Can a computer loan have an influence on students' performance?

Academic Paper, 2017

48 Pages, Grade: 3


Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Abbreviations



1.1. Historical background of the study
1.2. Problem statement
1.3. Objective of the study
1.3.1. General Objective Specific objectives
1.4. Research questions
1.5. Research hypothesis
1.6. Scope of the study
1.7. Significance of the study


2.0. Introduction

2.1. Basic concept definitions

2.3. Link between computer use and academic performance

2.4. Computer and education

2.5. Significance of the study

2.6 conceptual framework


3.1. Presentation

3.2. Research techniques

3.2.1. Documentary technique

3.2.2. Questionnaire technique

3.2.3. Interview technique

3.2.4. Focus group discussion technique

3.3. Methods of data analysis which will be used under this study

3.3.1. Statistical Method

3.3.2. Analytical methods

3.4. Sampling design

3.5. Sampling procedures

3.6. Selection of sample and sample size calculation

3.7. Analytical method of data analysis

3.7.1. Descriptive Statistics

3.7.2. Inferential Statistics


4.1. Descriptive statistics

4.1.1. Distribution of respondents by age of respondents within department of study and how they recommend government to continue laptop loan program

4.1.2. Distribution of respondents by of marital status respondents within department of study and how they recommend government to continue laptop loan program

4.1.3. Distribution of respondents by sex of respondents within department of study and how they recommend government to continue laptop loan program

4.1.4. Distribution of respondents by residence of respondents within department of study and how they recommend government to continue laptop loan program

4.1.5. Distribution of respondents by accommodation of respondents within department of study and how they recommend government to continue laptop loan program

4.1.6. How much time do student spend using laptop based on different purposes

4.1.7. Students often use laptop while they are attending class

4.1.8. Students computer literacy

4.1.9. Analysis of scale responses

4.2. Inferential analysis

5.1. Introduction
5.2. Discussion
5.3. Conclusions
5.4. Policy recommendations


Appendix:Research questionnaire


It is a common practice to thank all those people who contributed to the task that one has to achieve. We see no reason to change this custom, there is no doubt in our mind that this research would not have been possible without the goodwill and kind assistance of a wide range of people.

First of all, all praises be to almighty God, we cannot hesitate to express our special thanks to my beloved coworkers who supported us in our education Journey.

There are people who helped us in conducting our primary research, those who have provided information and those who have read, reviewed and provided moral support encouragement. We will also like to thank supervisor, MSc. Mark SENTWALI, who provided consistence support from the but to the final draft, may God consider his kindness.

Let us extend our appreciation friends, relatives and classmates who supported me in one way or another towards the completion of this Research.

List of Tables

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List of Abbreviations

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten


The objective of this study was to study the assessment of the impact of POSITIVO computer loan program for university ‘s students learning perspective (UR/HUYE CAMPUS-CBE 2015 - 2017. The study methodology was stratified random sampling where probability proportional to size (PPS) used to avoid the bias of unequal size, the study chose 88 students studying in four options, 14 students from department of applied statistics, 26 students from economics, 19 students from Business administration and 29 students from Accounting sciences.

Self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain primary data to be used in analysis the students were asked questions relate on computer uses and the marks they obtained in first year, first semester and second semester on which the study termed before and after introduction of computer loan program. The paired sample t-test and descriptive statistics were implemented to study the frequency of, and the difference between two term of the introduction of Positivo laptop computer loan and its general impact on learning environment.

The study results, has shown that students appreciate the program for 92.0% of them reported that, they would like to recommend that government can continue to provide the loan. The study also confirm that there are enough evidences to say that the average mean marks of students before and after introduction of laptop loan differ where after POSITIVO laptop loan ( P-value of 0.000<0.05), The students perform better with an increase of 8.0157 marks on average than before. As conclusion laptop loan program based on this study conducted has a great impact on academic performance of university students so government can continue the program and think how to apply it on other students of different level not only on level one students and they should think of secondary school in order to support policy of searching appropriate education as desired by ministry of education.

