornot
hi
ngi
sknown
aboutt
hest
udyphenomenon.
"
26
Ther
esear
cherusedi
nt
ervi
ewsast
hepri
mary
source ofdat
a col
l
ect
i
on.Bl
ess and Hi
gson-
Smi
t
h concl
udes t
hatwhen
i
nt
ervi
ews are t
he pri
mar
ysour
ce ofdat
a col
l
ect
i
on,i
nt
ervi
ewees are t
he
pri
maryuni
tforanal
ysi
s.
27
Each i
nt
er
vi
ew was recorded usi
ng cel
lphone audi
o recorderwi
t
h t
he
per
mi
ssi
onoft
hepar
t
i
ci
pant
sandwast
r
anscr
i
bedf
oranal
ysi
sbycont
rast
i
ng
anddr
awi
ngsi
mi
l
ar
i
t
i
eswi
t
ht
hehel
pofl
i
t
er
at
ure.Themesweredevel
opedi
n
accor
dancewi
t
ht
her
esear
chquest
i
onsi
nordert
oachi
eveeachresearch
obj
ect
i
ve.The t
ranscr
i
bed dat
a was anal
ysed bycont
rast
i
ng and drawi
ng
si
mi
l
ar
i
t
i
es i
n r
espectoft
he vi
ews oft
he part
i
ci
pant
s and f
i
ndi
ngs wer
e
di
scussedi
nr
el
at
i
ont
ol
i
t
er
at
ure.
Al
so,convent
i
onalcont
entanal
ysi
swasempl
oyed.Hsi
u-
FangHsi
ehandSarah
E.Shannonassertt
hatconvent
i
onalcont
entanal
ysi
sori
nduct
i
vecat
egory
devel
opmentori
nduct
i
vecont
entanal
ysi
si
sgeneral
l
yusedwi
t
hst
udi
est
hat
ai
m atdescr
i
bi
ngaphenomenon,whi
chi
susual
l
ysui
t
abl
ewhenexi
st
i
ngt
heory
25
P.Bur
nard,P.Gi
l
l
,K.St
ewar
t
,E.Treasur
e
andB.Chadwi
ck,
"
Anal
ysi
ngandPresent
i
ng
Qual
i
t
at
i
veDat
a"
Bri
ti
shDentalJournal
204,no.8(
Apr
i
l2008)
:429­32,ht
t
p:
//www.
nat
ur
e.
com/bdj
/j
our
nal
/v204/n8/pdf
/sj
.
bdj
.
2008.
292.
pdf
,(
accessedJune28,2015)
26
Bur
nar
d,Gi
l
l
,St
ewar
t
,Tr
easur
e
andChadwi
ck
"
Anal
ysi
ngandPresent
i
ngQual
i
t
at
i
veDat
a"429
27
Groenewal
d,"APhenomenol
ogi
calResear
chDesi
gnI
l
l
ust
r
at
ed"9

15
orresearch l
i
t
er
at
ur
eon t
hatphenomenon i
sl
i
mi
t
ed orunderdevel
oped.
28
Usual
l
y,t
hi
sappr
oacht
oanal
ysi
sdoesnotusepredet
ermi
nedorpreconcei
ved
cat
egori
esorst
ruct
urebuti
nst
eadal
l
owst
hecat
egori
esorst
ruct
ureofanal
ysi
s
t
oemergeoutoft
hedat
a.
29
Toprepareforr
eport
i
ng,t
hefi
ndi
ngs,foreachcode
ort
hemear
ei
dent
i
f
i
edf
rom t
hedat
a.Theresearchert
hencomparesand
cont
r
ast
shi
sorherf
i
ndi
ngst
ot
heor
yorl
i
t
erat
ure.
30
Thedi
scussi
onwoul
d
i
ncl
udeasummaryofhow t
hef
i
ndi
ngsfr
om hi
sorherst
udycont
ri
but
et
o
knowl
edgei
nt
hear
eaofi
nt
erestandsuggest
i
onsforpract
i
ce,t
eachi
ng,and
fut
ur
eresear
ch.
31
Ther
esear
cher
,st
udyi
ngt
heFacebookpost
i
ngsofsome
Ghanai
anpast
or
s,aswel
last
hevi
ewsofpart
i
ci
pant
sont
heFacebookcont
ent
oft
heseGhanai
anpast
ors,usedconvent
i
onalcont
entanal
ysi
st
oanal
yset
he
dat
a.
1.
7 Li
t
erat
ureRevi
ew
Thel
i
t
erat
urerevi
ew i
sdi
vi
dedi
nt
ot
woar
eas
l
i
t
erat
ureont
heconceptof
soci
almedi
a,andt
hel
i
t
er
at
ur
eonsoci
almedi
aandChri
st
i
anevangel
i
sm.
1.
7.
1TheConceptofSoci
alMedi
a
28
Hsi
u-
FangHsi
ehandSar
ahE.Shannon,"Thr
eeAppr
oachest
oQual
i
t
at
i
veCont
entAnal
ysi
s"
Qual
i
tati
veHeal
thResearch
15,no.9,(
November2005)
:1277-288.
29
Hsi
u-
FangHsi
ehandSar
ahE.Shannon,"Thr
eeAppr
oachest
oQual
i
t
at
i
veCont
entAnal
ysi
s,
"
1279
30
Hsi
u-
FangHsi
ehandSar
ahE.Shannon,"Thr
eeAppr
oachest
oQual
i
t
at
i
veCont
entAnal
ysi
s,
"
1279
31
Hsi
u-
FangHsi
ehandSar
ahE.Shannon,"Thr
eeAppr
oachest
oQual
i
t
at
i
veCont
ent
Anal
ysi
s,
"1279

