Excerpt

## TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Statement of the Problem

Purpose of the Study

Objectives of the Study

Research Questions

Significance of the Study

Limitations of the Study

Delimitations of the Study

Organisation of Test of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Overview

Concept of Numbers and Numerals

Numeral Identification

Reading and Writing Numerals

Importance of Teaching Number and Numerals

Causes of the Inability of Pupils to Identify and Write Numerals

Selected Activities to Teach Identification and Writing of Numerals

What you will need when using tracing and copying to teach numeral writing.

Matching Games

Summary of Chapter

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

Overview

Research Design

Setting

Population

Accessible Population

Sample Size

Sampling Technique

Research Instruments

Pre-Intervention

Intervention Technique

Intervention Implementation

Week one (1)

Week two (2)

Week three (3)

Week four (4)

Week five (5)

Problem Encountered

Data Collection

Data Analysis Procedure

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

Overview

Post-test one

Post-test 2

Post-test 3

Post-test 4

Post-test 5

Discussion of findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Overview

Summary

Conclusion

Recommendations

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

APPENDIX ‘A’

APPENDIX B

APPENDIX C

APPENDIX D

## DEDICATION

I whole heartedly dedicate this project work to my lovely parents, Mr. Badu Twumasi and Mad. Akosua Kyeiwaa. Not forgetting my much-loved uncle, Yaw Fosu Agyei and my brother, David Ampong for their kindness, devotion and selflessness. I pray for the blessings of God upon your lives.

## ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

There are a number of people who have contributed in various ways to the success of this research and must be recognized. I am most grateful to almighty God for his protection and guidance throughout my four year degree program. I would like to thank my Supervisor, Dr. Nutifafa Banini for his sage advice, insightful criticisms and patient encouragement which aided in writing the project work in innumerable ways. Much of the success of the project is due to his willing co-operation. Also I would like to express my profound gratitude to my entire family especially Mr. Anthony Bonsu, Mr. Paul Badu, Mr. Boateng Kwadwo, for their steadfast support throughout my education. My final thanks goes to my friends, Sumaila, Joshua, Angela, Mercy, Anthony, Kudus for their encouragement and support. I say God bless them all.

## ABSTRACT

It was observed and noticed that primary one (1) pupils of Osubonpanyin/Ateitu Municipal Assembly School in Winneba faced difficulties when writing numerals 1 to 30. Therefore, the study was conducted as the result of the need to aid primary one (1) pupils of Osubonpanyin/Ateitu Municipal Assembly School in Winneba to overcome their problems of writing numerals using selected pre-number activities such as tracing in sand, matching games, copying and tracing as intervention strategies. Action research design was employed for the study. Tests and observations were used as instruments for data collection and the data collected were analyzed using frequencies and simple percentages. The purposive sampling technique was used to determine the sample size for the study. The sample size was made up of fourteen (14) boys and twelve (12) girls. Pupils were taken through an intervention period lasting for five (5) weeks. After the study was completed, pupils performance improved remarkably hence it was concluded that the use of pre-number activities such as tracing in sand, matching games, copying and tracing enhances pupils performance in numerals identification and writing.

