Challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment. The Case of Dire Teyara of Harari Regional State, Ethiopia


Thesis (M.A.), 2019

111 Pages


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Contents

Acknowledgement

List of Tables

List of Figures

Acronym

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Back ground of the Study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Objective of the Study
1.4.1 General Objective
1.4.2 Specific Objective
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.6.1 Variables and Subject Scope
1.6.2 Geographical Scope
1.6.3Time Scope
1.6.4 Respondent Scope
1.7 Limitations of the Study
1.8 Operational Definitions
1.9 Organization of the Study
1.10 Summery

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
2.2 Theoretical Literature
2.2.1 Definition and Concepts Youth
2.2.2 Youth Empowerment
2.2.3 Youth Economic Empowerment
2.2.4 Challenges for rural Youths Economic Empowerment
2.2.4.1 Challenge of credit and Poor Financial Management
2.2.4.2 Lack of knowledge, skill, and commitment of leaders, experts, and lack of awareness of youth
2.2.4.3 Limited access of training and technical support
2.2.4.4 Lack of monitoring and evaluation system.
2.2.5 Rural youths development Programmes prospect for youths’ economic empowerment in Ethiopia
2.2.5.1 National youth policy
2.2.5.2 Plans and strategies related with youth
2.2.5.3 Youth development package
2.2.6 Strategies to improve youth economic empowerment
2.3 Empirical Literature
2.3.1 Youth economic empowerment practice in sub-Saharan Africa Uganda
2.4 Conceptual Frameworks
2.5 Research Gap
2.6 Summery

CHEPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Description of the Study Area
3.2.1 Name of the Woreda
3.2.2 Demographic characteristics
3.2.3 Topography
3.3 Research Type
3.4 Research approach
3.5 Data Type and Source of data
3.5.1 Primary data
3.5.2 Secondary data
3.6 Population of the study and sample frame
3.6.1 Population of the study
3.7 Sampling Technique and sample size
3.7.1 Sampling Technique
3.7.2 Sample size determine for quantitative data
3.7.3 Sampling size determination for Qualitative Data
3.7.4 Sample frame or sample Design
3.7.5 Sampling unit
3.8 Data collection tools
3.9 Methods of Data Analysis and Presentation
3.9.1 Methods of Data Analysis
3.9.2 Quantitative Data Analysis
3.9.3 Qualitative Data Analysis
3.9.4 Methods of Data Presentation
3.10Ethical Considerations
3.11 Summary

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION.
Introduction
4.1 Response rate
4. 2. The Results of the Study
4.3. General characteristics of the study population
4.4. Data presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Challenges and Prospects of Rural Youth Economic Empowerment
4.4.1 Current practice of rural youth economic empowerment
4.4.1.1. Availability of youth to organize in economic engagement based on their preference
4.4.1.2. Availability of relevant training and technical support for youth
4.4.1.3. Availability of credit service for youth
4.4.1 .4. Availability of market information and linkage
4.4.1.5. Support from local leaders, expert, and stakeholders for youth in implementation of job opportunity creation program in youth economic activity
4.4.2. Challenges of rural youth economic empowerment
4.4.2.1. Limited knowledge and skill in leaders, experts to mobilize youth regarding youth economic development
4.4.2.2. Inadequate Stakeholder integration
4.4.2.3. Lack of Monitoring and evaluating practice to implement package
4.4.2.4. Inadequate training and technical support for youth
4.4.2.5. In sufficient credit service for youth
4.4.2.6. Lack of market information and linkage to rural youth
4.4.2.7. Lack of local community support towards the rural youth economic empowerment particularly in job creation economic activity
4.4.3. Prospects of rural youth economic empowerment
4.4.3.1. Availability of policy and development package to ensure youth economic empowerment
4.4.3.2. Availability of short and long term plans to maintain rural youth economic empowerment
4.4.3.3. Availability of youth development group
4.4.3.4. Availability of basic facilities
4.4.4. Strategies to improve rural youth economic empowerment
4.4.4.1. The government introducing different policies and strategies to empower economy of rural youth
4.4.4.2. The government monitoring and evaluation of rural youth economic empowerment particularly in the job creation program.
4.4.4.3. The education and training focus on empowering economy of rural youth
4.4.4.4. The arrangement of Job opportunity creation and food security office structure within Dire Teyara woreda

