DIPLOMACY OF PAKISTAN SINCE 1947: ACHIEVEMENTS AND FAILURES
Muhammad Waseem Shahzad
The diplomatic practices of Pakistan are based on national interest of Pakistan; however in this document researcher has categorized first chapter about historical perspective in which different phases exists. Second chapter of this document focuses on the analysis of diplomatic practices of Pakistan. Third chapter focuses on famous treaties conducted by Pakistan since 1947, Forth chapter of this paper focuses on contrast of diplomatic failures of Pakistan, Fifth chapter of document focuses on Achievements and success of Pakistan externally. At the end of document the researcher liked to add reviews of some literature and finally concluding remarks. Pakistan faces lot of problems at time of independence, has to be institutionalized to survive. Very first diplomatic practice of Pakistan was when Iran recognized Pakistan at very first time. Later practice in 1949, when Pakistan recognized China firstly from Muslim community. But so far there were various issues such as issue of alignment during the era of Cold War, Issue of recognition and Pakistan also faced an international issue about Kashmir War in 1948 that was first use of weapon by Pakistan. Finally the main focus of this document is on contemporarily and historically determining diplomacy of Pakistan.
1. Diplomatic History of Pakistan:
The diplomatic history is fulfilled by lot of success and also challenges. As new born state Pakistan has to face and compete with them. History (diplomatically) of Pakistan is too long means that could not be described in short paper. So In this document researcher has categorized the diplomatic history of Pakistan that would be concise but valid as follows:
1. Early Period (From 1947-1950).
2. Early Modern Period (1950-1960).
3. Industrialization Period (1961-1970)
4. Tension Period (1970-2000)
5. Modern Period (2000-present)
a. Early Period (1947-1950)
At new born state Islamic Republic of Pakistan established its government in Karachi in 1947.Withvery limited sources. In that phase there was no formal foreign policy;Indian act of 1935 was used as domestic regulations.“Iran was a first state that recognized Pakistan, and Shah of Iran visit to Pakistan was first diplomatic activity in diplomatic history of Pakistan”. (ALI, 2016)There was also religious emotional attachment with Pakistan of Iran. Later identical problems came into being between Iran and Pakistan that included ShiaSunnidiscriminations etc.
Pakistan towards US & USSR
Much of Pakistani leaders were studied in West therefore in that period that was time in Pakistani diplomatic history to think that what power bloc would be best? At the starting of Cold War, Pakistani Prime Minister Mr. Liaqat Ali Khan received invitation from Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) to visit their country, later an invitation was also received from United States of America to visit. Pakistan had not formally declared its alliance with any power bloc.There is lot of debate about empty alignment period (gap). But conclusion of that all debates is at early (pre 1950) Pakistan has no active system or clear foreign policy as new state to ally with any superpower. Due to strategic position and location Pakistan was an important actor or helper of United States. While coming to other side Pakistan sent his diplomatic mission to Union of Soviet Socialist Republic in 1949 and in result USSR sent his envoy to Karachi in March 1960. Soviet Union invited PM Liaqat Ali khan in June 1948 but invitation was accepted not completed. Rather US invited Pm of Pakistan he visited officially in May 1950, and formally ally with United States of America. That was first diplomatic U-turn in Pakistan’s diplomacy.
Membership to United Nations
Pakistan joined United Nations Since September 30, 1947, had been an important participant of international peacekeeper mission. Pakistan sent his representative to UN in 1948 and very later in 1950 Pakistan established human Rights commission in Karachi under mission of United Nations.
Pakistan towards Asia
Pakistan had been established bilateral relations with Asian countries. Most important actor of Asia at that period was China. Pakistan is very first Muslim country that recognized China. China promised Pakistan to provide financial assistance. And official diplomatic relations were established between both two countries in 1950. Indian issue was also important to be discussed in this paper. There were 635 local states at the time of independence that were regulated and controlled by Rajas. They were decided to be ceded in India or Pakistan. Such states are JunaGarh, Haiderabad Dakan and Jammu& Kashmir. Peacefully all states were settled except Jammu &Kashmir. That remains as obstacle in India Pakistan relations. War was also existed in 1948; the main reason of that war was Kashmir issue. Since Kashmir War (1948) the issue of balance of power between India and Pakistan were emerged. Pakistan tried to establish its constitution in this regard there were meeting conducted by Pakistan to conclude constitutional frame work. That was very weak diplomatic practice of Pakistan.