## LIST OF TABLES

1 Pre-test results

2 Post- test 1 results

3 Post-test 2 results

4 Post-test 3 results

5 Post-test 4 results

6 Post-test 5 results

## CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

### Background to the Study

Mathematics is classified as human activity, a social phenomenon, historically evolved, and intelligible subject found in a social context Hersh (1997). Mathematics is viewed not only as useful and as a way of thinking, seeing and organising the world, but also as aesthetic and worthy of pursuit in its own right (Zevenbergen, Dole, & Wright, 2004). All children are viewed as having an ability to solve mathematical problems, make sense of the world using mathematics, and communicate their mathematical thinking. This shift in perspective demands a change in pedagogy in particular to put teaching-learning relationship at the heart of mathematics. Mathematics has been found to be inseparable subject of human life. Foregrounding mathematical proficiency as the aim of mathematics education has the potential to change the kind of mathematics and mathematical learning that young children experience. Research on children’s learning in the first eight years of life demonstrates the importance of early experiences in mathematics. An engaging and encouraging environment for children’s early encounters with mathematics develops their confidence and their ability to understand and use mathematics. These positive experiences help children to develop dispositions such as curiosity, imagination, flexibility, inventiveness, and persistence, which contribute to their future success in and out of school (Clements & Conference Working Group, 2004). Mathematics is used in our daily activities and applied in every subject. Apart from it been one of the philosophies, mathematics finds its application in almost all the disciplines especially in the sciences such as social science, home science and many others (Siegel 2007). Virtually, a meaningful development in any area of life cannot be without mathematical knowledge. A country which aims to produce high caliber of human resources needs to lay emphasis on the study of mathematics (Department of hospitality management, UCC). Mathematics is therefore very important in every ones live especially the child. Eshun, Fameyeh and Ziggah (2009), reported that there is the need for children to learn mathematics in other to understand the world around them. Similarly, the mathematics curriculum for basic schools in Ghana aims at developing the pupils at the basic school level to acquire knowledge and skills that will help them to develop the foundation for numeracy, to enable them read and use numbers competently, solve problems in their everyday life, communicate mathematical ideas effectively to other people and reason logically. There is a national aversion to mathematics. Math phobias have permeated all stages of the educational ladder, mathematics learning has been a problem even when Ghana had the best educational achievement in Africa. It is a problem that parents, teachers and educational authorities are continually grappling with, because mathematics forms the basis of science and technology from which industrial development can take off (Ghana Web News, July 22, 2003). Identification and writing of numerals is one of the basic activities that needs to be done to inculcate mathematical skills into children. These activities must be an advantage to every child with appropriate pedagogical measures to arouse their interest in mathematics but this not seen among the teachers and pupils’ of Osubonpanyin/Ateitu Municipal Assembly primary School. This problem was observed anytime children were asked to identify and write numerals. “Before any formal mathematics can be understood there must a wealth of manipulative experience through which concepts and relations can be understood at the initial level. Mathematics as a discipline must be built upon a sound foundation of concrete and practical experience”, (May, 1981). It is against this background that the study was conducted to assist primary one pupils of Osubonpanyin/Ateitu Municipal Assembly primary school to identify and write numerals using variety of pre-number activities.

### Statement of the Problem

Many problems impede the effectiveness of teaching and learning in the area of numeracy in our basic schools and pupils are also confronted with one or two of such problems. The problem here is “the inability of primary one pupils of Osubonpanyin/Ateitu Municipal Assembly primary school to identify and write numerals 1 to 30”. Each subject taught in the school is important of which numeracy is no exception. The subject has its rational and objectives which needs to be achieved by all school in the country of which Osubonpanyin/Ateitu Municipal Assembly primary school is included. Research shows that pupils should begin developing number sense before starting school. This is crucially important to the critical thinking and problem solving abilities that are necessary components of numeracy. Identification and writing of numerals is a skill around which majority of the mathematics standards revolve. Accordingly, lack of number sense often translates into struggles later in students’ mathematics career, similar to how a lack of phonemic awareness can keep a child from reading at grade level (Will Davis, 2014). There is therefore the need to find a feasible solution to the problem at hand. For the above and many reasons, this problem is should be unraveled at Osubonpanyin/Ateitu Municipal Assembly primary school.

### Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to assist primary one pupils of Osubonpanyin/Ateitu Municipal Assembly primary school to identify and write numerals from 1 to 30.

### Objectives of the Study

The following objectives were formulated to guide the study:

1. To find out the predominance causes of the inability of primary one pupils of Osubonpanyin/Ateitu Municipal Assembly primary school to identify and write numerals 1 to 30.

2. To develop some selected pre-number activities to assist primary one pupils of Osubonpanyin/Ateitu Municipal Assembly primary school to identify and read numerals 1 to 30.