Key words:POSITIVO, academic performance, university student, technology and laptop loan computer.


1.1.Historical background of the study

University of Rwanda founded in 2013, is a non-profit public higher education institution located in the urban setting of the large city of Kigali (population range of 1,000,000-5,000,000 inhabitants), Kigali City. Officially accredited/recognized by the Ministry of Education, Rwanda, University of Rwanda (UR) is a very large (enrollment range: 30,000-34,999 students) co- educational higher education institution. University of Rwanda (UR) offers courses and programs leading to officially recognized higher education degrees such as bachelor degrees, master's degrees, doctorate degrees in several areas of study. This 4-year-old the institution has a selective admission policy based on students' past academic records and grades. The admission rate range is 60-70% making this Rwandan higher education organ ization a somewhat selective institution. International students are welcome to apply for enrollment. UR also provides several academic and non-academic facilities and services to students including a library, housing, sport facilities and activities, financial aids and/or scholarships, study abroad and exchange programs, online courses and distance learning opportunities, as well as administrative services.

University of Rwanda, Huye campus (former National university of Rwanda) is one of campus composed university of Rwanda, founded in 1963 as an institution of higher learning, with a mission to provide higher education, conduct research, and offer services to the community. The oldest and the largest campus in the country, located in the southern province, 150 km south of the capital city Kigali. It was the only publicly funded university until in 1995’s. Closed during the 1994 genocide and reopened in March 1995. Able to fully recover from the 1994 war and genocide and confront new challenges such as increased access and ICT development.

This computer loan program is part ofvisioninitiative that aims to accelerate penetration of smart devices in Rwanda and increase countrywide broadband. The initiative will be jointly implemented by the government and Telecommunication companies that are Intel, Africa Smart Investments distribution (ASI-D), POSITIVO BGH, MTN and Microsoft as well as Bank of Kigali.

Like as Minister of Education called up on lecturers to imbalance the use of ICT to set an example for students by giving up traditional teaching methods. He encouraged students to take advantage of this opportunity and apply for these computers that will help in learning, teaching and proper management of academic records. “The world has become a global village so, we are preparing you to become global citizens,” he said. According to Musafiri, it is projected that the initiative will see all university students’ own computers within three years. Students who are mostly first years’ welcomed the initiative.

Speaking at the function, Jean Philbert Nsengimana, the Minister for Youth and ICT thanked the partners and urged students to use the computer properly. “With every opportunity comes responsibility. It is not about playing with pap rotes, they are about education, entertainment and creation. So Learn and Create.” He also called upon people to adapt to technology since the government is willing to provide facilities. “The government has heavily invested in ICT infrastructure. 4G LTE internet covers 14 districts with the aim of covering 95% by 2017. We don’t want to leave anyone behind, broadband is not for the city dwellers, the well-off or the educated only. It is or everyone, hence the name “Vision” or vision,” he said. “Analogue education is more expensive than digital education. Digital or smart education is not only of high quality but also much more cost effective”, he ended.(New times, 2016)

To get the computers, students filled loan forms from Bank of Kigali and get the computers at MTN Services centers. The computers are offered on loan and will be paid in installments, paying Rwf 178 per month for a period of three to eighteen months. Computers given are equipped with free Microsoft windows 8.1 upgradable to windows 10, free Microsoft office license for 3 years and 3 GB modem and MTN 1GB monthly data bundle for a whole year. During the event, the government signed a memorandum of understanding with MTN Rwanda and Bank of Kigali for partnership in this initiative.

Much of the focus in information systems research has been either techno-centric, studying the effect of technology on organizations or individuals; or human-centered, studying the interaction between human and Information Technology (IT) (Orlikowski, 2007). Given the ubiquitous nature of IT in various aspects of professional and personal life, it now seems logical to view IT as an integral part of our environment. Today's universities have an entire generation of young adults who have used technology throughout their lives. They do not complain when asked to use a new technology for class.