16
Theemergenceofsoci
almedi
ahaschangedt
hef
aceofcommuni
cat
i
onal
lover
t
heworl
d.Theent
i
resoci
almedi
aconcepti
sbui
l
tonwhati
sknownas`
Web2.
0'
.
Accordi
ngt
oEf
t
hymi
osConst
ant
i
ni
des
andSt
efanJ
Fount
ai
n:
Web2.
0i
sacol
l
ect
i
onofopen-
source,i
nt
eract
i
veand
user-
cont
r
ol
l
ed onl
i
ne appl
i
cat
i
ons expandi
ng t
he
exper
i
ences,knowl
edgeandmarketpoweroft
heusersas
par
t
i
ci
pant
si
nbusi
nessandsoci
alprocesses.Web2.
0
appl
i
cat
i
ons suppor
t t
he cr
eat
i
on of i
nformalusers'
net
wor
ksf
aci
l
i
t
at
i
ngt
hef
l
ow ofi
deasandknowl
edgeby
al
l
owi
ngt
heef
fi
ci
entgener
at
i
on,di
ssemi
nat
i
on,shari
ng
andedi
t
i
ngofi
nformat
i
onalcont
ent
.
32
BeforeWeb2.
0ar
ri
ved,communi
cat
i
ont
hr
ought
hei
nt
ernetexi
st
edt
hrough
whati
sknownas`
Web1.
0'
.Web1.
0i
st
heseasoni
nt
hel
i
feoft
hei
nt
ernet
wherewebsi
t
eswerecreat
edandt
heusercoul
donl
yreadwhati
swri
t
t
enbutno
i
nt
er
act
i
on t
ookpl
ace.Lat
er
,emai
laccount
s were added as a feat
ure t
o
websi
t
est
oenabl
et
wo-
waycommuni
cat
i
onbutcoul
donl
ybedonebet
ween
t
wopeopl
eorent
i
t
i
esatat
i
me.Thent
hedevel
opmentof`
Web2.
0'shi
ft
ed
communi
cat
i
onont
hei
nt
er
nett
oal
l
owuser
st
heabi
l
i
t
yt
osendpi
ct
ures,vi
deos,
andot
hercont
entt
oasmanypeopl
eatonceandt
hi
si
swhati
sal
soknownas
soci
almedi
a.
33
Meredi
t
hGoul
ddef
i
nesoci
almedi
aas"web-
basedt
ool
sfori
nt
eract
i
on,whi
ch
i
naddi
t
i
ont
oconver
sat
i
on,al
l
owuser
st
oshar
econt
entsuchasphot
os,vi
deos,
32
Ef
t
hymi
osConst
ant
i
ni
desandSt
efanJ.Fount
ai
n"Web2.
0:Concept
ualFoundat
i
onsand
Mar
ket
i
ngI
ssues"
JournalofDi
rect,DataandDi
gi
talMarketi
ngPracti
ce
9,no.3(
Oct
ober2007)
:
231­44,ht
t
p:
//www.
pal
grave-
j
our
nal
s.
com/dddmp/j
our
nal
/v9/n3/pdf
/4350098a.
pdf
,
(
accessedJune27,2015)
33
Ef
t
hymi
osConst
ant
i
ni
desandSt
efanJ.Fount
ai
n"Web2.
0:Concept
ualFoundat
i
onsand
Mar
ket
i
ngI
ssues"232

17
andl
i
nkt
oresour
ces.
"
34
JasonCast
on,ani
nt
ernetchurchexpert
,pl
acest
he
defi
ni
t
i
onofsoci
almedi
ai
nmi
ni
st
r
ycont
extas"soci
almedi
ami
ni
st
ryi
ssi
mpl
e
i
nt
eract
i
oncommuni
cat
i
onr
eachi
ngt
hemasses,whi
chi
sanot
herpartoft
he
GreatCommi
ssi
on.
"
35
Davi
d Hansen,a chur
ch medi
a bl
ogger,says "
Soci
almedi
a i
s bot
h a
st
et
hoscope,magni
fyi
ng yourabi
l
i
t
y t
o l
i
st
en t
o yourcongregat
i
on and
communi
t
y,andamegaphone,magni
f
yi
ngyourabi
l
i
t
yt
oprocl
ai
m God'
sword
t
oyourcommuni
t
y.
"
36
Hansenemphasi
sest
hatsoci
almedi
ai
sat
oolt
he
churchcanuset
oknow andhearwhatt
hei
rcongregat
i
onsaresayi
ngi
nt
he
form offeedbacksandfurt
herbeat
oolf
orcommuni
cat
i
ngt
hewordofGod.
37
Andr
easKapl
anandMi
chaelHaenl
ei
n,i
nt
hei
rwordsst
at
et
hatsoci
almedi
ai
s
"
a gr
oup ofI
nt
er
net
-
based appl
i
cat
i
ons t
hatbui
l
d on t
he i
deol
ogi
caland
t
echnol
ogi
calfoundat
i
onsofWeb2.
0t
hatal
l
owst
hecreat
i
onandexchangeof
user
-
gener
at
edcont
ent
.
"
38
"Soci
almedi
ai
smedi
aforsoci
ali
nt
eract
i
onasa
super
setbeyondsoci
alcommuni
cat
i
on.
"
39
Tri
shaDower
ahBar
uahasser
t
st
hatsoci
almedi
at
akesonmanydi
fferentforms
34
St
evenl
.Wal
dschmi
dt"TheUseofFacebooki
nCongr
egat
i
onalEvangel
i
sm:APr
act
i
calPl
an"
(
Mast
erofDi
vi
ni
t
ydi
ss.
,
Wi
sconsi
nLut
heranSemi
nar
y,2014)
,6-
41.
ht
t
ps:
//www.
googl
e.
com.
gh/
ur
l
?sa=t
&r
ct
j
ur
l&esr
c=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=r
j
a&uact
=8&ved=0CB0QFj
AA&url
,(
accessed
June26,2015)
35
Wal
dschmi
dt"TheUseofFacebooki
nCongr
egat
i
onalEvangel
i
sm,
"6.
36
Wal
dschmi
dt"TheUseofFacebooki
nCongr
egat
i
onalEvangel
i
sm,
"6.
37
Wal
dschmi
dt"TheUseofFacebooki
nCongr
egat
i
onalEvangel
i
sm,
"6.
38
Tr
i
shaDowerahBaruah,"Eff
ect
i
venessofSoci
alMedi
aasat
oolofcommuni
cat
i
onandi
t
s
pot
ent
i
alf
ort
echnol
ogyenabl
edconnect
i
ons:Ami
cr
o-
l
evelst
udy,
"
I
nternati
onalJournalof
Sci
enti
fi
candResearchPubl
i
cati
ons
2,no.5,(
May2012)
:2-
3,ht
t
p:
//www.
i
j
srp.
or
g/resear
ch
_paper
_may2012/i
j
srp-
may-
2012-
24.
pdf
,(
accessedJune,15,2015)
39
Bar
uah,"Ef
f
ect
i
venessofSoci
alMedi
a,
"2.