### Research Questions

These questions were formulated to guide the study:

1. What are the causes of the inability of primary one pupils of Osubonpanyin/Ateitu M/A primary school to identify and write numerals 1to 30?

2. Which developmentally appropriate pre-number activities will be helpful in addressing the issue of inability of primary one pupils of Osubonpanyin/Ateitu primary school to identify and write numerals 1 to 30?

### Significance of the Study

This research will help primary one pupils of Osubonpanyin/Ateitu Municipal Assembly School to identify and write numerals from 1 to 30. In another vein, the results of the intervention will help teachers of the practicing school to give new direction and design activities that will most appropriately help pupils of Osubonpanyin/Ateitu M/A primary school to identify and write numerals in the subsequent years. Also the findings in this research will be helpful to the curriculum research and development division (CRDD) in planning of future mathematics curriculum for the nation. Finally, this findings will serve as a resource for future researchers to come out with similar but modified researches aimed at improving the quality of education at all levels in Ghana especially at the basic level.

### Limitations of the Study

Although this research was carefully prepared, I am still aware of its limitations and shortcomings. Drawbacks to this project was truancy among pupils, especially during the intervention period and this insignificantly affected the study.

### Delimitations of the Study

This study has been narrowed down to only primary one pupils of Osubonpanyin/Ateitu Municipal Assembly primary school. The study aimed precisely at helping the pupils to identify and write numerals 1 to 30 using developmentally and appropriate selected pre-number activities.

### Organisation of Test of the Study

This study is presented in five (5) chapters. The chapter one covers the background to the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives, research questions, significance of the study, limitations of the study and delimitations of the study. The chapter two also basically presented the review of related literature to the study. Chapter three deals with methodology which talks about the research design, instrumentation, population, sample technique, pre-intervention process, intervention, post intervention process and data analysis plan. Chapter four talks about presentation of findings and results. The final chapter which is chapter five talks about summary, conclusion and recommendations.

## CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

### Overview

This chapter is literature related to the study. This comprises of theories (i.e. theoretical review and concepts as well as evidence (i.e. empirical review) and opinions of experts in the field under study. This chapter therefore seeks to review concept of numerals, importance of teaching numerals, reading and writing numerals, prevalence causes of the inability of pupils to identify and write numerals, selected activities to teach numerals.

### Concept of Numbers and Numerals

Numbers, in one or another form, are indispensable to all known civilizations, both ancient and modern. Therefore, it is not surprising that scholars from many disciplines are interested in understanding the origin of numerical concepts, not the least the question of whether humans are endowed with a biologically based number sense. There are various categories of numerical concepts. For example, the category mathematicians call the counting numbers includes all positive whole numbers from ‘one’ on, exclusively. Because the counting numbers are the most primal and elementary of all numerical categories, they are the foundation upon which all of the other numerical concepts are constructed; understandably, this class of numbers is at the center of the search for ‘number sense’.

It is important to bear in mind that, as a pivotal element of scientific and mathematical contemplations, numerical concepts even the most rudimentary, such as the counting numbers must be available to voluntary and rational thinking or they will be deemed irrelevant. It is the purpose of this chapter to explore whether there is any merit to the proposition that exists and capable of forming mathematical valid counting numbers.

Basic mathematics and number concepts utilized in the early stages classroom set the foundation for learning more advanced mathematics concepts. Early exposure to mathematics and number activities promotes children comfort with these skills. Also, additional opportunities to practice these skills will increase children confidence when working with math and number concepts and will lead them to believe they are “good at math” (Richardson & Salked, 1995). If children do not become comfortable with mathematics and number concepts at a young age, they will lack confidence in their abilities and may become hesitant as more advanced math concepts are introduced. When this happens, they may default to believing they are ‘bad at math’ and they risk beginning a self-fulfilling cycle of failure. Numeral is the name or symbol that stands for a number. It is a symbol that represents a number. Children see numerals around them constantly, on house doors, remote controls, car number plates, clocks etc. but numerals are more abstract than quantities. When we use numerals we imply that we are using numbers in the abstract.