The study found that college students prefer technology; they believe it, to be beneficial, and they expect to be able to use it effectively. However, there is also a feeling of frustration. Techniques, they belief that technology can rescue society from its woes, (Schuurman, 1997), appeals to the Superman qualities students emulate. Like Ironman, students are not born with superpowers, but with the help of technology, they believe they can achieve more. Although the use of technology and the inherent frustration is so intertwined with the educational setting, it can affect the human psyche, motivation and ultimately the success of students.

The primary objective of this study will be to investigate if there is a significant relationship between Computer use of the second year students of university of Rwanda-CBE-Huye campus- school of Economics and their academic performances scores (marks). Secondly to determine if there is a difference in average marks of first semester means before computer loan being applied and the average marks of the second marks means after receiving computer loans. Finally, to see if the program of giving computer students appreciate the program.

This study will consider second year students of school of economics as it is composed by department of economics and department of applied statistics which have numbers around three hundred students enrolled in second year. The reason I choose this school is that having economics background has an impact in daily and academic life so without doubting I expect that they will responds and provides good responses from them as they will be explained the main reasons of my research. Not only that I will consider the primary data but also I will use the other research methodology to extend my analysis in order to come up with good recommendations.

1.2. Problem statement

To assess the impact of Computer loans to university students especially those who are in public universities is one of Rwandan government program aimed at avoiding the students to be lagged behind, as permanent secretary of Mineduc, Dr. NTIVUGURUZWA said “ICT is a source of knowledge in schools and university students can use resources internet and to have cheap, fast and updated studies in researches.(New times, 2016)

It is generally believed that education is the bedrock for every technological and economic development of any nation. To meet the mission of Ministry of Education (MINEDUC) of “transforming citizen into skilled human capital for social economic development of the country by ensuring equitable access to quality education focusing on combating illiteracy, promotion of science and technology, critical thinking and positive values”, mechanisms must be taken of introducing computer in higher learning institutions to increase the awareness of graduates and hence producing quality labor desired.

In report (NCHE, 2010), reported that with 5,295 computers in use in higher learning institutions and compared to 62,546 students enrolled by 2010, that is 1:12 ratio which means twelve students share one computer. The ratio itself shows the gap in research and insufficient material for students which can be an obstacle to several benefits one may enjoy when using his/her own machine/computer like reducing cost of printing module hand books and other supporting important documents.

Rwanda has put in place mechanisms to facilitate both private and public institution recently in Higher Learning Institution in Rwanda (NCHE, 2010), where there were three most equipped public institutions such as KIST (now is in college of science and technology) with 2.9 students for one computer, followed by NUR (college of arts and social sciences) with 14 students for one computer but with many students compare to the other institutions, and then KIE with 600 computers.

This insufficient amount of computer available in University need to be increased to digitize education as the wishes of Minister of education and keep students updated (New times, 2016). Beside NHCHE report, according to the recent report by UR Statistics office (MUNYAZIKWIYE Thierry, 2015)about students performances show that only seventy nine percent (79%) were promoted without retake, ten percent promoted with retake, seven percent were repeater, zero point three were discontinued and one point three were suspended while three percent dropped out their studies this shows that there is still gap of seventeen point three (17.3%) of failure to achieve the best level of success except those who suspended and dropped out because no evidence that failure were their main reason to leave their campus.

These results also depict that there is still lock of special weapon like technology for the students to get full success. The same report of UR_Facts and Figures (CBE Statistics, 2015) also shows the number of UR_graduates academic year of 2013/2014 where among total of 8178 of which 21% were comes from CBE, this report also presents that only one percent (1.0%) had first class; twenty four point one percent had second upper class (24.1%); forty three point six percent was in second lower division (43.6%) and thirty one point three percent got pass (31.3%). It is clear understood that about 74.9 % of graduates produce results that are not attractable to the job market because of poor performances.

