An Overview of Science and Technology in Developing Countries

Innovations of Science


Research Paper (postgraduate), 2017
10 Pages

Excerpt

Content

1. Introduction

2. Historical Background

3. Technology

4. Information Technology

5. Globalization

6. Misuses

7. Conclusion

8. References

Abstract

It is historical fact that all development and cultural development of societies is due to science and innovations. The fact is that with inventions of science, man’s life has become easier and more comfortable. But with this easiness and comforts, negative use of Science has created problems for human beings also. Anyhow, Science has given prediction power to human beings about diseases and seasons also. Similarly, due to science and technology, every one can know about the other who is thousands miles away sitting from this one. And now emails are sent with in the click of the button on the computer which is attached with internet. Therefore, now emails have taken place instead of mails and e-books are being used instead of books. This hardness to softness has changed man because now man can have thousands books in their flash. With these advantages, now money can be easily sent within few seconds. With uncountable innovations of science and technology, there are some problems also arose because of misuse or negligence of side-effects of modern technology. In short, it may be stated that all developments of science and technology may be sustained and all negative impacts may be removed through proper use of scientific knowledge and modern technology.

Key Words: technology, innovations, e-books, diseases, issues

*PhD Scholar, Department of Islamic Studies, B.Z.U. Multan Pakistan

1. Introduction

The Scientific and technological progress is often named as a key mover of mankind’s development. While technology advance is clearly evidenced in everyday life, scientific research is what actually stands behind it. (1)

Anyhow, scientific findings must also be applied at the right scales. The impact of technological interventions on individual people, communities and environment must also be carefully considered. Therefore, cooperation and integration between the social and natural sciences held. The influence of science and technology in peoples is growing. The advantages to humanity are un-matched.

Society needs to adapt in order to provide the wealth that increasing part of the world population is getting used to. Technology will have to play a key role in the process of changing industrial society. Innovation has to be imbedded in social and organizational innovation. (2)

Technology has definitely changed the circumstances of developed countries. So, this must be adopted in developing countries if they want to change the economical and social conditions of their inhabitants. But for this purpose, developing countries must not imitate the ways of developed countries.

2. Historical Background

Only a mere 200 years had passed since the end of the Industrial Revolution. The human race found itself faced with two extremely serious problems: resource/ energy depletion and global warming. These problems arose as a result of human race’s enjoyment of convenient and comfortable lifestyles. A sense of crisis arising from the circumstances has led to various movements over the past several decades. (3)

It is no doubt that science and technology are integral to every aspect of our lives. Science and technology are vital to the realization of human rights and providing easy lifestyle.

In the long history of economic activity prior to nineteenth century, the only available energy capable of replacing human labor was derived from falling water, wind and domesticated animals consuming local vegetation. As a source of heat, humanity relied on burning biomass i.e. woods. The large scale use of fossil fuels with compact chemically stored energy started in the 18th century. Then the use of fossil fuels (gas) has served humanity well during the historically short period of about two centuries having allowed to world population with its supporting agricultural world and industrial productivity. (4)

3. Technology

Beginning of a new century, technologies innovation is the propelling (pushing) force of capitalism. The investment in research and development become increasingly decisive for success of a nation. Innovations are introduced fast and intensively to the markets. (5)

Due to this, now small shops and markets are being changed into larger markets and Multi super stores. This is fact that as this thing is enhanced the tendency to consume. With this tendency, people have facility to consume different household items in a shorter period.

Technologies such as the internet and mobile phones offer considerable promise for affecting the assessment prevention and treatment of and recovery from substance use disorders. Technology based assessments of substances use may provide opportunities for increasing the standardization of assessment procedures and increasing the accuracy of self reports of risk behavior such as HIV risk behavior. (6)

This is fact that people have become closer to each other due to internet and mobile technology. But its negative uses also facilitate the criminals. Therefore it may be said that due to modern innovation world has become just like global village. In the phenomenon of global village, away people has come closer while the closer has become far from heart and eyes because of this modern technology. Besides this, modern innovations of different fields have changed the development into sustainable development. This means that now gaining development is not a problem. The actual problem is to maintain the development for longer periods.