### Numeral Identification

The first step in mathematics and number awareness is learning what the 10 numerals (0 through 9) look like. This requires strong visual discrimination skills since many numerals look very similar. Once a child is able to recognize the 10 numerals and know each numeral’s name, he or she can develop an understanding of the amount each numeral represents. Visual discrimination is the ability to identify differences in visual images. Comfort with numbers, numerals and mathematical concepts relies foremost on the ability to distinguish between different numerals such as 1 and 7, 2 and 5, 3 and 8. Children are to be helped to overcome this difficulty of visual discrimination (Gelman and Gallistel). The skills of numeration include: reading numerals, linking numerals with counting, linking numerals with ‘one more’, writing numerals etc.

### Reading and Writing Numerals

Numbers do not have physical manifestations other than the symbols (numerals) that represent them and since it is improbable that infants form numerical concepts spontaneously without any perceptual input, the development of number concepts must begin with the acquisition of symbols (numerals) followed by the configuration of their conceptual contents. In other words, symbolic recognition is the fulcrum for the development of number concepts and the starting point from which it commences. Reflecting upon the many studies, it has become quite obvious that the numbers children accurately identify via perception, count correctly, and ‘conserve’ are fewer than the numbers they can recall and write (Menyuk, 1971).

Moreover, there are indications that children value their ability to recite numbers even when they neither understand nor can write them correctly. For example, children tend to repeat the counting of small sets or tag objects multiple times until they run out of all the number words they know. They coined the term, “list exhaustion scheme,” to depict both tendencies (Wagner & Walters, 1982, p. 143). The observable fact of “list exhaustion” indicates unequivocally that the inventory of conventional number words children can recite is larger than that of the numbers of which they are cognisant, and that children are interested in the number words and their sequence for their own sake. Both are compelling evidence that the pattern of the spoken number words is acquired prior to the numerical concepts they embody. The same is true with regard to number-words place value in their conventional counting sequence. Learning the symbolic representation of numbers alone does not constitute knowledge of numbers, as the child must still figure out their numerical meaning. Yet, the introductory and fundamental role numerical symbols have in the development of number concepts permanently ties these concepts to their formal symbolic representation, making the symbols of numbers an integral element of numerical concepts. Numerical symbols are, then, inseparable from the concepts they represent from the outset, and are not a later acquisition as commonly believed.

Finally, considering that children are born into a numerate culture that is saturated with numerical symbols, it is quite probable that their great interest in number words and the counting activity associated with them stems from social/cultural-adaptation motives.

The development of number and numeral concepts, then, should be understood as the child’s attempts to explore and comprehend her cultural environment through playful emulation of verbal utterances and their related behaviours. As such, number and numeral concepts acquisition should be viewed as a process of social/cultural adaptation rather than exploration of the physical environment. Indeed, from the children’s perspective, the need to understand the meaning of symbols, which seem to be of great importance for the adults in their lives, is unquestionably much more pressing than the need to quantify magnitudes in an exact and objective way (Wagner & Walters, 1982).

### Importance of Teaching Number and Numerals

Number and numeral sense that is relevant to learning mathematics takes root early in life, well before children enter school. Primary or preverbal number sense appears to develop without or with little verbal input or instruction, and it is present in infancy (Dehaene, 1997). From birth, children are exposed to fundamental informal mathematics through interaction with their immediate environment. As a natural consequence, it is not unusual for very young children to develop basic implicit notions on concepts of number and numerals. This is to say that children become aware of numerals early in life, because daily experiences involve various uses of numbers and numerals. Soon after children begin to speak, they use words relating to numbers. Young children see and become familiar with what written numbers look like in variety of contexts and on everyday items.

