Inter-specific and Intra-specific Competition in Plants


Academic Paper, 2019
26 Pages, Grade: A

Excerpt

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
1.1 Competition
1.1.1 Interspecific competition
1.1.2 Intraspecific competition

2. Background Information
2.1 Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
2.2 Chickpea (Cicer arietinum)
2.3 Urea
2.4 Medium to grow seed
2.5 Seed Germination

3. Hypothesis
3.1 Null hypothesis
3.2 Alternate hypothesis

4. Variables
4.1 Independent variables
4.2 Dependent variables

5. Methodology
5.1 Planning to introduce competition between growing plant
5.2 Seed Selection
5.3 Seed Bed (sand bed) preparation
5.4 Seed laying for the interspecific and intraspecific competition
5.5 Preparation of urea solution and its use
5.6 Measuring the shoot length

6. Data Collection

7. Data Table

8. Graphs

9. Results

10. Discussion and Evaluation.

11. Conclusion

12. Limitations

13. Improvements

14. Extension

15. Bibliography

16. Appendix

17. Glossary

1. Introduction

Crop production in India is labour intensive with limitation of scientific techniques. Unawareness in farmers for correct distance of sowing seed leads to low production of crops. This is due to overlapping of niche and thus the realised niche of a species which is the actual mode of existence resulting from adaptation and competition is developed1. A research was undertaken by Jianbo Shen, Lixing Yuan et al. in Journal of Experimental Botany which acknowledged various factors that affect the crop production and solutions to overcome competition2. The research would make farmers aware of a major factor like competition, that should be considered while crop production.

A crop is produced when a seed is germinated and plumule and radicle grow. Among various factors that affect the shoot length of a plant are light, oxygen, soil fertility, moisture supply, nutrients supplied etc. competition is least considered. Length of the shoot system depends upon how better the plants can overcome the competition to obtain above resources. If plants are of different species they have different resource requirement but if plants are of same species their resource requirement is very much similar and hence lead to tolerance and stress3. Urea was chosen as a nutrient source as according to an exploration by Rein Aerts, the competition is also dependent on the nutrient provided to the plant. An investigation on effect of distance between plants on the development of cassava plant tuber was conducted by Nereu Augusto Streck et al. which resulted in high yield per plant with lower densities4. So this investigation was planned to work on the different types of competition and solve the problem of the farmers suffering from shortages of crop production. Hence, the research question was framed:

“Does decreasing distance (70mm, 50mm, 30mm, 10mm) of the wheat (Triticum aestivum) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds sown in the presence (5% solution of urea) and absence of urea effects the shoot length (mm) due to inhibitory effects of intraspecific and interspecific competition between them?”

1.1 Competition

It is the struggle between the plants or groups of plants for nutrients, food and pollinators in order to grow and survive5. Competition can occur between the plants of same species called intraspecific competition and it also occur between plants of different species known as the interspecific competition6. Intraspecific competition is usually more intense than the interspecific competition7. Generally to decrease the intraspecific competition between the plants, they have a technique of seed dispersal8.

1.1.1 Interspecific competition

It is the competition which occurs between two different plants of dissimilar genetic constituents as if the seeds of different plants are sown closer to each other then they will affect growth of each other9. The interspecific competition may decrease or increase the growth rate of a particular plant. It is dependent on the availability of the nutrients when sown in natural conditions.

1.1.2 Intraspecific competition

When a member of same species compete for the food, shelter, water and mates then this competition is known as intraspecific competition10. In case of plants when two or more seeds of same species interfere with each other and hence affect the growth rate of the plant it is known as intraspecific competition in plants.

2. Background Information

In this investigation both inter and intraspecific competition are developed through decreasing distances (mm) between sown seed and exposure to urea for contain group of both plant seeds after germination.

2.1 Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Wheat is one of the most abundant crop grown and consumed in India. So it was decided to take wheat to provide the data of a crop which is more useful to the farmers. Production of wheat in India as per the year 2017, is 96000 (1000 MT)11. So this seed was chosen for the investigation as it is easier to grow and do not need enough maintenance. Life cycle of the wheat seeds is for the total of approximate 120 days. 4 -5 days are required for the wheat seeds to germinate. This is the time when the seeds are fully developed into a wheat plant12. A young seedling is formed 4-5 days after the germination. This is a two leaf stage13.