CHAPTER FIVE
5. DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1. Introduction
5.2 Discussion of the Major Findings of the Study
5.2.1 Current practice of rural youth economic empowerment
5.2.2 Challenges of rural youth economic empowerment
5.2.3 Prospects of rural youth economic empowerment
5.2.4. Strategies to improve rural youth economic empowerment
5.3. Conclusion
5.4. Recommendation
5.4.1. Recommendation for Policy Makers
5.4.2. Recommendation for Federal Government
5.4.3. Recommendation for Regional State Government
5.4.4. Recommendation for woreda Administration
5.4.5 Recommendation for beneficiary youth group
5.4.6. Recommendation for Credit Institution
5.4.7. Recommendation for Future Researcher
5.5 Summary

Reference

Appendix I

Appendix II

Appendix III

Appendix IV

Appendix V

Acknowledgement

Above all, thank you my Almighty Allaha for your care my healthy and Thanks my Allah in favor of guiding me for success.

Heartfelt thanks go to my Advisor Dr. Demeke Gaddissa for his commitment on the thesis at each stage and for making valuable comments and suggestions that guided me thoroughly towards its good end. Compliments deserve to Jemal Ahmed who is a lecturer at ECSU University and voluntarily assisted me as a co-advisor to set good research proposal.

I would like to express my deepest gratitude and respect to my wife Muslima Abbas, for her encouragement, support and comfortable atmosphere during the long hard work of this thesis. I am exceedingly thankful to my research participants for their willingness in providing valuable information to undertake this research work. Without their assistance, the accomplishment of the study would not be realized.

Finally, I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation, for the support and contribution of everyone whose names are not mentioned, but who assisted me during my study. Thanks all!!

Barudin Abdi

List of Tables

Title

Table 2.1: Definitions of youth.

Table 3.1: Total population of the study.

Table 3.2: Carvalho’s Sample Size Determination.

Table 3.3: Summary of sampling unit.

Table 3.4: summery of sampling method and sample of respondent selection from each kebele.

Table 4.1: Analysis of interview and observation.

Table 4.2: year of job opportunity creation program in service in the Direteyara woreda.

Table 4.3: Availability of policy and development package to ensure youth economic empowerment.

Table 4.4: Availability of youth development group.

Table 4.5: the government in introducing different policies and strategies to empower economy of rural youth.

Table 4.6: the government monitoring and evaluation of rural youth economic empowerment particularly in the job creation program.

Table 4.7: the education and training focus on empowering economy of rural youth.

Table 4.8: the arrangement of job opportunity creation office within your woreda.

List of Figures

Title

Figure 2.2: conceptual framework

Figure 3.1: description of the area.

Figure 4.2: gender of respondents

Figure 4.3: Marital status of respondent

Figure 4.4: Age of respondent

Figure 4.4: Educational Status of respondents

Figure 4.6: Annual incomes of respondents

Figure 4.7: Availability of youth organize in to the economic engagement based on their preference

Figure 4.8: Availability of relevant training and technical support for youth

Figure 4.9: Availability of credit service for youth

Figure 4.10: Availability of market information and linkage

Figure 4.11: Availability support of local leader, experts and stakeholder

Figure 4.12: Limited knowledge and skill of leader regarding youth economic development

Figure 4.13: Inadequate stakeholder integration

Figure 4.14: lack of monitoring and evaluating practice to implement package

Figure 4.15: Inadequate training and technical support for youth

Figure 4.16: Insufficient credit services for youth

Figure 4.17: Lack of market information and linkage to rural youth

Figure 4.18: Lack of local community support towards the rural youth

Figure 4.19: Availability of short and long term plans to maintain rural youth economic empowerment