Student’s attitude related on how to close poor performance gap there is a need of introduction of technology into students learning environment in order to improve students’ achievements. Lecturers has also to leave their teaching approach towards student centered approach which provide enough time for learner to explore his full capacity with the introduction of computer loan it will be possible. As Minister of Education DR. Papias Malimba Musafiri said that the initiative is a good beginning for the digitization of Rwanda’s education. “A journey of a thousand miles starts with a single pace; the initiative marks an important milestone in the education sector. This is fundamental to ensure graduates are equipped with relevant skills for employment and entrepreneurship”. (New times, 2016)

From the past experiences students showed their interests in demanding computer per scholars but they did not get it till this event implementation this can be confirmed by Frank Kamunini a student at University of Rwanda who said: “It was not easy to find the money to buy a computer at a go. The computer will help me reduce costs and will facilitate me to get different opportunities that are found online. I will also improve my ICT skills and contribute to the development of the country,” Students hope that computer is key tools towards the excellence; some of policymakers believe that this program will increase the standards of students and contributing greatly to the appropriate education desired. Students hope that computer is key tools towards the excellence; some of policymakers believe that this program will increase the standards of students and contributing greatly to the appropriate education desired. That means the Computer loan program for University students comes at right time.(New times, 2016)

Based on available literatures, there is still gap in research of whether introduction of technology in learning environment can affect students’ performances, that why I am interested in this topic of determining if computer loan has already started to change learning outcomes. (Oviawe and Oshio, 2011), in their findings of their studies revealed that ICT facilities serve as a major contributor to effective teaching and learning. In general students will need computer literacy to perform better.(Dr. Aitokhuehi, Johnson Oseghale1 Dr. Ojogho, John2, 2014) it is true that students’ computer literacy enhances their academic performance in secondary school generally, that the computer literate students perform better academically than the non-computer literate.

Computer use by lecturers and students is getting more and more common every year, some lecturers has been trying to establish the mechanism of electronic learning (eLearning) but this could not be a hundred percent achieved, where students have not access easily on the computer. According to (Hoyle, 1986)argued that schools are established with the aim of imparting knowledge and skills to those who go through them and behind all this is the idea of enhancing good academic performances.

1.3. Objective of the study

To conduct research, researcher must set objective to provide accurate description of the specific actions that will be taken in order to reach the desired aim of research. Objectives is classified into two parts general objective which cover the whole mission of research and specific objectives which explains small actions to be taken at every stage of research process.

1.3.1. General Objective

To assessment of the impact of POSITIVO computer loan program for university ‘s students learning perspective (UR/HUYE CAMPUS-CBE 2015 -2017)” Specific objectives

- To assess the difference in performances before and after introduction of laptop loan government program to university of Rwanda student’s college of Business and Economics.
- To analyze time students spend using laptop computer.
- To identify what are potentials uses of computer in academic life related with class performances and how students rate the program based on qualitative scaling.
- To check the rate students would like to recommend government to continue laptop loan on university students

1.4.Research questions

2. Is there any difference exist in performances of students before and after introduction of laptop loan government program to university of Rwanda student’s college of Business and Economics, Huye campus?
3. Do time students spend when using laptop loan computer significant to their studies?
4. What are potentials roles played by laptop computer usage in learning environment?
5. How much students like to recommend government to continue laptop loan on university students?

1.5. Research hypothesis

Hypothesis is a statement that specifies how two or more measurable variables are related (Gilbert, 1992:109). In research hypothesis is a statement of expectation or prediction that will be tested by researcher after obtaining data at stage of analysis

Alternative hypothesis (H1) is the claimed statement of researcher, means what she/he wants to prove afterwards and this has to be accepted or rejected based on test results got.

Null hypothesis (Ho) this is a contradictory statement of researcher’s claim, if research fail to reject null hypothesis it is means that his/her claims is failed or it was false. One should be careful with accepting and rejecting those two hypotheses because one is likely to accept false statement or reject true statement those also results in committing typeIand typeIIerror.

Research Hypothesis

Ho:There are no evidences for the differences exist in performance scores of students before and after introduction of Laptop loan government program.