The development of number and numeral sense begins with precise representation of small numbers, whereas large quantities are initially captured through approximate representations (Feigenson & Carey, 2003). It has been argued that these primary abilities are the basis for developing secondary symbolic (numeral) or verbal number competencies (Feigenson et al., 2004). When children learn the verbal count list and understand cardinal values for numbers, they learn to represent larger numbers exactly and see that each number has a unique successor (Le Corre & Carey, 2007; Sarnecka & Carey, 2008). Clements & Sarama, 2007 argues that, Symbolic number sense is highly dependent on the input a child receives and thus, primary preverbal number sense but intermediate to the conventional mathematics that is taught as the child progresses to the higher level in school. Key areas include reading and writing of numerals, counting, number knowledge and arithmetic operations. Although the relation between non-verbal and verbal number competencies is not always clear, there is general agreement that early verbal number competencies are necessary for extending knowledge with small numbers to knowledge with larger numbers and for learning school-based mathematics. During the first three years in school, most children learn to enumerate sets in a stable order (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9…..) using one-to-one correspondence and come to realize that the last number indicates the number of items in a set (Gelman & Gallistel, 1978). Comprehension of these “how to read and write numerals” principles allows children to enumerate any object or entity (e.g., heterogeneous or homogeneous) in any direction (e.g., left to right or right to left and so forth).

Teaching reading and writing of numerals to children extends their numerical understanding in important ways (Baroody, 1987). It helps children see that numerals later in the count list have larger quantities than the former ones (e.g., n; n + 1; (n + 1) +1, etc.) and manipulate sets through addition and subtraction, with and without object representations (Levine, Jordan, & Huttenlocher, 1992). Other importance of teaching numbers and numerals to children are:

- Numerals help children to give information. That is, numerals help children to tell time and date. Also numerals help children to tell the price of things

- Numerals help children to make decision. That is, numerals help children to choose the right size of their shoes, clothes etc. again numerals help children in selecting temperature on ovens.

### Causes of the Inability of Pupils to Identify and Write Numerals

Number and numeral sense skill in the early years is a strong indicator of overall mathematics achievement. Early childhood educators have the important responsibility of constructing the foundational mathematical knowledge and skills that preschoolers will need for future learning in math (Vickilyn, 2015). Teaching writing and identification of numerals is very important in the lives of young children, despite its importance young children finds it difficult to identify and write numerals due to the following predominance causes:

- The inability to visually discriminate numerical symbols. Visual discrimination in the context of numeracy is the ability to visually recognize and name numbers. Thus, point out and name numbers on street signs, houses, home appliances telephones, remote controls clocks etc.

Comfort with numbers and mathematical concepts rely foremost on the ability to distinguish between different numerical symbols. As with letters, numerous numerals are similar in formation, example 1 and 7, 2 and 5 etc. Many young children can respond appropriately when asked to recite numbers from 0 to 30.However, many of these same children could neither identify nor write the numerals correctly. This is as result of their weakness visual discrimination skills.

- Ineffective approaches adopted by teachers in teaching numerals. Writing numerals correctly requires considerable control and coordination. It a matter of repeated practice. Apart from ‘1’ each numeral presents its own complexity in writing. Some numerals are conventionally written without taken the pencil off the paper while other numerals are formed with two pencil strokes. Most teachers do not wait for each numeral to be formed correctly before progressing to another thereby making it difficult for children to identify and write numerals correctly.

### Selected Activities to Teach Identification and Writing of Numerals

Many children are able to use numbers arbitrary; pretending to count, or mixing up numbers. From about the age of four, children will begin to show one to one correspondence, or the ability to count objects correctly, as well recognize most numbers 0 to 9 and sometimes recreate numerals when given an example (Kara, 2013). As many with preschool skills, it is important for teachers to provide many different opportunities for children to see, touch and use numbers throughout the day. These are some selected activities that have been proven to work quickly and effectively when it comes to teaching identification and writing of numerals.

