Revolution without ammunitions. Pathways towards Nigerian second independence. Part 2


Polemic Paper, 2018
44 Pages, Grade: 1

Excerpt

Table of Content

Inroduction

Abstract

Methodology

Addressing the revolution

Two reasons why we are where we are as a people

TTP: Tactics, Techniques and Procedures

The Corruption Fight In Nigeria

Recommendations

Bibliography

Know your enemy and know yourself and you can fight a hundred battles without disaster. Sun Tzu

Inroduction

Security challenges and corruption are the bane of the Nigerian society. Nigerian politicians are the enemies of the State. Since the political independence of Nigeria in 1960, the country has expereienced various military rule from 1966-1979 and 1983-1998 and civilian rules from 1960-1963, 1963-1966, 1979-1983, 1999 till date.

Throughout these periods, Nigerians have suffered untold hardship as a result of the misrule of a few against a vibrant population of around 180 million citizens.

The security challenge has been a problem in Nigeria since the advent of Boko Haram terrorism in 2009 which was followed by agitation against marginalization by the Niger Delta militants and the murderous menace of Fulani herdsmen attacks who graze their cows from the North and kill farmers in their farms in other parts of the country. Women have been raped in their farms and their farms set ablaze by the terrorist herdsmen. Unfortunately, the government of Nigeria has been very slow to an annoying point that the killing of Nigerians by Nigerians from other parts of the country seem to be a re-occuring decimal.

Despite the huge natural resources, problems concerning insecurity, corruption and defranchisement of the populace from the democratic process has been one of the banes of governance. Old leaders are recycled with re-occuring promises and references to the youths as leaders of tomorrow. Many past military personnels return to politics with the same old civilians that have held various public offices for many years. As political promises, they continue to give hope to the citizens with promises to provide roads, drinkable water and the building of health infrastructures, which is sparesly realized. Social infrastructures continue to be in short supply as most government office holders usually travel abroad for health tourism. This has been exacerbated by the fact that corruption continue to be one of the greatest obstacle against national development. The President of Nigeria, Muhammadu Buhari came into office by using the Change mantra as an instrument of political campaign. Unfortunately, corruption has been rampant in virtually all facet of government, including the Senate who have manipulated the instruments of power to be law breakers instead of law makers.

Unfortunately, experience has shown that it is mostly unsafe to embark on such a meaningful projects of speaking against the government within the territory of Nigeria as activists could be kidnapped, assassinated or arrested and detained without being arraigned in the court of law over a long period of time. This has been one of the factors why some Nigerians have been tongue-tied during military and civilian regimes.

From a safe distance, I have launched the European Coalition for Security and Democracy in Nigeria as a global platform to invite and galvanize Nigerians from home and abroad, to speak with one voice and think in one direction, so that, as a people, we could reposition our country through a non-violent approach using the instruments of revolution with the goal of achieving justice and equity.

Abstract

This publication is intended to address notable individuals and institutions in Nigeria concerning the insecurity in Nigeria, the weak government response and the hydra-headed corruption promoted by the wasteful bicameral legislative system of the Nigerian National Assembly headed by the President of the Senate. One of the fulcrum of this publication focuses on the manipulations of democratic principles, bogus salaries appropriated to members of the national assembly against the set laws of the country. It highlights the fact that lawmakers are the real law breakers in Nigeria as they manipulate the law for personal economic gains and political aggrandizement. I have highlighted the discrepancies in governance with the purpose of exposing the loopholes and making recommendations for transparency and good governance.

It is expected, that through this action, my previous publication, Policing the Gaps between Budgets and Implementation in Developing Economies. The Impediments to Welfare and Security in Ghana and Nigeria[1], will have a robust leeway towards practical actualization.

