Territorial Dispute. The controversial territorial disputes between Central Tibetan Administration vs. People’s Republic of China and the involvement of India

Academic Paper, 2018

9 Pages




Policy objectives

Brief background of the disputes
Parties involve in China-Tibet conflict
Involvement of India in China- Tibet conflict and interest of India

Proposed tactics to resolve the conflict

Future Scenario of Tibet- China Relations

Unintended consequences and dealing strategy



I am working to unravel the ongoing controversial territorial disputes between Central Tibetan Administration; more specifically the exile Tibetan government in Dharmasala run by 14th Dalai Lama vs. People’s Republic of Chinese administration (PRC) and emphasizing why India has involved in this issue.

This paper proposes a diplomatic strategy to resolve the ongoing territorial conflict between this two. In this scenario, my role is of a mediator and I represent the government of Sweden.

Policy objectives

- To successfully end the ongoing conflict between china and Tibet
- To build up mutual trust and respect between Tibetan and Chinese people
- To create a balance administrative govt. in Tibet in which Tibetan people will get chance to enter in government.
- Mutual respect to international law and human rights in Tibet region
- Increase development project in Tibet to keep pace with the present world
- Increase Chinese investment in this region
- Mutual respect to ethnic community and religious minority as well as religious believes in Tibetan region
- End up the violent movement in Tibet
- Stop to resettled Chinese Hans people in Tibet
- Freedom of expression and political rights have to be ensured by Chinese regimes.
- Stop to kill wild animals of Tibet
- Stop to spread propaganda against Chinese regimes by the people who belongs to Tibet and are staying at abroad
- Giving proper respect to spiritual leader Dalai Lama since it’s the most sensitive issue for the Tibetan people.
- To involve India in peace negotiation process since 14th Dalai Lama and his exile government are staying India and India has an influential role in this issue
- Power sharing and power dividing between China and Tibet.
- To change the perceptions of both China and Tibet.

Brief background of the disputes

If we analysis the historical background of Tibet which is occupied by China then we see that there are two types of views whether Tibet was an independent state or not. Chinese perceptions about Tibet is contrary to Tibetan perceptions. So historically and geographically both sides give subjective perceptions and this historical debates are one of the core cause of the conflict between this two parties. According to Tibetan government –in –exile, they said that Tibet was an independent state but it is unlawfully and forcefully occupied by Chinese communist party or People’s Republic of China in 1949 (WWW.freetibet.org) which is completely contrary to international law and United Nations (UN) Charters. Historically if we go back 2000 ago then we see it was Tibetan imperial age and whole country came under a powerful ruler and consequently there was no doubt about the independence of Tibet. Tibetan also claims that Chinese historical records also say that Tibet was an independent state. Now the question may arise if Tibet was an independent state then how did it become an integral part of China? The answer is gradually Tibet started to influence its power over its neighbor’s and it became boomerang and she itself came under various foreign powers and they were the mighty Mongols, Manchu emperors, Gorkhas and then British who ruled Indian subcontinent until 1947. So when Mongol emperor Genghis Khan started to expand his territory. Tibetan leaders Sakya school of Buddhism then made an agreement with Mongols to get rid of immediate attack from Mongols. (Pragg & Van.1988). Political and religious alliance became very strong and still today there is strong bondage between this two central Asian people. When Kublai khan conquered China and established Yuan Dynasty, he invited Sakya Lama to become teacher of his emperor (Pragg & Van.1988). Then came Ming Dynasty which ruled China from 1368 to 1644 and they had no control over Tibet. After that came Manchus Dynasty who ruled China in 17th century and this dynasty influenced by Tibetan religion and there created priest –patron relationship between them and this dynasty saved Dalai Lama of Tibet by sending troops from foreign invasion and it created such some sort of influence of Chinese ruler over Tibet. But this Manchus Dynasty did not keep the influence for a long time since British invaded Tibet in 1904 and removed the Qing Dynasty in 1911 and established Tibetan government. So until 1913 to 1949, Tibet remained an independent state and many countries like Nepal, United Kingdom and others made diplomatic relationships with her and other countries had their foreign embassy at Lhasa. Tibet also successfully avoided World War 1 and remained neutral. Even China also made treaties with Tibet in 1913 when Tibet acted as an independent state. But situation suddenly changed and Communist Party of China militarily invaded Tibet and imposed 17 point agreement on them and eventually poor luck Tibetan people gradually lose their independence. Situation became more complex when the 14th Dalai Lama forced to quit Tibet in 1959 and took shelters in Dharamsala of India and Chinese forces took over the control of Tibetan administration and Tibet became so called an autonomous regions of China.

But according to Chinese perceptions, they regards Tibet is an integral part of China and they will never compromise at the issue of territorial integrity. They also claims that historically Tibet was the part of China and it was one of the motherland and symbol of purity. Chinese perceptions are clear that they will not allow any external powers in their internal matters and it has made this issues more and more complex. So if we analysis the conflict then we see that ethnical and religious issues play vital role here since Tibetan people historically believe in Buddhism and most of the Chinese people not Buddhism. So historically Chinese regime has a blamed that they persecutes religious minorities and recent example is Uighurs Muslim minorities in China who are being persecuted by them. Another reason is Chinese regimes who runs China are most of them from Hans Dynasty and Tibetans from Tibet. So it has made an ideological distinction between this two groups and it one of reason of conflict.

Now if we summarize the core causes of conflict between China and Tibet then we find out that ethnicity, religion, history, geography, Chinese concerns over territorial integrity and sovereignty as well as security issues which play vital role of the conflicts.


Excerpt out of 9 pages


Territorial Dispute. The controversial territorial disputes between Central Tibetan Administration vs. People’s Republic of China and the involvement of India
University of Dhaka
International Diplomacy and Negotiations
Catalog Number
ISBN (eBook)
territorial, dispute, central, tibetan, administration, people’s, republic, china, india
Quote paper
Undergraduate (B.S.S) Sultan Mahmud (Author), 2018, Territorial Dispute. The controversial territorial disputes between Central Tibetan Administration vs. People’s Republic of China and the involvement of India, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/442134


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