18
suchas"magazi
nes,i
nt
er
netf
or
ums,webl
ogs,soci
albl
ogs,mi
crobl
oggi
ng,
wi
ki
s, podcast
s, phot
ographs or pi
ct
ures, vi
deo, rat
i
ng and soci
al
bookmar
ki
ng.
"
40
However,t
her
ear
esi
xt
ypesofsoci
almedi
apl
at
forms.These
ar
esoci
alnet
worki
ngsi
t
es,bookmaki
ngsi
t
es,soci
alnewssi
t
es,medi
ashari
ng
si
t
es,mi
crobl
oggi
ngandbl
ogcomment
sandf
orumssi
t
es.
41
Soci
alnet
worki
ngsi
t
esar
et
hesoci
almedi
asi
t
est
hatal
l
owuserst
oconnect
andsharewi
t
hpeopl
eoft
hesamei
nt
erest
s.Exampl
esareFacebook,Googl
e
pl
usandTwi
t
t
er
.Al
so,bookmarki
ngsi
t
es"al
l
ow userst
osaveandorgani
ze
l
i
nkst
oanynumberofonl
i
ner
esour
cesandwebsi
t
es.Akeyfeat
ureoft
hese
servi
cesi
st
heabi
l
i
t
yfort
heusert
o"t
ag"l
i
nks,whi
chmaket
hem easi
ert
o
search"
42
and share f
ol
l
ower
s. An exampl
e i
s St
umbl
eUpon pl
at
form.
Fur
t
her
mor
e,soci
alnewssi
t
esper
mi
tuser
st
opostnewsandnewsl
i
nkst
o
out
si
dear
t
i
cl
es."Userst
henvot
eonsai
di
t
ems,andt
hei
t
emswi
t
ht
hehi
ghest
numberofvot
esar
emostpr
omi
nent
l
ydi
spl
ayed.
"
43
Oneexampl
ei
sReddi
t
.
44
Medi
ashar
i
ngsi
t
es"al
l
ow user
st
oshar
edi
fferentt
ypesofmedi
a,suchas
pi
ct
ur
esandvi
deo.Mostoft
hesesi
t
esal
soof
f
ersoci
alfeat
ures,l
i
ket
heabi
l
i
t
y
t
ocr
eat
eprof
i
l
esandt
heopt
i
onofcomment
i
ngonupl
oadedi
mages.
"
45
An
exampl
ei
sYouTube
46
Mi
cr
obl
oggi
ng"al
l
owsuserst
osubmi
tshortwri
t
t
en
40
Bar
uah,"Ef
f
ect
i
venessofSoci
alMedi
a,
"2.
41
"
Thesi
xt
ypesofsoci
almedi
a,
"Seopr
essor5,ht
t
p:
//seopressor.
com/soci
al
-
medi
amar
ket
i
ng/t
ypes-
of
-
soci
al
-
medi
a/,(
accessedJune,15,2015)
.
42
HalAust
i
n,"Thesi
xt
ypesofsoci
almedi
a,
"
Seopressor5
,ht
t
p:
//seopressor.
com/soci
al
-
medi
a
mar
ket
i
ng/t
ypes-
of
-
soci
al
-
medi
a/,(
accessedJune,15,2015)
.
43
Aust
i
n,"Thesi
xt
ypesofsoci
almedi
a,
"
44
Aust
i
n,"Thesi
xt
ypesofsoci
almedi
a,
"
45
Aust
i
n,"Thesi
xt
ypesofsoci
almedi
a,
"
46
Aust
i
n,"Thesi
xt
ypesofsoci
almedi
a,
"

19
ent
r
i
es,whi
chcani
ncl
udel
i
nkst
opr
oductandservi
cesi
t
es,aswel
lasl
i
nkst
o
ot
hersoci
almedi
asi
t
es.
"UseofTwi
t
t
eri
sanexampl
e.
Bl
og comment
s and for
ums ar
e si
t
es t
hat"al
l
ow users t
o engage i
n
conversat
i
ons by post
i
ng and r
espondi
ng t
o communi
t
y messages.
47
An
exampl
ei
sBl
ogger.
48
Ant
honyMayfi
el
dar
guest
hatt
her
ear
ef
i
vef
undament
alcharact
eri
st
i
cst
hatal
l
soci
al medi
a pl
at
f
orms have i
n common. They are part
i
ci
pat
i
on,
conversat
i
onal
i
t
y,connect
edness,communi
t
yandopenness.
49
Mayfi
el
dexpl
ai
nst
hatpar
t
i
ci
pat
i
oni
st
hear
chi
t
ectofbri
ngi
ngoutt
hei
nt
erest
ofsendersandrecei
versonsoci
almedi
awhi
chpr
omot
ei
nt
eract
i
onamong
user
s.
50
ShawnDr
ur
yar
guedt
hat"soci
almedi
aal
l
ow peopl
et
oshareand
engagewi
t
heachot
hersot
hatt
heyenabl
econt
entshar
edt
obecomemore
democr
at
i
zed t
han ever bef
or
e" and t
hat i
s known as part
i
ci
pat
i
on.
51
Conver
sat
i
onal
i
t
ywhi
chcomesf
rom t
hewor
d`
conversat
i
on'i
nsoci
almedi
a
al
l
owsat
wo-
waycommuni
cat
i
on,unl
i
ket
het
r
adi
t
i
onalmedi
al
i
kenewspapers
whi
chusual
l
yi
saone-
waycommuni
cat
i
on.
52
Connect
edness i
s def
i
ned bySyl
vi
a M.Chan-
Ol
mst
ed,Moonhee Cho,and
47
Aust
i
n,"Thesi
xt
ypesofsoci
almedi
a,
"
48
Aust
i
n,"Thesi
xt
ypesofsoci
almedi
a,
"
49
Syl
vi
aM.Chan-
Ol
mst
ed,MoonheeCho,andSangwonLee,"UserPer
cept
i
onsofSoci
alMedi
a:
ACompar
at
i
veSt
udyofPercei
vedCharact
er
i
st
i
csandUserProfi
l
esbySoci
alMedi
a"
Onl
i
ne
JournalofCommuni
cati
onandMedi
aTechnol
ogi
es
3,no.
4(
Oct
ober­2013)
:154-55,
ht
t
p:
//www.
oj
cmt
.
net
/ar
t
i
cl
es/34/349.
pdf
,(
accessedJune15,2015)
50
Chan-
Ol
mst
ed,ChoandLee,"UserPercept
i
onsofSoci
alMedi
a,
"154.
51
Chan-
Ol
mst
ed,ChoandLee,"UserPercept
i
onsofSoci
alMedi
a,
"154.
52
Chan-
Ol
mst
ed,ChoandLee,"UserPercept
i
onsofSoci
alMedi
a,
"154.