Methodology

The texts of this publication is a speech form that has been verbally narrated in video format as a public statement by the author to the citizens of Nigeria. This method is an efficient way of communication through the youtube broadcast medium using the Nelson M46664 channel. This has become necessary because of my awareness that many publications that addresses social and political issues mostly end up as academic exercises with limited coverage that does not affect the purposes for which they were written. The statements used here are very direct and uncensored. They have attracted hundreds of thousands of views from many parts of the world on youtube (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FQGp73ncY18 ). These are statements which ordinarily may not have the physical opportunities to be relayed directly to the destined recipients. It has also been observed that in recent times, a growing number of people prefer audio-visual medium of information to the academic process of reading.

The use of the social media is also intended to expand the coverage of the publication in order to reach both the destined recipients and the generality of Nigerians. This is a way of conscientizing Nigerians towards what is going wrong with the country. This awareness is a veritable tool in awakening the people towards future elections by using the technique of a peaceful and legal revolution of the people. The information gathered here relied on published and verifiable news sources as referenced accordingly.

In addition, this publication is practically intended towards guiding Nigerians on how well to to make her leaders strictly accountable to the voters. It is also an awakening call to Nigerian leaders to be alive to their responsibilities. Another goal of this broadcast method, is to form and strengthen Nigerians in Europe and beyond on the platform of the European Coalition for Security and Democracy in Nigeria, ECSDN. This coalition is a trending platform where Nigerians from different European countries and beyond now cooperate for a common ideal towards a secured, democratic and corruption-free Nigeria. The ideals of this coalition and the purposes of these releases are visually transported to Nigeria in order to make direct impact on the people. These articles and their videos are released and addressed to public officers, traditional leaders and political institutions of the federal republic of Nigeria in the middle of every month from 15 February 2018 till the next Nigerian elections which will hold between February and March 2019. This timing has been carefully selected in order to create a frame work that continually gives Nigerians opportunities to review the polity and catapult the people into launching peaceful and legal revolutions that will usher a new generation of leaders and to develop a viable platform where public office holders are held accountable for their activities. It is also expected that all monthly releases will be collectively documented by the end of the elections to serve as a reference political document for future elections and academic discourses. It is expected that this will promote and ensure good governance and accountability. At the end of this publicaton, recommendations have been made to correct the anomalies.

„Inspiring scenes of people taking the future of their countries into their own hands will ignite greater demands for good governance and political reform elsewhere in the world, including in Asia and in Africa.” William Hague

1 Addressing the revolution

Fellow compatriots of the Federal Republic of Nigeria!

I am the Global Co-ordinator of the European Coalition for Security and Democracy in Nigeria. I am proudly Nigerian. I wish to address you today on matters bordering on urgent national concern.

I am here to speak for the marginalized Nigerians who have agreed that the Nigerian state is on a life support machine.

I stand to speak for the families of those that have been slaughtered, and continue to be slaughtered by militias, herdsmen, boko haram, and what President Buhari recently refers to as rebels from Libya.

I stand to speak for Nigerian Libya returnees and the many families who lost loved ones drowned in the mediterreanean sea as they tried to escape from the hardship in Nigeria.

I stand to speak for Nigerians detained without trial over a long period of time, mostly for offences they did not commit.

I stand to speak on behalf of Nigerians who have been denied welfare and security by public office holders who, in their sheer greeds, are experts in the looting of our national treasury.

I am speaking today because most Nigerian public office holders have become irresponsible and it is high time Nigerians became responsive.

I am speaking on behalf of the future of my children, your children, our children, the young generation, and the future of our country that is currently in comatose.

I am here to speak against the cancer of bad leadership that has ravaged our country and may consume the rest of us if we do not act now.

Public office holders, from military to civilian regimes have taken Nigeria from Nigerians but we must not allow them to take away our citizenship from us.

Before I speak further, kindly permit me to address the graves of the late Nigerian heroes who fought for our independence in 1960. Yes, we must address their graves today in order to awaken their spirits and to make them witnesses to what we are about to do.

Herbert Macaulay, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Obafemi Awolowo, Ahmadu Bello, Anthony Enahoro, Funmilayo Ransom Kuti, Tafawa Balewa; great heroes through whom we enjoy political independence today, please hear us now:

If you see Nigeria today and the type of rulers we have, you would not have bothered to fight for our independence as a nation. You will not believe that this is the same Nigeria you surrendered your lives to build.