2.2 Chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

Chickpea seeds are one of the most important Rabi crop grown in India. India is one of the major country for the growth of chickpea seeds. India produces 8 million tons of chickpea seeds which is 70% of the world’s total production14. Chickpea seeds were chosen as its shoot grows rapidly. Complete Life Cycle of chickpea seeds takes place in approximately 100 days. The duration of rapid development of the chickpea seeds is before the flowering stage of the seeds15.

2.3 Urea

Urea is used as a fertilizer to grow various crops. Urea is formed by two amide groups (-NH2) which is bonded to a central carboxylic carbon (-C=O)16. Urea acts as an additional nutrient in the germination of a seed. It helps in providing nitrogen to the soil. Nitrogen is the important component which affects the growth of the plant17. It increases the formation of chlorophyll which helps in photosynthesis due to which the plant’s growth is triggered18. Nitrogen is the main fertilizer for the plants to provide nutrient19. So it was decided to use urea as a source for nutrient to the plant.20

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

2.4 Medium to grow seed

Sand was used to germinate and grow the seeds properly. As different quality of soil may vary the results in the shoot length of the seeds21. As soil contains some extra nutrients which will affect the shoot length of the plant. So sand was chosen. Sand must be made free from any impurities such as stones, leaves and other impurities.

2.5 Seed Germination

Seed Germination is the growth of seeds into young plant or seedlings in the presence of sunlight and water22. It is the period of the growth of embryo. It is the stage where the seed begins to grow in a plant. In this phase a primary root comes out of the seed known as the radicle of the plant. The plumule of the seeds also emerges at this time and it is developed into the shoot system of the plant23.

3. Hypothesis

3.1 Null hypothesis

With the decrease in the distance between the seeds there would be no effect on the plumule lengths of the seeds for both the interspecific and the intraspecific competition whether the experiment is performed in presence or absence of urea. So when the t- test will be conducted the probability to accept the null hypothesis would be less than 5% or 0.05 (p< 0.05)

3.2 Alternate hypothesis

With the decrease in the distance between the seeds there would be decrease in the shoot lengths of the seeds for both the interspecific and the intraspecific competition. And the shoot length will be greater in the presence of urea solution as extra nutrients are provided to the plant seeds. Moreover, a plant will perform well under interspecific competition rather than intraspecific competition24. Therefore, when the t- test would be conducted the probability that the alternate hypothesis would be accepted is greater than 95% or 0.95. (p> 0.95)

4. Variables

4.1 Independent variables

1. Availability of urea – the concentrations of urea was changed by me to see the effect of it on the plumule length of the seed after germination. Its value is 0% and 5%
2. The distance between the seeds – distance (mm) between the seeds was decreased and observed in order to see the interspecific and intraspecific competitions.

4.2 Dependent variables

1. Shoot length of the seeds – the shoot length of seed were measured which was varied with the absence and availability of urea and the decreasing distance between the seeds.

5. Methodology

5.1 Planning to introduce competition between growing plant

The distance in the seeds was decreased to 70mm, 50mm, 30mm, and 10mm for imposing competition. Also a source of nutrition must be provided to the seeds to grow. Urea was used as a source of nutrient for the seeds to grow as nitrogen acts as a main fertilizer to the plant.25 It was decided to perform the setups in the presence and absence of urea for all the distances and then measure the trend in the change in the shoot length of the seedlings after 12 days of the investigation.

5.2 Seed Selection

The seeds of chickpea and wheat are first soaked in water for a night so that it would overcome the initial dehydration of the seeds so that there would be no deviation in the results. Next day, observe if the seed sinks then they are viable and if it floats then that seeds are not fresh and healthy enough26. After soaking them in the water the seeds are now ready to grow.

5.3 Seed Bed (sand bed) preparation

In a bucket sand was filled and water was poured in the bucket. The mixture was stirred and then it was filtered to separate out stones and other impurities from the sand so that it would be fresh to use for the investigation. After filtering the sand, the sand was kept in the sunlight for 5-6 hours to let it dry and the sand is ready to use. 1-2 drops of vinegar were used to sterilise each disposable bowl of 100 mm diameter and this was done for all the 80 seed bed container27.