20
SangwonLeeast
he"i
nt
er
per
sonal
,communi
t
yandgeneralsoci
alt
i
es,
"
53
whi
ch
exi
stamongusersofsoci
almedi
a.How wel
loneget
sconnect
edonsoci
al
medi
ai
sdependentont
het
echnol
ogi
calknowhow oft
heuserandi
ndi
vi
dual
behavi
oralpat
t
ern(
i
.
e.whet
hersoci
abl
eornotsoci
abl
e)
.
54
Mayfi
el
d descr
i
pt
i
on of communi
t
y on soci
almedi
a i
s i
n respect of
organi
zat
i
onsandgroupswhi
char
eeasi
l
yandoffi
ci
al
l
ycreat
edonsoci
al
medi
a pl
at
for
ms.Creat
i
on ofor
gani
zat
i
onalpl
at
forms on soci
almedi
a i
s
di
st
i
nctfrom t
he`
physi
cal
'wor
l
d.Hesaysi
ti
seasi
ert
ocreat
egroupsor
organi
zat
i
onsonsoci
almedi
apl
at
f
or
ms.
55
Fi
nal
l
y,opennessi
showf
l
exi
bl
ei
ndi
vi
dualpr
ofi
l
e,phot
osandmessagescanbe
shar
edbet
weenandamongusers(
oft
hesamei
nt
erestornot
)onsoci
almedi
a.
Soci
almedi
aopennessal
l
owsever
ybodycl
oseandf
art
oj
oi
nandcomment
f
r
eel
yoni
ssueswhet
herper
sonal
l
yr
el
at
edornotrel
at
ed.
56
Li
keever
yot
herphenomenon,soci
almedi
aof
f
ersomebenef
i
t
sanddrawbacks.
AngelTesorer
oasser
t
st
hatsoci
almedi
aof
f
ert
hefol
l
owi
ngbenefi
t
s:Agood
t
oolt
ouset
opubl
i
ci
sewor
k,gr
oupsar
eeasi
l
yformed,foraareorgani
zedt
o
shar
ei
deasfr
om var
i
ouspar
t
sofdi
f
f
er
entcount
ri
es,peopl
esharet
hei
rdeep
t
hought
sandpar
t
i
ci
pat
emor
eeasi
l
yt
hanf
acet
ofacecommuni
cat
i
on.I
tcost
s
ver
yl
i
t
t
l
emoneyt
o setup onl
i
ne,demogr
aphi
ci
nformat
i
on can beeasi
l
y
ascer
t
ai
ned,br
eakdownofbar
r
i
er
sf
orpeopl
ewhowantt
ost
ayi
nt
ouchare
53
Chan-
Ol
mst
ed,ChoandLee,"UserPercept
i
onsofSoci
alMedi
a,
"155.
54
Chan-
Ol
mst
ed,ChoandLee,"UserPer
cept
i
onsofSoci
alMedi
a,
"155.
55
Chan-
Ol
mst
ed,ChoandLee,"UserPer
cept
i
onsofSoci
alMedi
a,
"155.
56
Chan-
Ol
mst
ed,ChoandLee,"UserPer
cept
i
onsofSoci
alMedi
a,
"156.

21
achi
evedandveri
t
i
esofpeopl
ewi
t
hdi
f
f
er
entcul
t
uresmeett
osoci
al
i
zeand
l
earnfrom eachot
her.
57
Tesoreroemphasi
set
hedr
awbacksofsoci
almedi
aas:t
heri
skofi
dent
i
t
yt
heft
andf
raud,messagehul
ki
ngformi
sr
epresent
at
i
on,userdrop-
outmaynotbe
easi
l
y i
dent
i
f
i
ed,
58
and non verbalcues oract
i
ons cannotbe st
udi
ed i
n
communi
cat
i
on.
From Tesorer
osoci
almedi
ahaveamorebenefi
t
st
handrawbacksi
ni
t
suses.
Thereforeonecanasser
tt
hatsoci
almedi
apl
at
f
ormsgi
veopport
uni
t
yforsoci
al
net
worki
ngforchur
ches,past
ors,busi
nessorgani
zat
i
on,andeducat
i
oni
stt
o
bui
l
dabrandt
hatcanpromot
et
hei
robj
ect
i
ves.
1.
7.
2Soci
alMedi
aandChri
st
i
anEvangel
i
sm.
Just
i
nWi
sedi
scussest
hehi
st
or
i
calcont
r
i
but
i
onofmedi
at
ot
hereformat
i
onof
t
he Prot
est
antchur
ches l
ed byMar
t
i
n Lut
her.Wi
se i
ndi
cat
ed t
hat
,Lut
her
t
r
ansl
at
ed t
he "Lut
her
"Bi
bl
e and senti
tt
hrough t
he cut
t
i
ng edge soci
al
t
echnol
ogyofhi
sday:t
hepr
i
nt
i
ngpr
ess,maki
ngLut
herdecl
ar
et
hepri
nt
i
ng
pr
essas"hi
ghestactofGod'
sgr
ace".Wi
sesai
d,t
hechurchi
nt
hedi
gi
t
alage
57
AngelTesorero,ed.HyaGat
dul
a,"Char
act
er
i
st
i
csofSoci
alMedi
a,
"
Homeservi
ce:the
busi
nesssoci
alresourceyouneedtouseatworkBl
og,
May13,201311:
19AM,ht
t
p:
//home
of
ser
vi
ce.
com/bl
ogs/21/t
he-
char
act
er
i
st
i
cs-
of
-
soci
al
-
medi
a/#.
Vj
DXJ-
z6151,
(
accessedonJune
27,2015)
58
AngelTesorero,"Charact
er
i
st
i
csofSoci
alMedi
a"