We have lost our sovereignty because, according to President Buhari, rebels from Libya have conquered and infiltrated our borders.

Great heroes, if you see Nigeria today, you will see Nigerians living in squalor, deplorable and questionable conditions. Graduates are now riding commercial motor bikes; the unemployed and the depressed are committing suicide; pensioners die in the queue waiting for their monthly stipends; children learn under trees; public hospitals are empty. Even the Aso Rock clinic which has huge annual budget, has no medicines[2] ; Nigerians live in darkness with rationed electricity supply, yet we supply energy to neighbouring countries who enjoy stable electricity; we only drink water if we are able to install our private boreholes because the taps you built are no longer running water.

If you see Nigeria today, unlike your time, politicians change political parties like women changing wrapper because they lack political ideologies.

The politicians you left behind have looted trillions of Nigeria from our national treasury since the independence you painfully fought for us. Transparency International in its 2017 Corruption Perception Index has rank ed Nigeria in the 148th position out of 180 countries in terms of corruption.[3] The politicians you left behind now steal public money and spirit them abroad, to those same countries from whom you fought for our independence. Today corruption is no longer stealing.

If you see Nigeria today, you will see a country that has become bastardized and balkanized along ethnic and relious lines because the politicians sponsor disunity and destruction.

If you see Nigeria today, you will see the borrowing giants of Africa, with over 11 trillion naira borrowed within the last 3 years. Recently the federal government has applied to the World bank and others to borrow 300 million dollars to fight mosquitoes and malaria.[4] Since the end of the last century, the politicians you left behind have accumulated debts that Nigeria cannot pay, even till the end of the next half century.

If you see Nigeria today, you will see pregnant women slaughtered; their unborn babies forcefully ripped from their entrails for evil sacrifices. Our national colours of green-white-green has been soaked in blood and our land is crying for vengeance.

If you see Nigeria today, you will see many Nigerians that have become refugees in other countries with hundreds of thousands internally displaced within Nigeria while children grope in daylight in search of their parents beheaded by unknown gunmen. The roads you constructed are what we still use in many towns and villages today. The hospitals you built are what we are still using, because the politicians you left behind now travel abroad for medical treatments.

If you see Nigeria today, you will see state Governors who owe salaries of workers for many months but move around in convoys longer than what Tafawa Balewa never dreamt of. Majority now labour for a few.

If you see Nigeria today, you will see a new definition of democracy where state Governors who install state electoral Commissions, pick their candidates in rigged elections and prevent Nigerians from voting.

The politicians you left behind, especially the gang of federal legislators, sorry, legis-looters, now appropriate unimaginable salaries and emoluments to themselves as they continue to deplete our national resources without conscience. They pad the budget, arm-twist the Federal executives to compromise, delay the passage of budgets for selfish reasons, work part time but supervise the work of Nigerians that work full time. Great heroes, even the running cost of the executives will make you wish to die a second time.

The politicians you left behind have kept 10.5 million Nigerian children out of school as reported by UNICEF,[5] yet they steal our money and use itt o send their children abroad for schooling!

Today, our President has gone to sleep as mass burials of Nigerians from Benue to Zamfara, Taraba to Yobe, Nassarawa to Borno, have become a common sight. Dead bodies now dot our geographical landscape and many bodies, unaccounted for, rot in the bush while the politicians you left behind are busy, campaigning for another term in office. The government of Nigeria today does not have the names of Nigerians killled since 1 January 2018.

Now, the Youths are now campaigning vigorously to take over the leadership of Nigeria. This has provoked the politicians you left behind, and they now refer to the energetic, robust and digital youths of Nigeria as being lazy. The recycled rulers that are not lazy have only succeeded in dishing out sorrow, depression, regression, visionlessness, poverty and a mockery of our country in the international community. Great heroes, was this the Nigeria of your dream? For every four years they stay in office, they take Nigeria back 8 years. The politicians you left behind have no manifesto, therefore, no manifestations.