H1:There is difference in performance scores before and after introduction of laptop loan government program.

1.6.Scope of the study

After describing the issues related with few computer ownerships in University of Rwanda especially UR/Huye Campus, as the question started as the impact of computer loans government program to university students on their academic performance scores. In reality the insufficient of computer material in university is a big issue when it is linked with academic success it seems that some people are graduating but on job market there is a need of computer literacy as the world of today is use technology.

1.7.Significance of the study

This study of the impact of Computer loans government program on academic performance scores will be helpful in motivating the students in low level to note the positive and negative effect of the use of computer on their daily basis. This will also be important to policy makers those who initially implement this computer loans program like making some serious measures or extending the program to the rest of other levels.

This will be also valuable for a number of researchers who are interested in study the factors related with academic life and their effects towards students’ achievement.


2.0. Introduction

Students today live in a technological world. Most of them use some form of technology on daily basis including; preparing class PowerPoint presentations, texting, social network and web surfing. Students see these types of technologies as useful and a computer is the main tool for technology to boost their enjoyment. The very same students that are accustomed to these types of technologies will relate to using technology at school. If their learning environment mirrors the ways in which they engage with the world, they will excel in their education (Christen, 2009)Technology can transform the classroom into an interactive learning environment.

2.1. Basic concept definitions

Academic performanceis multidimensional factor by definition it refers to a student’s success in meeting short or long-term goals in education while academic achievement means completing high school or earning a degree. Academic performance is also defined as the outcome of education-the extent to which a student, lecturer or institution has achieved their education goals. Academic performance or achievement is measured by examinations or continuous assessment test.

Computer:Is an electronic device that has the capacity to accept data, store data and processing data based on special set of instructions to produce results.

Laptop computer:is a computer that is portable and suitable for use while travelling.

Laptop loan: this is a new introduced government program where first year students are allowing to fill form requesting laptop based on loan, when students borrow laptop machine from enrolled institution, it is said to be loan as they will pay amount of money later after finishing their studies or payments in installments is also allowed.

Semester:An academic term as a portion of an academic year, the time during which an educational institution holds classes. Its terminology is brought from Latin vocabulary meaning “six-monthly”and has come to mean either of two academic terms. The word semester is sometimes used as a synonym for a “tem”. At University of Rwanda semester account for 20 weeks expected to be a period of 5 months.

Undergraduate:is a college or university student who’s not yet a graduate student

2.3. Link between computer use and academic performance

The students’ academic performance (academic achievement) plays an important role in producing the best quality graduates who will become great leaders and manpower for the country. Thus responsible for the country’s economic and social development,Ali et al, 2009.Students’ academic performance measurement has received considerable attention in previous research.

Some e.g., Fitch, 2004; Partee, 1996; Stephens, 2005have found that computers can facilitate faculty-student interactions and in-class participation, thus increasing engagement and active learning. This is often done through preparing and posting discussion questions and using new devices such as response keypads to facilitate student interaction. Driver (2002)found that computers, coupled with web-based activities, enhanced satisfaction with group projects and overall class satisfaction.

Barak, Lipson, Lerman (2006), demonstrated that computer use in a classroom enhanced active exploratory learning and promoted more meaningful interactions between students and with the instructor in large classes.

Other researchers have found that the use of computers in classes can increase students’ motivation, their ability to apply course based knowledge, and their overall academic achievements(Mackinnon Vibert, 2002; Siegle Foster, 2001).When compared to non- computer classrooms, students in computer classrooms reported higher participation rates, more interest in learning, and a greater motivation to perform well (Trimmel Bachmann, 2004).Surveys of current students and alumni frequently show varying but generally positive levels of satisfaction with computer programs (e.g., Finn Inman, 2004; Mitra Steffensmeier, 2000). Demb, Erickson, and Hawkins- Wilding (2004), in a survey of current students, found that students felt computers had a positive effect on their study habits and were important to their academic success. (Granberg, E., Witte, J, 2005), in one of the few studies that looked at non-structured classroom use of computers, even promoted instant messaging as a benefit.