22
necessari
l
yr
equi
r
espeopl
eregar
dedasheret
i
csasMart
i
nLut
her,whowoul
d
havei
nt
hi
sageusedt
heent
i
r
esoci
almedi
amedi
um t
ospreadt
heGospelof
JesusChr
i
st
.
59
KwabenaJ.Asamoah-
Gyadudi
scusses,"Getont
heI
nt
ernet
!
"Sayst
heLORD:
Rel
i
gi
on,Cyber
spaceandChr
i
st
i
ani
t
yi
nCont
emporaryAfri
ca.
"Heconcl
udes
t
hat"wehaveseent
hatt
heuseoft
heI
nt
ernetasat
oolforevangel
i
sm coul
d
offerpeopl
et
heopport
uni
t
yt
obebor
nagai
nwi
t
houtbei
ngphysi
cal
l
ypresentat
t
hel
ocat
i
onofar
el
i
gi
ousser
vi
ce.
"Heasser
t
st
hat
,t
el
evangel
i
st
si
nAfri
cause
t
hemedi
ai
nl
eadi
ngpeopl
et
oChr
i
stbyaski
ngunbel
i
everst
osi
mpl
ysayt
he
si
nner'
sprayerandj
oi
ni
ngaBi
bl
e-
bel
i
evi
ngchurchfordi
rect
i
onandcounsel
.
Hesayst
hedawnoft
hei
nt
er
nethasmadet
hi
sform ofevangel
i
sm possi
bl
e.
"On t
heweb pagesofal
lt
hePent
ecost
al
/chari
smat
i
cchurchest
herear
e
summari
sedmessagesofwhati
tmeanst
or
ecei
veChri
st
,howt
odoi
tandt
hen
asi
nner
'
sprayert
or
epeat
.
"Al
so,"TheI
nt
er
nethasal
sobeent
urnedi
nt
oa
vi
r
t
uall
ocat
i
onf
orheal
i
ngandevangel
i
sm crusadest
hroughwhi
chpeopl
e
coul
dcomet
oChr
i
stt
hroughComput
erMedi
at
edCommuni
cat
i
on.
"
60
"TheSoci
alMedi
aGospel
:Shar
i
ngt
heGoodNewsi
nNew Ways,
"abook
wr
i
t
t
enbyMer
edi
t
hGoul
d.AmyAnder
sonwhor
evi
ewedt
hebooki
ndi
cat
est
hat
,
t
ousesoci
almedi
a,Goul
dr
ecommendsi
tasasetoft
ool
st
hatcanbea
st
et
hoscope (
t
o magni
f
y t
he abi
l
i
t
y t
o l
i
st
en t
o a congregat
i
on)and a
59
Wi
se,
TheSoci
alchurch:
,26-
27
60
KwabenaJ.Asamoah-
Gyadu,"Getont
heI
nt
er
net
!
"Sayst
heLORD:Rel
i
gi
on,Cyber
spaceand
Chri
st
i
ani
t
yi
nCont
emporaryAf
r
i
ca,
"
Studi
esi
nWorl
dChri
sti
ani
ty
13,no.3(
December2007)
:
225-
242.(
accessedApr
i
l17,2015)

23
megaphone(
t
omagni
fyt
heabi
l
i
t
yt
opr
ocl
ai
m God'
sword)
.Goul
dpresent
sa
comprehensi
veworkt
hatpr
omi
sest
oser
veasamast
erpl
anforanychurchor
rel
i
gi
ousorgani
zat
i
on wi
shi
ng t
o usesoci
almedi
a.Whi
l
eGoul
d doesnot
speci
fyexact
l
ywhatshoul
dbecont
ai
nedi
nsoci
almedi
apost
s,shedoesoffer
gui
del
i
nesfort
het
ypi
calki
ndsofcont
entcommuni
cat
edbychurchesandhow
t
hatcont
entcanbeeff
i
ci
ent
l
ybroadcastandmanagedusi
ngsoci
almedi
a.
61
"Mega-
ChurchPast
orTwi
t
t
erAct
i
vi
t
y:AnAnal
ysi
sofRi
ckWarrenandAndy
St
anl
ey,t
woofAmer
i
ca'
sSoci
alPast
ors,
"wasanal
yzedbySusanCodone.Her
anal
ysesoft
heTwi
t
t
eract
i
vi
t
yoft
het
wopast
orssuggest
ednewcat
egori
esor
waysformi
ni
st
r
yl
eader
s,whousesoci
almedi
a.Codone,i
ndi
cat
est
hat
,bot
h
men seen t
o use Twi
t
t
erpr
i
mar
i
l
y f
ormi
ni
st
ry promot
i
on and random
comment
s.Shesayst
hat
,t
hecombi
nedTwi
t
t
eract
i
vi
t
yofbot
hpast
orsare
dr
amat
i
cal
l
yr
ecastasencour
agement
,t
eachi
ngandmarket
i
ngmi
ni
st
rywhi
ch
f
al
l
smorecl
osel
yi
nl
i
newi
t
ht
hei
rst
at
edr
ol
esasevangel
i
call
eaderofmega-
chur
chesi
nt
heUni
t
edSt
at
es.
62
DannyHi
ndman,i
nr
evi
ewi
ngofEl
i
zabet
hDr
escher'
sbook,"TweetI
fYou[
Heart
]
Jesus:Pract
i
ci
ngChur
chi
nt
heDi
gi
t
alReformat
i
on
.
"assert
st
hatDrescher,
wr
i
t
esf
r
om amai
nl
i
nechur
chper
spect
i
veandconcl
udedt
hatt
hechanges
accompanyi
ngi
ncreaseduseofsoci
almedi
ar
epr
esentaradi
caldepar
t
ur
efrom
61
AmyAnder
son,"Revi
ewofTheSoci
alMedi
aGospel
:Shari
ngt
heGoodNewsi
nNew
Ways.
"Mer
edi
t
hGoul
d,
JournalofRel
i
gi
on,Medi
aandDi
gi
talCul
ture
3,no.
3(
Apr
i
l2014)
:1-
5.
(
accessedFebr
uary15,2015)
62
SusanCodone,"Megachur
chPast
orTwi
t
t
erAct
i
vi
t
y:AnAnal
ysi
sofRi
ckWarrenandAndy
St
anl
ey,t
woofAmer
i
ca'
sSoci
alPast
or
s",
JournalofRel
i
gi
on,Medi
aandDi
gi
talCul
ture
3,no.2
(
August2014)1-
32,ht
t
p:
//j
r
mdc.
com/paper
s-
ar
chi
ve/vol
ume-
3-
i
ssue-
2-
august
-
2014/,
(
accessedFebr
uary15,2015)

24
whathasgonebef
or
el
i
ket
hedaysoft
herefor
mat
i
on.Thesechangesmarkt
he
earl
yst
agesofaref
ormat
i
onoft
heChur
chforwhi
chshecal
l
sa`
di
gi
t
al
reformat
i
on
'
.
Al
t
hought
hemai
nl
i
nechur
cheswereneverabl
et
ot
akeadvant
age
oft
hepowerofbroadcast
i
ng,asevangel
i
calpreachersdi
d,Drescherbel
i
eves
t
hat
,soci
almedi
ahol
dmuchpr
omi
sef
ormai
nl
i
nechurches.
63
1.
8Si
gni
fi
canceoft
heSt
udy
Thet
radi
t
i
onalmedi
al
i
ker
adi
oandt
el
evi
si
onovert
heyearshavebeenusedby
t
el
evangel
i
st
si
npreachi
ngt
heGospel
.Atpr
esent
,acommonobservat
i
oni
st
he
useofsoci
almedi
abysomepast
or
sandt
el
evangel
i
st
s.Thest
udyai
msat
cont
r
i
but
i
ngt
ot
heknowl
edgeonhowsoci
almedi
acanbeusedforevangel
i
sm
andi
mpor
t
ant
l
yt
her
ol
esoci
almedi
acanpl
ayi
nf
ul
fi
l
l
i
ngt
heGr
eatCommi
ssi
on.
Al
so,t
hest
udydevel
opedapl
anorgui
del
i
nef
orhel
pi
ngpast
orsoronl
i
ne
evangel
i
st
st
oai
di
nsoci
almedi
aevangel
i
sm.Fi
nal
l
y,t
hest
udywi
l
lserveasa
r
esourcemat
er
i
alf
orf
urt
herr
esear
chonsoci
almedi
aandChri
st
i
anevangel
i
sm
i
nt
heGhanacont
extandt
hewor
l
datl
ar
ge.
1.
9Organi
zat
i
onsofChapt
ers
Thi
swor
kwasdi
vi
dedi
nt
of
i
vechapt
er
s.
63
DannyHi
ndman,r
evi
ewofTweetI
fYouHear
tJesus:Pr
act
i
ci
ngChur
chi
nt
heDi
gi
t
al
Reformat
i
on,El
i
sabet
hDr
escher
,
SecoundNatureJournalRevi
ew
(
June2014)
:190,
secondnat
ur
ej
ournal
.
com/El
i
zabet
h-
dr
escher
s-
t
weet
-
i
f-
you-
heart
-
Jesus-
a-
r
evi
ew/,(
accessed
Mar
ch1,2015)