If you see Nigeria Today, you will see and refuse to see!

Fela Anikulapo Kuti our music legend sang it: authority stealing pass robbery

Fellow Nigerians, we have suffered, and continue to suffer, because of our sheepish silence. Today, we must decide as a people, to either say NO to political and economic slavery or YES to total freedom. We must decide to say NO to the many, many, years of subjugation or YES to emancipation. We must answer, whether we must continue to live in penury or command the chains of national degradation to break. We all know that the only way to save our country Nigeria, is for us, home and abroad, to embark on a total revolution NOW. We have endured long enough as a people. We must restore ownership and the pride of our country and today is the day.

This cancer of evil leadership must die. This nonsense called government must be permanently stopped.

This chain must break, this chain must break; this chain must break! Nigeria will not break, but those that have chained our country must break. They and their agents, and the agents of their agents must break. This chain must fall. The chain fell from Nelson Mandela after 27 years in prison; the chain fell from Paul and Silas in the prison of the evil king. The chain fell in Zimbabwe in 2017 when Robert Mugabe was booted out of office. In 2017 the chain fell in Gambia when Jammeh Yahaya was disgraced out of office after 22 years of failed leadership. In 2010 the chain fell in Tunisia at the birth of the Arab spring which ended a dictatorship of 23 years. In 1979 the chain fell in Iran after a peaceful revolution that set the people free. The People Power Revolution of the Philipines broke their chain in 1986 . People power removed Jacob Zuma from office in 2018 and the chain of corruption fell from South Africa.[6] Today, in Nigeria, the chain of bad leadership and masacre of Nigerians must break.

Today, N-i-g-e-r-i-a must be free. This chain must break in Nigeria. The chain of continuing poverty and political oppression must break in Nigeria. The chain from the government of a few for a few must break in Nigeria. We are too rich to be poor. Nigeria is too blessed to be cursed with bad leaders. We refuse to continue to be hopeful in hopelessness.

This is not region or religion. This is not political party or selfish interest. I have no political ambition for now and I am not under the sponsorship of any human being living or dead. This mission is divinely ordained. This is not a struggle; it is a battle without war. Mark my words, ten Aliko Dangotes, put together cannot buy my conscience as far as this battle is concerned. We must not allow our children to ask us what we did to change the situation after the Azikiwes had fought for our independence. This must be about Nigeria. We are Nigeria and Nigeria is us. We are born Nigerians and we will die as Nigerians. The time has come to free ourselves from the shackles put upon the 180 million of us by less than 10,000 Nigerians. We know that freedom is not free, therefore, we must fight for this freedom with every energy and resources we can muster, so that we can live happy hereafter.

We must begin all over again as a country. Enough of rulers. We are in need of leaders. True leaders who understand the nitty-gritty of governance, passion for service and patriotism for country. The storm has gathered long enough. It is time for a glorious rain. We, Nigerians, must reclaim Nigeria by silencing those that have silenced us for too long. We refuse to continue to endure the embarrassment that comes with our stigmatized Nigerian passports abroad.

In our life time, we must see the Nigeria of our dream. Some politicians must be permanently retired and others must be prevented from gaining access to the corridors of power. We must end all forms of complaining because the time has come for us to take our voices and arguments out of facebook and whatsapp unto national reconstruction. APC and PDP political parties have failed. PDP has apologized to Nigerians but they still keep the money they looted in local and foreign accounts. You cannot eat your cake and have your penny. You cannot apologise without making restitution. PDP, apology is grossly unaccepted. All their sycophancy and fake promises have failed. We refuse to listen to them any longer. They have lied to us for too long. We must not accommodate these ones a minute longer. We refuse to sleep at the bus stop while they drive our vehicles away. If we do not act now, APC will also apologise to us in the future after waisting more years and national resources. We must prevent that future apology.