Acronym

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Abstract

Youth are considered an important human resource of the nation and every state should try to utilize them as mediators of economic growth and development. Rural Youth’s economic empowerment helps to insure food security and the well being of nations. The purpose of the study was an assessment on the challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment in Dire Teyara Woreda in Harari Regional state of Ethiopia. Standing from this objective, the study was attempted to answer the basic questions of What are the current practices of rural youth economic empowerment?, What are the challenges in implementing rural youth economic development package?, What are the prospects of rural youth economic empowerment?, How can the challenges be addressed and appropriately to use prospects to empower youth economy in the study area? The study was conducted using descriptive study design. Both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods engaged. Quantitative data was collected from 80 beneficiary youth organized under job opportunity creation program and qualitative data was collected by interview with 10 respondents which of expert of Job Opportunity and Food Security Agency , woreda leader and managers in six Kebelles and 3 field observations was conducted. After data was collected then edited, coded and enter in to SPPS computer software and micro soft Excel as instruments of data entry and data interpreting. The analysis was done using descriptive statistics tool (like frequency, tables, percentage), data was presented by using graphs and summarizing. The major findings are: most of the respondents’ gender was males those are the age category of 26-29 years and most of them are single with high school education background. The challenges in implementing rural youth economic development package particularly in job creation opportunity program challenged by Limited knowledge and skill in leaders and experts, Inadequate Stakeholder integration, Lack of monitoring and evaluating practice to implement youth package, Insufficient credit services for youth and Lack of local community support. In addition the study investigated and described the prospect of rural youth economic empowerment were long and short term plan in the Job Opportunity and Food Security Agency and organizing youth in developing group. And also finding of the study are the major Strategies to improve rural youth economic empowerment were the government should be strongly introducing youth policies, highly monitoring and evaluation in implementing youth development package, good education and training that focus to improve rural youth economic empowerment and improve credit service to improve rural youth economic empowerment Finally, the researcher has recommended that participation and coordination of all concerned bodies and stakeholders are very important in supporting to empower rural youth economically.

Key word: youth empowerment, Rural Youth, economic empowerment, challenge, prospects and job opportunity creation.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Back ground of the Study

According to FAO (2016), Youth’s empowerment in agriculture and food systems has a huge potential to end poverty and hunger. It is because youth are the major resource base for any country that wants to get on any meaningful development. Therefore, investment in the youth is the only way to ensure the future growth and development of any country. Based on Ogbeide, Francis Oluwaseun (2013), these youth must be developed, intellectually, morally, socially, and with relevant skills to face a rapidly advancing technological world (Francis, 2013).

Based on FAO to lead efforts for youth in agriculture and the rural economy (2016), 88 percent of the world’s 1.2 billion youth live in developing countries. In Africa young people is an increasing ratio of the population, with 70% of the total population in the age bracket of 30 years or below. However, there is evidence that many young people are not interested in pursuing agriculture, and this may affect the national and international goal of achieving economic growth through agricultural investments. According to MoYSC (2005), the Ethiopian youth population comprises 21.6 million and nearly 81.35% of the youth populations are living in the rural area while the remaining lives in urban areas.

According to FACT (2017), Ethiopia’s youthful population is an incredible asset and untapped resource for positive growth. Of Ethiopia’s population, estimated at 104 million, 41 percent is under the age of 15. More than 28 percent is aged 15 to 29. Youth unemployment is estimated at nearly 27 percent. One reason for the high youth unemployment rate is low literacy (68 percent).

The issues of youth empowerment have gained increasing attention. According to Yemis (2010), the world has given recognition both developed and developing countries whose participation of youth has significant effect in ensuring national development and promoting democracy.

The government of the FDRE has formulated a national youth policy, which aimed at enabling the youth to fully participate in and benefit from the ongoing efforts to bring about development and to build a democratic system (MoYSA, 2005). The Ethiopian government is encouraging young people to start creation of job program in order to reduce the rate of youth unemployment. Due to low level of the economy that is complied with lack of leadership, commitment, low capacity in implementing youth policies, and youth package, the empowerment of the youth has been at the minimal level little by way of education and job opportunity (Getinet, 2003).

In the same way, according to the Harar WoYSA (2015), the youth of the Dire Teyara woreda of Harari region have been suffering related with economic problems due to low level of stakeholder integration, lack of leader and experts commitment, lack of monitoring and evaluating practices were problems in implementation of rural youth economic development package effectively.

1.2 Statement of problem

Poor performance of youth economic empowerment was based on characteristic such as age, culture, disabilities, economic status and gender (New Zealand Qualifications Authority, 2012).

According to UNFPA (2007), The African youths are facing is the problem of economic empowerment. Because of high rate of youth challenge of economic empowerment in Africa at large can be recognized to slow economic growth and undersized proper labor markets, and also according to young leaders think tank for policy alternatives high population growth rate, lack of adequate experience and skills, lack of decent work, the rigid education system, rural-urban migration, limited social networks, youth’s limited access to capital support system etc young leaders think tank for policy alternative.

In respect of a government effort to effectively address youth issues through formulating the national youth policy, youth development packages and through designing long and short term initiatives, it is worth nothing that unemployment and poverty and still persist among the youth(UNFPA,2007).

The National Youth Policy of Ethiopia marks a major step in recognizing and promoting the rights of young people in the country. Established in 2004, the policy aims “to bring about the active participation of youth in the building of a democratic system and good governance as well as in the economic, social and cultural activities […] and to enable them to fairly benefit from the results”(OECD,2018).