25
Chapt
eroneconsi
st
sofbackgr
ound of t
hest
udy,st
at
ementofpr
obl
em,
resear
chquest
i
ons,ai
msandobj
ect
i
vesoft
hest
udy,met
hodol
ogy,l
i
t
erat
ure
revi
ew,si
gni
fi
canceofst
udyandor
gani
zat
i
onofchapt
ers.
Chapt
ert
woconsi
deredt
heemergenceofFacebookandi
t
sfeat
ures,t
heusage
ofFacebookandi
t
spot
ent
i
alforevangel
i
smandt
heuseofFacebooki
nGhana.
Chapt
ert
hreel
ookedatt
heuseofFacebookbyGhanai
anpast
orsi
nChri
st
i
ani
t
y.
Past
ors and Facebooki
n t
he Ghanai
an cont
extas wel
las t
he Facebook
act
i
vi
t
i
esofGhanai
anpast
orswasexami
ned.
Chapt
erf
ourf
ocusedont
heanal
ysi
sofdat
acol
l
ect
edandt
hecont
ri
but
i
ons
t
hatsoci
almedi
ahavemadet
oevangel
i
sm andt
heKi
ngdom ofGodatl
arge.
Chapt
erfi
ve di
scussed t
he summar
y off
i
ndi
ngs,generalconcl
usi
on and
r
ecommendat
i
onst
ot
hewor
k.
CHAPTERTWO
THEEMERGENCEOFFACEBOOKANDI
TSPOTENTI
ALUSAGEFOR
EVAGELI
SM I
NCHRI
STI
ANI
TY
2.
1I
nt
roduct
i
on
I
nchapt
erone,soci
almedi
awasexami
nedconsi
deri
ngwhati
ti
s,t
het
ypes,
char
act
er
i
st
i
cs,benef
i
t
sanddr
awbacks.Thi
schapt
erdi
scussesabri
efhi
st
ory

26
ofFacebookandi
t
sdevel
opmenti
nt
ot
hebi
ggestsoci
almedi
apl
at
form t
oday.
Thechapt
eranal
yzesFacebookand i
t
spot
ent
i
alforevangel
i
sm and how
Ghanai
anshaveembr
acedFacebookareal
soexami
ned.
2.
2TheEmergenceofFacebook
Att
heageof23,MarkZucker
ber
gst
udyi
ngpsychol
ogyatHarvardUni
versi
t
y
foundedFacebook.Asadevot
edcomput
erprogrammer
,hehaddevel
oped
ot
hersoci
alnet
wor
ki
ngsi
t
essuchasCour
semat
chandFacemashforhi
s
fol
l
owst
udent
s.
64
`
TheFacebook'wast
heori
gi
nalnamewheni
twasl
aunched
byZuckerber
gi
nFebruar
y2004.Thenameori
gi
nat
edassheet
sofpaper
di
st
r
i
but
ed t
o fr
esh st
udent
s,cont
i
nui
ng st
udent
s and st
affofHarvard
Uni
ver
si
t
yt
omakesuggest
i
onandcont
r
i
but
et
oi
t
sdevel
opment
.I
tt
ook24
hour
sf
orabout1,
200Har
var
dst
udent
st
osi
gnupandwi
t
hi
namont
hoverhal
f
oft
heunder
gr
aduat
epopul
at
i
onhadpr
of
i
l
eson`
TheFacebook'
.
65
Overt
i
mei
t
wasext
endedt
oBost
onUni
versi
t
yandi
t
sbr
anches,t
heI
vyLeagueandi
ndue
cour
seal
luni
ver
si
t
i
esi
nt
heUni
t
edSt
at
egoti
nvol
ved.I
nt
hemont
hofAugust
2005t
henamechangedt
oFacebook.
com af
t
ert
headdresswaspurchasedfor
$200,
000
66
I
nSept
ember2005,hi
ghschool
sst
udent
si
nt
heUni
t
edSt
at
escoul
d
si
gnupt
oFacebook.
com,t
heni
nNovemberi
tspr
eadt
ot
heUni
t
edKi
ngdom
64
Sar
ahPhi
l
l
i
ps,"ABr
i
efHi
st
or
yofFacebook,
"
TheGuardi
an
,Lastmodi
fi
edJul
y27,2007,
ht
t
p:
//www.
Theguar
di
an.
com/t
echnol
ogy/2007/j
ul
/25/medi
a.
newmedi
a,(
accessedJune28,
2015)
.
65
Phi
l
l
i
ps,"ABri
efHi
st
or
yofFacebook,
"
66
Phi
l
l
i
ps,"ABri
efHi
st
or
yofFacebook,
"