For how long will they promise us water? Stop promising me water; it is my right. The money was there. Our money. The money they stole and keep stealing. Stop promising me electricity; it is my right. The money was there. Our money. The money they stole and keep stealing. Stop promising me good roads; it is my right. The money was there. Our money. The money they stole and keep stealing. Stop promising us change. Change is our right. Change is not a journey, it is our destination- our destiny! Stop erecting canopies and spending our money making huge ceremonies whenever you want to commission a new project as if you are doing us a favour for doing your job. Stop telling me about dividends of democracy. It is our inallienable right to benefit from democracy.

Children will always ask questions. I do not want to return to Nigeria and I am explaining to my children what generator is. Or why we have to store water in our tanker from the borehole. I do not want to explain to them why the roads are so bad or the chaos because drivers are struggling for space because there are no traffic lights. I do not want to explain to them why children like them are learning under trees or why children are hawking pure water when they ought to be in school. I do not need to put off my TV because I am preventing my children from seeing the terrible and horrible pictures of Nigerians butchered by herdsmen with throats slit open and intestines busting loose in Benue, Taraba, Delta, Yobe, Kaduna, and all across our land. No! The day 19 persons including two Catholic Priests were killed in Benue state, was the same day that Senator Dino Melaye was arrested.[7] Senators suspended sitting to visit him in the hospital but nobody, nobody, not even the Presidency visited the scene were Nigerians were killed in Benue state. They never visited and they never will. These rulers have lost touch with Nigerians. They concern themselves with only things that pertains to them. That is why a Senator can have 6 mobile police officers attached to him or her while the rest of us live in danger. Who give police escorts and convoys of vehicles to Parliamentarians in Europe? For what? Some even ride bicycles to the parliament during summer. You could see some in public transportation. Nigerian politicians with their empty ego borne from the tradition of stealing public money!

Today, the Nigerian government cannot provide the full names and accurate numbers of Nigerians that have been massacred since 1st January 2018.

Fellow Nigerians, do not envy them today with their limousines, bullet proof Jeeps and intimidating police escorts. Their days are numbered. Their houses will be converted to hospitals which they could not build for the common man. Their estates will be seized and used as free accommodation for the widows, orphans and the unemployed who they locked out for decades. Know this: Nigerian politicians are living on borrowed time.

Which region in Nigeria today can we say is very developed like the poorest state in Europe? None! Our problem is not the North. Our problem is not the South. Our problem is not the East. Our problem is not the West. Stop abusing the Igbo man because they want Biafra. Stop abusing the Yoruba man because they want Oduduwa. Stop abusing the Hausa man because they want Arewa. Stop abusing the militants because they want Niger Delta. The problem is not tribe, region or religion. The problem is the politicians and public office holders. I hate to call them leaders; because they are rulers. Fellow Nigerians, we kept quiet for too long. Toooo long. Our national slogan is Good People, Great Nation. Yes, but good people and a great nation can always be overcome by force if the good and the great continue to remain silent.

Two reasons why we are where we are as a people

1. We usually say „If I speak, I will die; If I don’t speak, I will die. Let me just speak and die’. No! I do not subscribe to that. Lets leave such statements for comedy. We are in a tragic situation. You spoke and died because after speaking, you refused to match words with action. That is why we must follow our words with actions in this revolution. I refuse to speak and die. We will not die, but live to glorify God for what He is set to do in Nigeria. You died when you did not even speak because your silence killed you. President Buhari promised to improve security and the economy. Today Nigerians are dying, hungry and angry. And we are still silent? Wole Soyinka wrote : The man dies in all who keep silent in the face of tyranny.[8]

2. The second reason why we are where we are as a country is because we continue to allow our oppressors to get way with their atrocities. The fault was from us, the Nigerian people. How? For an oppressive system to succeed, 10% of the population must agree to promote and support oppression. These are the Nigerian politicians, their close families, friends and their sycomphants. Then, 50% of the population must sit on the fence. They are neutral. Those are the ones that say in pidgin English „ na wetin concern me concern Nigeria matter?” Now, because 50% refused to do something because of their neutrality, they strenghten the 10% oppressors. That gives the oppressors 60% lordship. The remaining active 40% get weak because they feel that they are few in number. They become weaker when half of the 40%,- that is another 20%, decide to join the other 60% because they collected money to sell their voter’s card, decided to become thugs for the politicians whose children are abroad, or just decided to sell their conscience by helping them to rig elections. That makes the oppressors to swell in number to 80%. Now the remaining 20% are people like me and some of you watching, liking and sharing this video now because we share the same view. So what do we do? Simple!