1. **Sand tracing**: sand tracing is an early childhood learning activity in which children practice writing of numerals in the sand with their fingers (Karen, 2014). Its purpose is to help children learn how to trace numerals on their own, while allowing for tactile and sensorial experience. The sand box is a wooden box with about 3-inches rim around it, with enough fine coloured sand to cover the bottom. A plastic shoe box size tub can also be used for a sand tray (just make sure the bottom is completely flat) and the sand tray must be changed very often. To teach children how to use the Sand tray, first select some Sandpaper numerals that the child is familiar with; show one card at a time, tracing it with your own fingers and sounding it out as you trace. Then place the card above the tray and trace the numeral in the sand, sounding out the numeral as you go. Shake the tray lightly to reset the sand and “erase” the numeral. Pass numeral cards and sand trays to the children and encourage them to repeat the actions. The use of sand tray in teaching writing and identification of numerals aids children in their physical development. There are different ways in which children can benefit from sand play. When they use sand trays, the effort of lifting and positioning their trays develops their gross motor skills. It also strengthens his muscles. Moreover writing in sand also aids in hand-eye co-ordination (Vikas, 2007).

2. **Tracing and copying**. This is also a great activity for children to practice writing of numerals. Numeral tracing cards are a free printable materials that can be laminated to allow kids to draw on with a white board marker as it wipes away easily with a tissue. Children can practice writing their numbers correctly and wipe it away and try again.

### What you will need when using tracing and copying to teach numeral writing.

Janice 2014, recommends an effective approach in using tracing and copying to teach writing of numerals. She proposes, a paper, white board markers, the printable tracing cards, laminating sheets and key ring hoop as materials needed for tracing and copying activity. Janice 2014 indicates that, it is totally up to the teacher on how to use free printable tracing cards but to save numerous printing, paper and ink then it is advisable to laminate the sheets of paper. By laminating the sheets of paper, the teacher can then punch a small hole at the left corner and bind them together with a hoop ring. This will keep the booklet together and help to easily turn the pages. Also by laminating the children can draw on it with a white board marker and then easily rubs it off with a tissue. The laminated tracing number cards have a few options for practicing writing numbers. To start, begin drawing the number inside the bubble shape number starting at the small dot and following the arrow. Then practice writing the number by tracing over the number that is written on the dotted lines and then have a go writing the number repeatedly on your own on the lines provided. You will also notice that there is a written version of the number; kids can learn the written form at the same time by tracing over the letters.

### Matching Games

Matching game are pre-writing and pre-reading activities aimed at fostering early childhood development and are a great way to enhance pre-writing and pre-reading learning through numerals recognition games and other activities that can easily set up at school. Games have been presented by many authors as a beneficial tool in the mathematics classroom (Ernest, 1986, Gough, 1999 & Ainly, 1990). Also, other authors assert that games should not be restricted just to practice and that they can be effective vehicle for teaching new concepts to children (Bright, Harvey & Wheeler, 1995). What is clearly important is the structure of the game used and the literature does highlight that if this structure is not provided, learning does always take place (Onslow, 1990, Burnett, 1992). The games can help children to get them excited and interested in playing the game later on and give them a sense of pride in creation. Matching games is a huge part of cognition, according to the California department of Education (2007). Games that encourage counting, sorting, matching and classifying are excellent for cognitive development. For children a counting game might just require them to put the one block in the blue box, two blocks in the red box and the three blocks in the green box. Shape sorters, where children must fit the correct numerals into the correct numeral shape, also help children with categories skills. Pupils can play the memory game, where cards are laid out face down and children flip over two at a time, hoping for a match.

If they don’t get a match that time, they can remember where those cards are for a future turn. Matching game can extremely helpful to young children, but they must be used correctly. Children must understand the mathematical concept being taught rather than simply moving the manipulative around. Smith (2009) stated that there are probably as many ways to teach with games as there are to teach the specific goals and objectives of the mathematical program. “The complexity of the materials provided increases children’s thinking and understanding of mathematical concepts (Seefeldt & Wasik, 2006). It is also important for teachers to allow their children to have free time to play with the games.

