Learning and Development Theories and Applications

Ausarbeitung, 2017

6 Seiten


Table of Contents

Learning and Development Theories and Applications
A brief exploration of learning and development theories
Psychoanalytic theories of learning and development

1. Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual development theory
Application of the theory

2. Erickson’s psychosocial theory
Application of the theory
Cognitive learning and development theories
Jean Piaget’s theory of learning and cognitive development
Application of the cognitive learning theory
Social learning theories
Albert Bandura’s social learning theory
Application of Bandura’s social learning theory



Learning and Development Theories and Applications

The process of growth and knowledge acquisition in children is influenced by a number of developmental factors which includes; internal factors like hereditary and maturity, external factors like environmental factors and language acquisition or a combination of both internal and external factors. Psychologists have the different view of learning and developmental theories emanating from their comprehensive research. These theoretical approaches for growth and development touch on specific areas like cognition, moral growth, emotions, and personality among other many fields.

A brief exploration of learning and development theories

Psychologist gives a significant exploration of the process of development in human through the application of developmental theoretical approaches in learning and developments. With a great understanding of how people or children traverse from one step of development to the other and the behavior attached to every stage, developmental and learning theories are developed.

Formally, there was an assumption that young ones where just but a smaller version of the adults but with a growth of different developmental theories the rise for children behavior is turned to the factor that young ones differ from adults and should behave differently. To guide the growth and learning of children, different psychological theories need to be applied. These theories stand in the elucidation made below.

Psychoanalytic theories of learning and development

These theories focus on ego and unconscious mind in learning and develop and include;

1. Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual development theory

Freud focus childhood events and experiences should face in their young ages. Sigmund holds sure that in the stages of development and learning should face desire which failure to satisfy brings about fixations visible at their adult age.

The psychosexual theory has four important stages of desire in which libido energy becomes concentrated in particular are in the body. These stages include oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital stages. The part mentioned the point of desire when a child is a specific stage. For example, at the genital stage, the child has a concern with envy with gender and is mostly concerned with the genital area. At the anal stage, children learn how to use the ablution rather than other means.

The child needs to be well trained at these stages in order to develop a responsible person in future. Failure to resolve the libido at any stage results in future fixation.

Application of the theory

Makes parents realize the essence of recognizing unconscious motivation in children. The theory emphasizes the essence of childhood experience in modeling future adults. The theory acts as raw materials for parenting practices and psychosexual implications and at the same time providing the theoretical framework for solving the libido and desires at different stages.

2. Erickson’s psychosocial theory

With this theory, great focus is placed on child’s social experience and how they shape growth and development.

Erickson believes that people do not stop growing and learning when they step into adulthood but continue to grow until the day of death.

Like the case with Sigmund, Erickson believes that people go through stages and identify the failure in one stage can lead to confusion in the whole life of an individual.

The stages begin at birth where children face trust and mistrust issues. In this stage, children are taught how to trust people around them and generally the mother. Other stages include autonomy vs. shame, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferior, identity vs. role confusion, and more other stages.

Application of the theory

The theory will help teachers and parents to help children fulfill their expectations. It promotes industry among children through welcoming environment provision. Encourage parents and tutors to develop positive relationships with kids during adolescence in order to mentor them and also working as role models.

Cognitive learning and development theories

These are theories which place concern on how children go through changes throughout the childhood period. In this case, we will handle Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.

Jean Piaget’s theory of learning and cognitive development

In this theory, Piaget goes contrary to what people thought years back that childhood thoughts were similar to those of adults. He concludes that the way children think and perceive information is totally different from what grownups think.

Jean lays great focus on psychological ideas like egocentrism, accommodation, schema, and assimilation while building his theoretical approach to growth and development. His work is basically built on four distinct phases showing changes learners go through ingrowth concerning how they think about themselves, the world, and the people around them.

In this case let us analyses the four stages of development Piaget handles in his work;

I. Sensorimotor

The stage occurs below the age of two years. Learning is through perception through sense and motor interactions. In this stage, they understand objects and certain behaviors associated with their actions. For instance, they recognize that when they cry the mother will respond to them. They are able to find objects that fall off their site activity know n as schema.

II. Preoperational phase -

Occur between 2-7 years. Thoughts are characterized by irreversibility, centration, and egocentrism. The child in this stage is able to use words, images, and symbols to represent events or the world.

III. Concrete operational -

Occur at the beginning of seven years. Children turn away from egocentrism and gain the ability to focus on a simultaneous aspect of problemsolving. The children gain concrete knowledge in problemsolving and are in the ability to carry out addition and subtraction problems presented to them. They understand space cannot change two similar and equal products. The stage expresses classical schema and conservation schema.


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Learning and Development Theories and Applications
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Augustine Mutinda (Autor:in), 2017, Learning and Development Theories and Applications, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/424129


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