5.4 Seed laying for the interspecific and intraspecific competition

The temperature of seed bed was maintained around 18- 24 ◦C as the setup was placed in an air conditioned room temperature as it affects the rate and the percentage of the seeds that grow and would affect the shoot length of the plant28. The soil moisture was also kept constant throughout the investigation by supplying 40 ml of water to each setting29. As due to water stress and production of gibberellic acid in the seed there would be affect in the nutritional status of seed30. The seed bed was prepared from the filtered sand by measuring 200gm equally in all the sterile 100 mm diameter seed bed container for the investigation. The seeds which were soaked in water were now collected for the investigation. 80 settings were used for the investigation and labelled according to their distances. For the intraspecific competition of chickpea seeds, the seeds were kept at the appropriate distances i.e. 70mm, 50mm, 30mm, 10mm measured with the help of measuring scale. Similarly, it was done for the setting of intraspecific competition of wheat seeds and for the interspecific competition between the chickpea and wheat seeds. The setups were then covered with the plastic wraps to prevent any loss of moisture from the soil and the amount of light is also controlled as light of different wavelengths can change the rate of growth and germination31. So, all the plants were kept away from the sunlight and were kept under the room light so that equal intensity and wavelength of light is available to all the setups. Distances for the investigation was selected with a difference of 20 mm to see the significant difference on plant’s germination and growth due to distance and availability of urea. The setups were left for 5 days to germinate and then the solution of urea was added to those which were labelled as in the presence of urea. Then further the setups were left to grow for 6 days. The time allotted to the plants to germinate and grow should be kept constant so as to reduce the percentage error during the investigation.

5.5 Preparation of urea solution and its use

Among the 80 setups 50% were planned to be grown in presence of urea for both wheat and chickpea plants so 5% urea solution was prepared. 5% concentration of urea was chosen as per the preliminary lab by dissolving 5mg of urea in 100 ml of water. Now to make the solution of 600 ml, 500 ml of water was added to the solution of urea. The urea solution was added after the germination of the seeds and then for 6 days it was allowed to grow and then the effects was observed. Make sure that the time allotted for the germination of all the seeds is the same so that appropriate results could be observed (5 days). Similarly, the time allotted to the growth of the shoot length is also fixed i.e. 6 days.

5.6 Measuring the shoot length

After that the shoot lengths of each seed sown was measured by a ruler of 30 cm. The same 30 cm ruler was used throughout the investigation to measure the varied shoot length of the seeds so that there would not be any error in measuring the length of the shoot. The above process conducted for chickpea will also be done for observing the intra specific competition between wheat and for the interspecific competition between wheat and chickpea.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1: 5 trials for the intraspecific competition for the wheat and chickpea seeds at different distances.

6. Data Collection

As the experiment was done keeping all the variables in mind the shoot lengths of the seeds were collected as shown in figure 1. The figure shows the intraspecific competition between the seeds for different distances. After 5 days of germinating all the seeds under same condition and then adding urea to the respective seeds and letting it grow for 6 days the data was collected. Using a measuring scale of 30 cm the shoot length of the seeds was measured and recorded. The shoot length of the seeds was measured in millimetres. The data was then processed in the table according to the type of competition and availability of urea. Furthermore, the data was then processed and evaluated by conducting t-test and calculating average shoot length. Conducting the preliminary lab, it was observed that the shoot lengths do not have large variations for same distance and concentration. So, a minimum of five trials for each value were taken. Different data tables were made for different type of competition and seeds incorporating all the trials. Another table was developed in which the calculated value of the average of all the trials of the value of the shoot length of the seed differently for interspecific and intraspecific competition. The error bars were also calculated and incorporated in the graphs. Then, graph of the average shoot lengths of the seeds in the absence and the presence of the urea in which they were grown was plotted to analyse the trend of the competitions. The linear regression equations obtained from the graph were then tabulated and analysed. A T-test was also done to check which hypothesis would be accepted.

[...]


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Excerpt out of 26 pages

Details

Title
Inter-specific and Intra-specific Competition in Plants
College
The University of Hong Kong
Grade
A
Author
Year
2019
Pages
26
Catalog Number
V489009
ISBN (eBook)
9783668975743
Language
English
Tags
Molecular Biology, Plant Biology, Agricultural Sciences, Experimental Botany
Quote paper
Saharsh Khicha (Author), 2019, Inter-specific and Intra-specific Competition in Plants, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/489009

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