We the remaining 20% can take back our fellow Nigerians that are the 70% that joined the 10% oppressors because our people have become wiser now due to the hunger and insecurity in the land. We need to bring them back to join us so that we could rise to 90%. With this percentage, we can reclaim our country from the oppressors without breaking bottles; without burning tyres, houses or killing anybody. That is why this movement is called Revolution without ammunition.

We, Nigerians, believe, that civil disobedience is justified in the circumstances where there is a breach of contract on the part of the politicians. Since Buhari’s government promised change but have been unable to give us change, it means that they have abused our votes and the social contract of governance. Therefore, we are obliged to change their change by restoring our country through the process of non-violent social cooperation. Now is the time.

Do not forget that many of the ruling politicians are very unintelligent. Some are result forgers, ritualists, drug pushers, uncreative, recycled, and die-hard visionless opportunists who cannot engage in intellectual discussions. The time has come to use their weaknesses against them.

We know who we are. Nigerians are beautiful people, a resilient lot, strong, intelligent and ambitious. We thrive in the midst of hardship. We shake hands with our foes looking at them directly in the eyes. We are the Eagles that feast in the air. We are the green –white-green that flourishes in all weather and give hope and light to the rest of Africa. Yes, we supply the resources on which developed countries thrive. So, why are we where we are? We refuse to give up on our country. Nigeria is currently surviving on oxygen and the time is running out. Nigeria is sitting on a keg of gun powder that may explode any moment from now. Nigeria is on a life support machine. We, Nigerians, must act now or never. No country in this world can endure what we have suffered in the hands of these common thieves and sponsors of thuggery who call themselves honourables and excellencies.

We must take our destinies in our hands today. The oppressors will never release us unless we, as a people, come together to seize what rightly belong to us. We have been independent since 1960, yet we have been in bondage since 1970 because Nigerian rulers have drained our resources. Past and present Nigerian rulers must face the law and face the people now. Judgement day has come.

When Presidents of other countries are arrested for corruption, nobody talk about their tribe or religion. Why must Nigeria be different? Why must we judge these petty executive criminals based on tribe and religion? Why must those that have stolen from us be walking free? We know Presidents in different parts of the world who have been jailed for life or executed mostly for corruption or other crimes against their country.

President Filov Bogdan of Bulgaria, executed in 1945; Humala Ollanta of Peru jailed in 2017; Galtieri Leopoldo Fortunato of Argentina jailed in 1983; Prime Minister Hoveida Amir-Abbas of Iran killed by firing squad in 1979; President Ricardo Martinelli of Panama jailed in 2017; Prime Minister Olmert Ehud of Israel jailed in 2016; President Macias Nguema Francisco of Equatorial Guinea was executed in 1979; President Sócrates José of Portugal was jailed in 2014. Lets not go too far. In Ghana Jerry Rawlings executed 2 former Heads of State Gen. Fred Akuffo and Gen. A. A. Afrifa for corrupt enrichment.[9] In Nigeria today, those that were in power continue to recycle looters of our treasury as if they are above the law while Nigerians stupidly prostrate before them, calling them Leader, I am loyal! Which leader? Which leader? Loyal to who and to what? A common thief? Who bewitched you Nigerians?