27
school
s.
67
I
nt
hemont
hofSept
ember2006Facebookwasext
endedbeyondeducat
i
onal
i
nst
i
t
ut
i
onst
oanyonewi
t
haval
i
dregi
st
er
edemai
laddress.
2.
3TheUseofFacebooki
nChri
st
i
ani
t
yandi
t
sPot
ent
i
alforEvangel
i
sm
St
evenI
.Wal
dschmi
dtasser
t
st
hatsomeChr
i
st
i
anl
eadersareoft
henot
i
ont
hat
t
heuseofsoci
almedi
ai
sawast
eoft
i
meandi
ti
sforyoungpeopl
e.
68
However,
i
nt
heaccount
sofLukei
nAct
s1:
8,Chr
i
st
i
ansaret
opreacht
heGospelofJesus
Chri
stunt
ot
heendsoft
heeart
h.Thati
s,t
heGospelmustreachal
lpeopl
ei
n
everyareaoft
hewor
l
d.
Theref
or
eJer
odcl
ar
kaguesi
nhi
sbook`
FacebookforChurches,
'
Whi
l
e t
here are st
i
l
lpl
ent
y ofchur
ches debat
i
ng
whet
herornott
heyshoul
duseFacebook,800mi
l
l
i
on
peopl
ear
eal
r
eadyt
her
e--i
ncl
udi
ngpeopl
efrom your
chur
ch.Youdon'
topt
-
i
nt
ousi
ngi
tanymore.Youonl
y
opt
-
out
.Andi
fyoudeci
det
oi
gnor
eFacebook,you'
re
mi
ssi
ngoutonami
ni
st
r
yoppor
t
uni
t
y.Facebookt
akes
t
i
meandi
tmaynotbeyourf
avor
i
t
et
hi
ngi
nt
heworl
d,
buti
t
'
saval
uabl
et
oolf
orcommuni
cat
i
ngwi
t
hyour
membersandr
eachi
ngoutt
ot
hei
rf
r
i
ends.
69
Asest
abl
i
shedear
l
i
erbyBai
nbr
i
dge,t
her
ei
saworl
doft
hevi
rt
ualwhi
chal
l
soci
almedi
apl
atf
ormsbel
ong.Chri
st
i
ansshoul
dnot
et
hati
ft
heGospelshoul
d
bepreachedt
oal
lpeopl
et
hensoci
almedi
acannotbeel
i
mi
nat
edbecause,
Wal
dschmi
dtdecl
ar
es"forbet
t
erorwor
se,soci
almedi
ai
swheret
hepeopl
eare,
"
67
Phi
l
l
i
ps
,
"ABri
ef
Hi
st
or
yofFacebook,
"
68
Wal
dschmi
dt
,"TheUseofFacebooki
nCongr
egat
i
onalEvangel
i
s,
"6.
69
Jer
odCl
ar
k,
FacebookforChurches
[
eBookon-
l
i
ne](
ChurchJui
ce/ReFr
ame
Medi
a,2012)
,ht
t
p:
//sq.
advent
i
st
.
or
g.
au/upl
oaded_asset
s/401960,(
accessedJune27,2015)
,3

28
i
nt
he21
st
cent
uryandwher
evert
hepeopl
eare,Chri
st
i
ansarecal
l
edt
oprocl
ai
m
t
hegospel
.
70
Ri
chard Vosko asset
s,"The pr
i
mar
ypur
pose ofusi
ng soci
almedi
a i
s t
o
est
abl
i
shandmai
nt
ai
nrel
at
i
onshi
ps,t
oconnectwi
t
handst
ayconnect
edwi
t
h
membersoft
hecongr
egat
i
on.Theaddedfeat
urei
st
hepossi
bi
l
i
t
yofat
t
ract
i
ng
someonewhoi
ssear
chi
ngf
ornew spi
ri
t
ualaffi
l
i
at
i
on.
"Voskoi
ndi
cat
est
hat
,
t
her
earepeopl
ewhogot
ot
hecommuni
t
yofsoci
almedi
at
osearchforanew
spi
ri
t
ualaff
i
l
i
at
i
onandt
hechur
chmustt
akeadvant
ageoft
hatt
oenrol
lsuch
peopl
ei
nt
ot
heKi
ngdom ofGod.
71
I
nChri
st
i
ani
t
yt
oday,mostt
el
evangel
i
st
sandpast
orswhohaveusedt
hemass
medi
asuchast
her
adi
oandt
el
evi
si
ont
opr
eacht
hegospelt
oi
mpactt
heworl
d
ar
eseenonsoci
almedi
aespeci
al
l
yFacebookpost
i
ngeveryday.Past
orssuch
asBi
l
l
yGr
aham
72
,BennyHi
nn
73
,ThomasD.Jakes
74
,Kennet
hCopel
and
75
,Mor
ri
s
Cer
ul
l
o
76
,Juani
t
aBynum
77
,andJoelOst
een
78
knownont
el
evi
si
onandradi
oi
n
mostpar
toft
hewor
l
darenowusi
ngFacebook.Bi
l
l
yGraham asofSept
ember
70
Wal
dschmi
dt
,"TheUseofFacebooki
nCongr
egat
i
onalEvangel
i
sm:APract
i
calPl
a,
n"6
71
Wal
dschmi
dt
,"TheUseofFacebooki
nCongr
egat
i
onalEvangel
i
sm:APract
i
calPl
an,
"16
72
Bi
l
l
yGraham,offi
ci
alFacebokPage,ht
t
ps:
//www.
f
acebook.
com/Rever
endBi
l
l
yGr
aham,
(
accessedAugust5,2015)
73
BennyHi
nn,of
f
i
ci
alFacebookPage,ht
t
ps:
//www.
f
acebook.
com/BennyHi
nnMi
ni
st
ri
es,
(
accessedAugust5,2015)
74
T.D.Jakes,of
fi
ci
alFacebookPage,ht
t
ps:
//www.
f
acebook.
com/bi
shopj
akes,(
accessed
August5,2015)
75
Kennet
hCopel
and,of
fi
ci
alFacebookPage,ht
t
ps:
//www.
f
acebook.
com/Copel
andNet
work,
(
accessedAugust5,2015)
76
Morr
i
sCerul
l
o,of
f
i
ci
alFacebookPage,ht
t
ps:
//www.
f
acebook.
com/of
f
i
ci
al
mor
ri
scer
ul
l
o,
(
accessedAugust5,2015)
77
Juani
t
a-
Bynum,of
f
i
ci
alFacebookPage,ht
t
ps:
//www.
f
acebook.
com/Ambassador
-
Dr-
Juani
t
a-
Bynum-
952436644796537/t
i
mel
i
ne/,(
accessedAugust5,2015)
78
JoelOst
een,of
f
i
ci
alFacebookPage,ht
t
ps:
//www.
f
acebook.
com/Joel
Ost
een,(
accessed
August5,2015)