The National Youth Policy recognizes the need for inter-ministerial cooperation: the development of the National Youth Policy is thus coordinated by the Ministry of Youth and Sports and implemented with the support of diverse stakeholders such as the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Health, as well as NGOs and youth federations. Yet, the government still faces some challenges in implementing the National Youth Policy, such as weak monitoring and evaluation tools, lack of inter-sectoral cooperation, limited financial resources and absence of a clear strategy at the different territorial levels (OECD,2018).

The practical implementation of the youth policy currently in Ethiopia is gradual and it is inadequately integrated into all stakeholders. The major causes of youth disempowerment in Ethiopia are absence of justice in land administration, legal and policy problems as well as youth development package implementation problem, lack of skill, knowledge and commitment of leader and expert; lack credit, lack training and supporting youth, lack of monitoring and evaluation, lack of a culture of work ethic and job creation in the respective societies, and lack of knowledge and skill to perform job (Hiruy, 2012).

According to Dire Teyara woreda administration Office report (2016), explained that unemployed youth were organized in rural youth economic development package under youth job creation opportunity program and they engaged on different economic activity such as animal resource development, small scale irrigation and social service delivery. However, implementation of the youth package have many constraint such as lack of skill, knowledge and commitment of leader and expert; lack credit availability, lack training and supporting system, lack of monitoring and evaluation, common in the woreda.

The above general facts indicate problems in youth related with economic aspect of youth. Furthermore, studies was scarce on the issue rural youth economic empowerment but there are few previous studies under-taken on challenges of leadership in youth economic empowerment Tasfaye (2013), practices and challenges on economic empowerment of rural women Bedru (2011) and Samrawit (2004) indicate that the youth economic disempowerment are associated with leadership problem observed in the implementation of the national youth policy. Thus, researcher was studied the challenges and prospect of rural youth economic empowerment in Dire Teyara woreda of Harari Region. More specifically, this study was focused on the current practice, challenges and prospect of rural job opportunity creation program implementation in the study area. The study was also initiated with the aim of proposing that can improve the challenge of rural youth economic empowerment. These holistic issues motivated the researcher to investigate the challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment in the Harari Regional State, the case of Dire Teyara woreda to discover the economic situation to improve the problems relies on the study findings and to fill the knowledge gap that exist due to limited studies on the rural youth related issues in Dire Teyara woreda.

1.3 Research Questions

- What are the current practices of rural youth economic empowerment?
- What are the challenges in implementing rural youth economic development package?
- What are the prospects of rural youth economic empowerment?
- How can the challenges be addressed and appropriately to use prospect to empower youth economy in the study area?

1.4 Objective of the Study

1.4.1 General Objective

The objective of this study is to investigate the challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment in Harari Regional State, the case of Dire Teyara woreda

1.4.2 Specific Objective

This study specifically attempt to:

- assess the current practices of rural youth economic empowerment,
- identify the challenges in implementing rural youth economic development package,
- describe the prospect of rural youth economic empowerment, and
- Describe the ways to be used to address the challenges and appropriately to use opportunities to empower youth economy in the study area

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study tries to assess the challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment in Ethiopia in general and in Dire Teyara Woreda of Harari regional state in particular. This study may have various contributions. It can be used for individual and community to develop knowledge and create awareness on challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment, The study can be used for Policy makers -to strengthen policy issues and for other researcher as reference material for further studies, as a useful material for academic purposes, and as an added literature to the existing knowledge indicate its relevance to the youth area. Generally it has Significant toward political, economical and social aspects of the area.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The importance of this research is an assessment of challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment in Dire Teyara Woreda of Harari Region. This study was focus on rural youth in study area whose age from 15-29 both male and female and also it was seen from the following point of view:-

1.6.1 Variables and Subject Scope

There are different issues that can be researched in relation to women economic empowerment. But, this study was focuses on the challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment in the study area. The independent variables are:- Challenges of youth economic empowerment (lack of knowledge, skill, and commitment of leaders, experts, and lack stake holder integration, lack of credit service , lack of training and technical support, lack of evaluation and monitoring system) and the prospects of youth economic empowerment (Availability of National youth policy, Availability of long and short term Plans and strategies related with youth, Availability of Youth development package, Availability of natural resource, Availability of basic facilities (include quality of education, Concerning the roads, electricity, portable water), availability of youth development group) and Dependent variable Economic empowerment (job creation, increasing productivity, increasing income generation, achieve food security and poverty reduction).