If Nigeria was a man born in 1960 the year of our first independence, that man would have bled to death long before now if his blood was made of naira and kobo. The federal government has published the names of looters but all of them are walking free and continue to hold public offices. Some are sitting Senators making laws for Nigerians. They steal billions and are granted bail for self recognisance. Though we do not support stealing, but it is ironical that when the ordinary Nigerian steals, there is no bail for self recognisance. No corrupt Nigerian ruler has been jailed so far. The official capacity of the Kirikiri prison is 1,056 inmates as built in 1955 by the British. As at March 2018, the prison held appriximately 5000 inmates. Over-crowding. In that number, 3,700 of the prisoners have been awaiting trial for five years or more. Most of them stole mobile phones, plantain and cocoyams because of hunger. Many are even innocent. Yet executive thieves walk free with sirenes and police escort. Corruption has killed more persons in Nigeria than Boko haram and herdsmen or militias put together. Due to lack of enabling environment by corrupt rulers, thousands of Nigerians drowned in the mediterreanean sea, pensioners died due to distress from delayed gratuity, Nigerians resorted to thuggery, suicide, militancy, kidnapping, prostitution, 419, ritual, drug, and many more. Greedy politicians caused it. Our eyes are red but we refuse to cry.

Before I continue, I wish to pause for 30 seconds, while you consider an answer to this question: From the rule of Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida till now that we have President Muhammadu Buhari, which Nigerian President deserves to have his photograph on our national currency? Think. Your time counts now

Who? None. None! Their photographs are worthless, yet all of them have stolen the currency which has the photographs of Tafawa Balewa’s N5; they continue to steal Alvan Ikoku’s N10, they steal Murtala Mohammed’s N20; they steal our N50 Wazobia; they steal Obafemi Awolowo’s N100; they steal Ahmadu Bello’s N200; they steal Nnamdi Azikiwe’s N500 and they steal Aliyu Mai-Bornu’s and Clement Isong’s N1,000. They even convert them to dollars and euro and export them to develop other countries while we remain jobless and hungry.

[...]


[1] Odorige, F (2017). Grin Publishers: Munich. https://www.grin.com/document/379444. Retrieved 2018, May 21

[2] Adetayo , O.(2016, August 18). Punch Newspaper, Drug scarcity hits Aso Rock Clinic despite N3.7b Budget, http://punchng.com/drug-scarcity-hits-aso-rock-clinic-despite-n3-87bn-budget/ Retrieved 2018, May 12.

[3] Transparency International. https://www.transparency.org/country/NGA Retrieved 2018, May 12.

[4] Akosile, A (2018, April 22) This Day Newspaper, Nigeria to Secure $300m Loan to Finance National Malaria Strategy, https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2018/04/22/nigeria-to-secure-300m-loan-to-finance-national-malaria-strategy/ Retrieved 2018, May 12.

[5] Development Cable, (2018, May https://www.thecable.ng/nigeria-highest-number-school-children-world

[6] Burke, J. (2018, February 14). The Guardian, Jacob Zuma resigns as South Africa's president on eve of no-confidence vote. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/feb/14/jacob-zuma-resigns-south-africa-president Retrieved 2018, May 10

[7] Oyedele, D (2018, April 24). This Day Newspaper, Police arrest Melaye, https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2018/04/24/police-arrest-melaye/ Retrieved 2018, May 12

[8] Soyinka, W. (1988). The Man Died. Noonday Press: New York.

[9] BBC News, 2001, April 30. Resolving Ghana’s violent past. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1305123.stm Retrieved 2018, May10

Excerpt out of 44 pages

Details

Title
Revolution without ammunitions. Pathways towards Nigerian second independence. Part 2
College
National University of Public Service
Grade
1
Author
Year
2018
Pages
44
Catalog Number
V430145
ISBN (eBook)
9783668736283
ISBN (Book)
9783668736290
File size
744 KB
Language
English
Tags
Nigerian elections 2019, President Buhari, Corruption and insecurity in Nigeria
Quote paper
Frederick Omoyoma Odorige (Author), 2018, Revolution without ammunitions. Pathways towards Nigerian second independence. Part 2, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/430145

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