Introduction to Music Research: Annotated Bibliography
This research project will decide the most effective behaviour management strategies for weekly one-hour primary school string orchestra rehearsals, which have a positive impact on learning and musical development.
Bauer, W. (2001). Classroom management for ensembles. Music Educators Journal, 87 (6), 27-32. doi:10.2307/3399689
This journal article discusses teaching practice, classroom discipline, and the proactive educator in an ensemble setting. Its author, William Bauer, graduated from Ohio State University with a Bachelor of Music Education, Bowling Green State University with a Master of Music in Music Education, and Kent State University with a Ph.D. in Music Education. Even though this research article was published seventeen years ago, the content remains relevant to modern day ensemble instruction. The article’s purpose is to guide music educators in classroom management for ensembles. Bauer achieves this purpose by providing readers with recommendations, techniques, and resources to effectively manage rehearsal time while maintaining student engagement and improving ensemble performance. He emphasises the importance of effective preparation and planning, high-quality teaching practice, fair and consistent discipline, and well-developed communication skills to meet these objectives. Most of the article’s content is seemingly derived from Bauer’s teaching experience, apart from the three sources, which are cited in the notes section. The eight years of experience he gained in Ohio public schools as a band, orchestra and general music instructor across grades five to twelve has shaped his philosophy towards classroom management and this is evidenced in the journal article. Also included in the article are a list of techniques for dealing with common discipline problems, a middle school band discipline plan, and twelve selected resources for effective classroom management. The classroom management strategies outlined in this article will be valuable when determining control measures for the ensembles participating in my research project.
Grattan Institute. (2017, February). Engaging students: Creating classrooms that improve learning. Retrieved from https://grattan.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Engaging-students- creating-classrooms-that-improve-learning.pdf
This report compiled by the Grattan Institute in February 2017 investigates student disengagement in the classroom and provides recommendations to combat this prevalent issue. It explores the importance of classroom environment, today’s outcomes in relation to student engagement, challenges experienced by teachers in creating positive learning environments, and implementation strategies to decrease disengagement. The Grattan Institute was formed in 2008 and is an independent think-tank committed to the development of high quality public policy. Grattan Institute employees Peter Goss - a School Education Program Director, Julie Sonnermann - a School Education Fellow, and Kate Griffiths - a Senior Associate, wrote this report. The report’s purpose is to tackle student disengagement by creating classrooms aimed at improving learning. It accomplishes this by describing features of the classroom, which affect students’ ability to learn, explaining types of disengagement, and synthesising common preventative and responsive approaches. Ultimately, the report seeks to afford children the opportunity to reach their full learning potential by cultivating their classroom environments. The language used throughout the report is highly analytical, statistical, and constructive. Identified challenges faced by teachers are addressed in a productive way where there is a call to action for the stakeholders. The report is evidenced by one hundred and twenty-one references cited in the bibliography and visual tools such as diagrams, flowcharts, graphs, charts, and hierarchies are utilised to reinforce presented statistics. The content and statistics in this report will be valuable when preparing the rationale for the research project as they directly address the issue of disengagement.
Hallam, S., & Gaunt, H. (2012). Preparing for success: A practical guide for young musicians. London, England: Institute of Education Press.
The second chapter of this book focuses on learning, goal setting, and self-motivation. It discusses key issues relating to learning including learning processes and how they can be optimised, the skills needed to become an expert musician, and the development of meta-cognitive skills. Author Helena Gaunt is the Vice-Principal and Director of Guildhall Innovation at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama and author Susan Hallam is the Professor of Education and Music Psychology at University College London, Institute of Education. Their book, written in 2012, serves as tool for young musicians to help them prepare for success by gaining an insight into the music industry. The co-authors emphasise the importance of being diverse, well-rounded, adaptable, and flexible musicians equipped with the knowledge and skills needed to not only survive but also thrive in the industry. They state the skills needed to become an expert musician include aural, cognitive, technical, musicianship, performance, creative, evaluative, and self-regulatory skills. The book is
written as a guide for aspiring professional musicians where the authors impart their knowledge of
the music industry to readers by delivering expert advice. The advice given is supported by scientific explanations of learning processes, three case studies of professional musicians, two further reading recommendations, and nineteen cited sources. The skills listed in this book chapter will be targeted in the research project when selecting tasks, which have a positive impact on learning and musical development but also have the capacity to manage the classroom behaviour during orchestral rehearsals.
Harman, A. (2018). Orchestra Classroom. Retrieved from http://orchestraclassroom.com/
This source is a series of blog posts linked to the Orchestra Classroom website. Blog post topics include utilising technology, teaching proper position, lesson planning, orchestra classroom décor, seating plans, warm-up exercises, materials/supply management, rehearsal technique, recruitment, advice for new teachers, program philosophy, practising, classroom management, promotion, and incorporation of percussion in orchestra. The author of the blog is Angela Harman, an orchestra teacher in Spanish Fork, Utah. Harman has presented at several conferences including the National Association for Music Education Conference, Utah Music Educators Association Conference, and Rocky Mountains Strings Academy. She has worked as an orchestra teacher since 2012 and her blog posts are dated between 28 December 2017 and 21 July 2018. The purpose of Harman’s blog is to suggest ideas for orchestra class while promoting her own resources, which can be purchased from the online store. These resources include worksheets, surveys/reflections/assessments, templates, posters/signs, and music scores. Aside from resources, Harman discusses rehearsal technique and classroom management. The content of her blogs is drawn from her six years of teaching experience as an orchestra director. She believes strongly in creating engaging, inclusive, and fast-paced rehearsals where all students are involved all the time as a strategy for classroom management. Harman’s blog posts support the research project in designing rehearsals where all students are occupied the whole time, whether playing an instrument or engaged in another activity supporting learning and musical enrichment. The procedures and expectations could also be incorporated into setting the control measures for the project.
Houlahan, M., & Tacka, P. (2015). Kod á ly today: A cognitive approach to elementary music education (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
This book is exemplary in documenting all aspects of the Kodály Concept. The topics, which are
particularly relevant to this research project are building the framework of a music curriculum, developing creative expression through singing, movement, and instrument playing, teaching tools and techniques for developing audiation and music literacy skills, developing musicianship skills, and modelling learning and instruction for teaching music concepts, elements and skills. Author Micheal Houlahan has a Doctorate in Music Theory with a minor in Kodály studies, Kodály diploma from the Kodály Institute and Kodály Centre of America. He is a Professor of Music Theory and Solfege. Author Philip Tacka has a Doctorate from the Catholic University of America and has completed postdoctoral work at the Franz Liszt Academy and Budapest/Zoltan Kodály Pedagogical Institute. He is a Professor of Music at Millersville University of Pennsylvania. This book is a modern take on the Kodály Concept, which is a comprehensive instructional resource and valuable reference for in-service music educators, music supervisors, students, and instructors. It follows the Kodály method meticulously with a developmental, sequential, cumulative, and continuous approach to music education in the elementary phase. This book has relevance to the research project as it explores musicianship skills and how to integrate these skills into a curriculum. In addition to this, the book caters to students of varying instrumental proficiencies and at different stages of development. Specifically, the information relating to the development of musical understanding, metacognition skills, and music literacy skills is crucial to this research project.
- Quote paper
- Kassidy-Rose McMahon (Author), 2018, Music Research Proposal. The most effective behaviour management strategies (Primary school), Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/437890