The right technologies to make development sustainable are already available today- the challenge is deploying them in the right way. In this context, the key challenge is to create links between the people ad with the ideas, those working n the ground with the local knowledge of how it might work and the financers to back them.(7)

4. Information Technology

Information technology is the technology used to store, manipulate, distribute or create information. The type of information or data is not important to this definition. The technology is any mechanism capable of processing this data. (8)

This is undeniable fact that you can save hundreds of books in flash or in your mobile or computer. But with this advantage, there are other problems of soft data are as under; firstly virus can disturb your mobile or computer; secondly soft data can be copied easily; thirdly, it may be wrongly deleted. Besides all this, now you are free from picking of sack of books on your shoulders. Now e libraries are kept in pocket through flash or in computer through drive or emails.

The advancement of technology and computer created difficult scenario for the working class, as new technology took over their jobs while the positions that were available, were being shipped overseas for inexpensive labor. The computer made it possible to outsource due to the fact that this technology” shrunk” the world. (9)

Anyhow, with the advancement of information technology, now world has become closer to each other through internet. Now people can easily do their jobs sitting in your homes and can earn money. But with this, hackers are also trying to hack the information or others data. Besides this, now banks have setup ATM for facilitating their clients. Now 24 hours, though ATM cards, you can get money from the banks. With this some times credit cards accounts are also hacked by hackers. But this is not common issue for everyone and every time.

Technology can affect sustainability appositive way by reducing through put and waste and by increasing efficiency and finding alternatives to scarce resources. Environmental benefits are not the sole measure of a technology’s contribution to sustainable development. Appropriateness of scale, use of local resources and equity are important considerations as well. (10)

The classification of a country does not depend on its income but also on other factors that affect how their citizens live, how their economies are integrated into the global system and the expansion and diversification of their export industries. Anyhow, a developed country is one that has a high level of industrial development, basis its economy on technology and manufacturing instead of Agriculture. (11)

Therefore, in the developed countries, their industrial sector is not only developed but their development can be found in every sector of life. Because with the help of innovation technology applied in agriculture, now vegetable and fruit items are stored for longer periods. Besides this, now productivity of fields has been also improved and crops are being gained two times in a year rather than one time.

Due to scientific development, now it has been tried to control and incase of shortage of water, with the help different Gases, through artificial rains shortage of water can be fulfilled. It does not mean that man has controlled over climate and shortage of food stuff. Because still sometimes there are wrong predictions of metrological department can be seen.

Food production may soon be limited by water availability. Agricultural water used is not sustainable in many local around the world for reasons that include soil Stalinizations – ground water over draft and the over allocation of available surface and water supplies. (12)

It is fact that due to use of machines, their smoke, noise and climate problems emerged. But in these problems machines are not responsible but the man is responsible who do nothing to solve these problems.

Climate change and associated global warming are also likely to affect the availability of water in the future. Although, the present climate models are only an approximate tool for estimating future changes. (13)

5. Globalization

In the end of last century, processes of globalization were influenced by several inter-related factors: advanced information and communication technologies, lower transportation costs, corporate strategies oriented towards customer needs, exploitation of technological and organizational advantages and financial flows, etc. As a result, structure of international business has developed intensively during the last decades. (14)

Therefore, it is fact that now due to globalization and due to favor of scientific innovations, consumerism and on line business has been promoted. Now the traits and shortcomings of goods can easily checked.

Thus international business has strong links with scientific and technological advance. Scientific technological progress is related not only with creation, development and manufacturing of products but also with improved business management system supply chain, logistics and international payments. (15)

It is also fact that due to technological development, man has reached in the heights of skies and also reached in lowest surface of oceans. The proof is that satellites stations have been established in the skies while internet systems and fiber and optical wires network is spread under the surfaces of oceans for human beings.

[...]

Excerpt out of 10 pages

Details

Title
An Overview of Science and Technology in Developing Countries
Subtitle
Innovations of Science
Author
Year
2017
Pages
10
Catalog Number
V379624
ISBN (eBook)
9783668568075
ISBN (Book)
9783668568082
File size
528 KB
Language
English
Tags
overview, science, technology, developing, countries, innovations
Quote paper
Tariq Mahmood (Author), 2017, An Overview of Science and Technology in Developing Countries, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/379624

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