They claimed that this technology allowed students to make comments to or ask questions of fellow students “silently” without disturbing others, though they provided no evidence that this was beneficial to student learning.

Two issues stand out in the research on the benefits of computers. First, much of the research focuses on student perceptions and the research often lacks objective measures of learning or a non-computer control group. One exception, (Granberg, E., Witte, J, 2005) found no difference between computer and non-computer sections in overall class grades. Second, most of the research has been done on classes that have been specifically designed or revised to utilize the technology. Many of the published papers in this area (e.g., Barak et al., 2006; Hall Elliot, 2003; Hyden, 2005; Pargas Weaver, 2005; Weaver Nilson, 2005) are simply prescriptions on how faculty can adapt their classes to make use of the technology. As a result, it is difficult to assess how applicable the computer research is to more generic classes, or how computer uses truly affects student learning.

Perhaps because of this, the idea of in-class computer use has not been universally embraced. Few faculties are fully integrating computers into their classes (Olson, 2002). Many have raised concerns about the distraction posed by in-class computer use. Even proponents of computers have argued that the use needs to be carefully controlled. (Levine, 2002a)developed a way to integrate computers into classroom experiences and found the need instigated a computer up computer-down system. During lecture time, students are told to close their computers and pay attention, thus actively preventing students from using computers during lectures. (Levine, 2002b) has also advocated the use of software that will allow the instructor to monitor and control what students are doing with their computers during class time.

Computer literacy itself has come to be viewed as job skills (Attewel Battle, 1999)and thus students who lack such human capital characteristics may be at disadvantage in terms of future employment(NCEs, 1996).As in some levels of employment require computer literacy one has to be prepared before going on job market. There are many example where similar study has been done, the policy makers tried to put efforts to close academic achievement gap between United State students and their counterparts abroad. There has been a proliferation of technology especially ubiquous computers in schools in the past 10 years, Sheumaker, Slate Onwereghuzie, (2001).An emerging and feature of most computer initiatives at both state and local levels, is that students have individual access to both hard and software at all times.

2.4. Computer and education

Some researchers had shown their interest that computer use to provide a significant result is that we should emphasis on the side of effective use of computer use as Penuel (2006, p.329)observes: “the educational technology community’s collective knowledge about one-to-one initiatives has not to date kept up with the rapid expansion of these initiatives or with their breath”. Some analysts have focused attention on students’ attitudes towards computers and the link between these attitudes and their learning environment. Fisher and Stolarchuk, (1998) examine associations between computer students’ perceptions of their classroom environment and their cognitive and attitudinal achievements. They found a strong relationship between students’ perceptions of science computer classroom environment and their attitudes towards science. But I am not on this side because in their research they didn’t address a fundamental question as to whether computer ownership itself influenced test scores.

In similar vein, an Australian-based study by (Newhouse, 1999)reported that students generally had positive attitudes toward computers even prior to receiving computers. Using a 120-point scale, he observed that only 5 % of students had negative attitudes (below 60). According to Newhouse, this category comprises students who will always exhibits negative attitudes regardless of computer provision. Recent research has also gain much concentration on the impact of computers upon test scores, instead of simply attitudes.

Dunleavy and Heinecke, (2007)examined the impact of one-to-one computer use on middle school mathematics and science standardized test scores using a pre-test/posttest control group design. On their study they consider only two lessons that is mathematics and science, they found no significant computer effect for mathematics, but they did find that one-to-one computer instruction was more effective in increasing science achievement.

Computer loans have similar purpose with other projects related to see whether computer improves students’ performances scores. The analysis evaluated the impact of computer project launched at middle school in Ohio in 2003. (Lei and Zhao, 2007),found in regression analysis


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Can a computer loan have an influence on students' performance?
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Emmanuel Ntirandekura (Author), 2017, Can a computer loan have an influence on students' performance?, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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