However the diplomatic practice of Pakistan with Afghanistan was very weak. There was boundary issue with Afghanistan. Afghani Government claimed that NWFP and KPK is part of Afghanistan, because in fact they were found in much connectedness with Pathans, due to religious, cultural and ethnic values. Which was later solved by treaty. Duarind Line is border determination by both two countries. In Afghanistan remains not active diplomatic-ally of Pakistan, and Afghanistan accurately has not recognized territory of Pakistan. Diplomatic practice of Pakistan was came into being with China in 1950, Pakistan recognized China as third non-communist state and first country as Islamic in 1950. Karachi and Beijing became diplomatic consulates.
Outline of Achievements
1. Pakistan joined United Nations and in result World has recognize d status of Pakistan as a new born nation state.
2. Pakistan was first Muslim and third noncommunist state that recognized china that proved in future strategic partnership as well with china.
3. Pakistan forged amicable relations with the newly-established Muslim countries, and supported the freedom movements of Indonesia, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco and Eritrea against the Western colonial powers (Ahmed, 2017) and that lead to regional identification of Pakistan.
An outline of Diplomatic failures
1. That was time to influence in the South Asian region by Pakistan, but actually Pakistan could not play as such more role in regional configuration.
2. The war of 1948 for Kashmir is also like bad or evil, just try to understand that Pakistan should pay heed to survival, nor wars as new born state in the world.
Early Modern Period 1950-60
In 1951 Pakistan established diplomatic relations with France, and also establishment of Pakistan’s relations with European countries were came into being. In 1951 World Bank started financing projects in Pakistan. In 1951, Primed Minister of Pakistan was killed.
That was period of alignment with west rather than Union of Soviet socialist republic. In general there are following diplomatic dimensions of that’s time period:
SEATO was Southeast Asia Collective defense treaty, that came into being Manila in September, 1954. Great Britain, Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Pakistan and France. . The purpose of the organization was to prevent communism from gaining ground in the region.
2. Colombo Conference
Colombo conference was held on April 28, 1954 in Ceylon, and it was finished on 2nd May 1954.This conference was joined by Ceylon, Indonesia, Burma, India and Pakistan. Contributors of this conference were also known as Colombo powers. They all were met to deliberate the hitches and issues which were related to all of them. (Tariq, 2014)
3. CENTO (Baghdad Pact)
The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) was accepted in 1955 by Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan, and Iran, as well as the United Kingdom. Although American weight, along with promises of military and financial largesse, were key in the talks leading to the agreement, the United States chose not to initially contribute as to avoid alienating Arab states with which it was still trying to promote friendly relations. (SHAR, 2006)
4. Bandung Conference
Representatives of 19 nations met in Bandung to discuss role of third world developments in cold war era. Self-determination, non-aggression, respect of political sovereignty of state. The main goal of this conference was to protect human rights, economic cooperation and decolonization and end to racial discrimination.
5. Pak-US Agreement of Cooperation 1959
IT is nearly ten years since Pakistan became an ally of the West. In May 1954, Pakistan signed the Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement with the United States. Later in that year it became a member of SEATO along with the United States, Britain, France, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia and New Zealand. A year later, it joined the Baghdad Pact, another mutual defense organization, with Britain, Turkey, Iran and Iraq. The United States has not joined this organization, but has remained closely associated with it since its inception. In 1958, when Iraq left this pact, it was renamed CENTO (Central Treaty Organization): it continued to comprise Turkey, Iran and Pakistan as its regional members. Early in 1959, Pakistan signed (as did Turkey and Iran) a bilateral Agreement of Coöperation with the United States, which was designed further to reinforce the defensive purposes of CENTO. (US Deparent of State: Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), 2007)
- Quote paper
- Muhammad Waseem Shahzad (Author), 2018, The Diplomacy of Pakistan since 1947. An Analytical Approach to the Foreign Relations of Pakistan, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/448583