29
13
t
h
,2015,had2,
773,
866user
swhol
i
kedhi
sFacebookpage;JoelOst
eenasat
t
hesamedat
ehad11,
655,
487f
answhol
i
kedhi
spage
79
.Thi
si
ndi
cat
est
hat
,
anyt
i
meJoelOst
eenandhi
smi
ni
st
r
ymakeapostaboutJesusover11mi
l
l
i
on
peopl
earel
i
kel
yt
or
eadaboutHi
m.Al
so,user
swhoarefri
endsoft
hese11
mi
l
l
i
onpeopl
ehavet
hechanceofr
eadi
ngaboutJesusaswel
l
.
Not
wi
t
hst
andi
ng,PopeFrancest
heheadoft
heRomanCat
hol
i
cChurchi
snot
of
f
i
ci
al
l
yonFacebooki
r
r
espect
i
veoft
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ci
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sonTwi
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eranot
hersoci
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ant
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80
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n r
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ven byCl
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o Mar
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l
it
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lofSoci
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cat
i
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heVat
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st
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ekeepi
ng
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hePopeoutofFacebookoverconcer
nsaboutabusi
vecomment
s.However
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i
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tofsoci
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eacht
heGospel
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ancescal
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omGod"
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t
her
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chbi
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ci
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kedby12,
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13
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h
,2015.
82
I
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veoft
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si
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al
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yFacebooki
sbei
ngusedbypast
orssuchas
Ar
chbi
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col
as Duncan-
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l
l
i
ams,Past
orMensa Ot
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l
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shop Charl
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79
Bi
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l
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aham,offi
ci
alFacebookPagel
i
ke,ht
t
ps:
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aham
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kes,(
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80
"Whyt
hePopei
sonTwi
t
t
erButnotFacebook"QUARTZ,
81
"Whyt
hePopei
sonTwi
t
t
erButnotFacebook"QUARTZ,
82
Just
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nWel
by,TheArchbi
shopofCant
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yof
f
i
ci
alFacebookPage,ht
t
ps:
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erbur
y,(
accessedAugust5,2015)

30
Agyi
nAsare,Bi
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s.Al
lt
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t
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ves
ani
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cat
i
ont
hatsoci
almedi
ai
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or
ceandat
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obeusedi
nadvanci
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he
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ssi
on.
2.
4HowGhanai
anshaveembracedFacebook
Accordi
ngt
oDr
eamovalwebsi
t
e,Al
exa
83
r
anksFacebookast
hel
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t
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si
t
edbyGhanai
ansonl
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nei
n2011.
84
Facebookadvert
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si
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ool
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t
hesameyearassert
edt
hatt
her
eare1,
096,
600Ghanai
anusersonFacebook.
85
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nt
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dSt
at
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st
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cRepor
tshowst
hatasatMarch31
st
2012,Ghanai
an
subscri
bersonFacebookwer
e1,
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560peopl
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085,
501represent
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ng
55%ofi
nt
er
netuser
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86
Amongt
hemobi
l
ei
nt
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si
n2015,Facebookwasrankedt
hemostused
soci
almedi
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at
f
or
m i
n Ghana wi
t
h 94.
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l
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t
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,Googl
e+(
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her
mor
e,Facebookr
anksf
i
r
sti
n Ghana among t
heuser
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83
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ct
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equencyofvi
si
t
sonvar
i
ousWebsi
t
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84
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a:Justf
orFunorser
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ousbusi
ness,
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ember16,
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t
p:
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onRepor
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ps:
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alMedi
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cs i
n Ghana"St
at
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ht
t
ps:
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31
4.
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l
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r1.
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heremai
ni
ngsoci
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formshol
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88
From t
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bersofFacebooki
nGhana
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ncreaseever
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.Chri
st
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ansi
nGhanashoul
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mat
et
hepowerof
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dal
soconsi
deri
tamongt
het
ool
sforevangel
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sm.
2.
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on
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nt
he21
st
cent
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age,peopl
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om al
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89
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chcanbr
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egat
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rom di
st
antl
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ons.Facebookbreaksbar
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88
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kUsageSt
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com,ht
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ps:
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/21587-
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89
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dt
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32
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I
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henextsect
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l
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scusst
heusageof
FacebookbyGhanai
anpast
ors.
CHAPTERTHREE
THEUSEOFFACEBOOKBYGHANAI
ANPASTORS
3.
1I
nt
roduct
i
on
Thepr
evi
ouschapt
erdi
scussedt
heemer
genceofFacebookandi
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spot
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orevangel
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sm i
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33
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herused
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nhi
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nest
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eragai
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ect
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vesoft
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sst
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egor
i
si
ngorgroupi
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heFacebookact
i
vi
t
i
esof
Ghanai
anpast
ors.
3.
2TheUseofFacebookbyGhanai
anPast
ors
Att
hi
spoi
nti
nhi
st
ory,t
echnol
ogydevi
cessuchasl
apt
ops,smart
phonesand
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abl
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hr
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ncommuni
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92
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l
sSmi
t
hasset
st
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ert
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nt
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netand,speci
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93
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sst
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ementf
rom Smi
t
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hechurchcant
akeadvant
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f
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f
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eatCommi
ssi
on.
I
nGhana,past
or
sar
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ngsoci
almedi
apl
at
formssuchasFacebookand
Twi
t
t
er.Accor
di
ng t
o soci
al
baker
s,
94
st
at
i
st
i
cs on Ghanai
an past
ors usi
ng
Facebooki
ndi
cat
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nt
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yandAugust2015,Past
orMensa
Ot
abi
l
'
sFacebookpagewast
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ast
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owi
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91
Wal
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nCongr
egat
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Wal
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onalEvangel
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sm,
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93
Wal
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nCongr
egat
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onalEvangel
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sm,
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94
Soci
al
baker
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heFacebookMar
ket
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am,Googl
e+andVK.

34
usersever
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95
Soci
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bakersi
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,amongt
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nGhana,asatAugust19,
2015,Ghanai
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Thesepast
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cchurchesi
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Fr
om t
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csabove,amongt
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nGhana,t
he
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ai
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95
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at
i
st
i
cs,
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baker
s,l
astmodi
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edAugust19,2015,
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p:
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acebook/pages/det
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96
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at
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s,

35
butexpect
st
hatt
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i
c,Ort
hodoxandt
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alchurchesi
n
Ghanat
oexpl
or
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eader
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cAr
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oceseofAccraasofSept
ember13,
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kedby9,
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nceMay12,2013.
97
AsatSept
ember
13t
h,2015,Rev.Fr
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mpongManso,l
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100
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o,Bi
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i
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h
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t
ps:
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acebook.
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ember11
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ps:
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ember11
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h
2015)

36
Thedi
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ngst
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sti
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cat
edt
hati
ti
si
mport
antfort
hechurches
andpast
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101
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:271-
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102
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,
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37
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103
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oti
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cat
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n t
he ori
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nspi
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ashandAndrewJ.El
l
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ot"I
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onasaPsychol
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calConst
ruct
,
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Personal
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tyandSoci
alPsychol
ogy
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2003)
:871­89,ht
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ps:
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rochest
er
.
edu
/r
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i
cat
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ons/document
s/2003_Thr
ashEl
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_I
nspi
rat
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onasapsychol
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ruct
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pdf
,(
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y8,2015)
104
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106
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,August21,2015(
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chbi
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2015)
107
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,Sept
ember12,2015(
03:
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38
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