### Summary of Chapter

The review has focused on the ideas of some experts on numeral identification and writing. They state some difficulty associated with numeral identification and writing and some strategies and activities to help develop and improve numeral identification and writing skills. Numeral identification and writing has been noted to be vital tool in today’s educational process. This brings the urgent need of developing numeral identification and writing skills of children as early as possible, more so, the use of pre-number activities. Therefore the use of pre-number activities is deemed crucial at the early stages of education. Sand tracing, tracing and copying and matching games can be extremely helpful to young children, but they must be used correctly. Children must understand the mathematical concept being taught rather than simple moving manipulative around. The ability of visually recognize patterns is helpful to understand our language pattern in speaking and writing. Sand tracing, tracing and copying and matching games are ways for a child to recognize differences and similarities visually.

## CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

### Overview

The arrangement of the comprehensive information about the topic or the way of arranging the intervention and how to implement is entailed in the methodology. This chapter highlights on the procedures followed in conducting the research. It contains the research design used, setting, population, sampling techniques, investigation, data collection procedures and method of data analysis.

### Research Design

The research design used for this study was an action research. This was adopted and used because the research focuses on pragmatic and solution-driven research outcomes rather than testing theories. It is concern with immediate solution to local problems and ability to pull data from which planning could made to facilitate educational development in Osubonpanyin/Ateitu Municipal Assembly primary school and Ghana as a whole. Action research, according to Ackummey et al (2007), “is a self-reflective inquiry of one’s practice with a view to understand and improve it through the introduction of intervention”. Kemmis et al (1998) also states that action research “is a form of collective self-reflective in order to improve the nationality and justice of their own and educational practices as well as their understanding of these practices and the situation in which it is carried”. Action research often have direct and obvious relevance to improving practice and advocating for change.

It also has the potential to increase practitioners’ knowledge as they learn consciously from their experience (Subbey, 2017). This approach was the most appropriate to use because the problem identified was peculiar to a particular classroom situation.

### Setting

This research was conducted in the Effutu Municipal Assembly in the Central Region of Ghana.

### Population

The target population for this study was all primary one (1) pupils within the Effutu municipality in the Central Region of Ghana.

### Accessible Population

The accessible population was all primary one (1) pupils in Osubonpanyin/Ateitu Municipal Assembly primary School.

### Sample Size

The sample size of this study was 26 pupils; there were 14 boys and 12 girls. The average age of the pupils was 7 years.

### Sampling Technique

The sampling technique was purposive sampling technique. This is so because the research was based on the researcher’s personal knowledge of the population and the specific purpose of the study. The whole class was used in the study.

### Research Instruments

The research instruments used in this study are observation and test. Observation was done throughout the time of research to record the progress of the intervention. Observation helped the researcher to know and to check whether the intervention used should be modified or not. The test was used to diagnose the extent of the problem of identification and writing of numerals and also to determine the effectiveness of the intervention used. Since it is a diagnostic instrument, a pre-test was conducted for the study. A post-test was used after administering the intervention to determine the effectiveness of the intervention and to ascertain whether there has been a positive change or not.

### Pre-Intervention

A pre-test was administered to establish pupils’ ability to identify and write numerals one to thirty (1-30) as a basis for assessing the impact of the intervention strategies.

### Intervention Technique

The first four weeks were for observation and pre-test. The researcher observed the class teacher taught and some of the techniques and method used. After the observation, the researcher conducted a pre-test (made up of numerals from 1-30) to find out the level of the pupils understanding. From the feedback, the researcher identified the problems among the pupils and described to put in some intervention strategies to help remedy the problem. The interventions started 16th October and ended on 17th November 2017. That is to say the researcher used four weeks for the intervention.

**[...]**

- Quote paper
- Seth Badu (Author), 2018, Using Pre-Number Activities to Help Primary One Pupils to Identify and Write Numerals 1 to 30, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/427418

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