Therefore, this study was an asses the challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment in the Dire Teyara woreda of Harari Region based on dependent and independent variables.

1.6.2 Geographical Scope

The study was considered challenges and prospects of youth economic empowerment of all 6 kebeles of Dire Teyara Woreda of Harari Regional state and it was not consider other woreda of the region and other area of Ethiopia.

1.6.3Time Scope

The study was used data of challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment from 2017 to 2019 of the Woreda annual report. Because youth job opportunity creation programme of youth development package applied from 2016 in Dire Teyara woreda. Therefore, the study was conducted within specific period of time from when the program was start in the woreda to 2018.

1.6.4 Respondent Scope

Because of scarcity of resources like time and necessary financial resources, the study was the challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment consider youth beneficiaries organized under job opportunity creation program youth of the selected 1 woreda out of 3 rural woreda, in the study area.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

While conducting the study, the researcher was encountered some limitations. The first problem was lack of well organized secondary data. This include the limitation of organized data/ document on time in the study area, Secondly, Respondents was not give direct and specific answers to the questions about the challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment, Thirdly, interview (leader and expert of the woreda and kebele) was busy because of different meeting and field work, Fourthly, there was a challenge from the respondents, to provide responses timely as you need. However, the researcher was tried to overcome these obstacles with great efforts.

The researcher was attempt to overcome this problem by arranging convenient time for interview with the woreda and kebele leaders and experts to get organized document and arranging time. In case of secondary data scarce, the researcher was search articles, reports, and other discussion document from different areas to mitigate the limits of secondary source of data.

1.8 Operational Definitions

Empowerment: Empowerment is "a social action process that promotes participation of people, organizations and communities in gaining control over their lives in their community and larger society." Empowerment is not having the power to dominate others, but having the power to act with others to promote change. According to Narayan (2005) Empowerment refers broadly to the expansion of choice and action to shape one's life. It implies control over resources and decisions.

Youth empowerment : Youth empowerment is an attitudinal, structural, and cultural process whereby young people gain the ability, authority, and agency to make decisions and implement change in their own lives and the lives of other people, including youth and adults (Vavrus and Fletcher 2006). Empowering youth would maximize their chance to contribute to a nation's economic, social and cultural advancement. Recognizing the importance of youth in shaping the world they will live in as adults,

Rural youth: youth as part of the rural society of Ethiopia who are between 15-29 years irrespective of their gender national studies physical or mental disability. In rural Ethiopia with rural agriculture livelihood as the main source of the youth’s lives (MoYSA, 2005).

Youth Economic empowerment: is the right of youth to use all the economic key resources, right to be employed in the income generating activities, right to save and accumulate of money and other assets, equally and to have equal employment opportunities without distinction or discrimination, to have full right to make decision on economic issues, personal assets and common resources, and to own properties .It is in this context that youth economic empowerment used in this study.

Job opportunity creation program: - it is one of youth package development which is prepared youth for meaningful economic development for current and future. Job creation strategies are to stimulate healthy economic growth of youth.

Challenges: - indicate the constraints that hold back the success and sustainability of rural youths’ economic empowerment.

1.9 Organization of the Study

This research study has five chapters. The first chapter covers the introductory part which includes the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective, research questions, significance, scope and limitations of the study are included. The second chapter deals with review of related literatures of challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment. The third chapter was deals with the research methodology and data collection methods. The fourth chapter deals with data presentation, analysis and interpretation. Finally, the last chapter presents the discussion of major findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study.

1.10 Summery

The background information shows there is a clear link between youth economic empowerment and socio economical development of the nation .Since youth considered as productive part of the country, without empowering them it is unthinkable to achieve socio-economical development of the country. However different studies show there were varies challenges that hinder the youth economic empowerment, lack of leader and experts commitment, lack of monitoring and evaluating practices, insufficient credit service, The aim of the study was assessing the challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment which affect youth socio-economic in Dire Teyara Woreda of Harari Region by answering the research questions. The next chapter literature review used to investigate others work in relation of the issue.

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction

There is a shortage of, empirical studies on the challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment in Africa, and even few for youth in rural areas (Leavy and Smith 2010). As my information, there are only few studies that address economic empowerment rural youth in our Ethiopia too. Nevertheless, most of the existing literature has come from work done on globally and other African countries. However, I have tried to see the existing literature related to challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment by giving more emphasis to African context in general and Ethiopian context in particular.

2.2 Theoretical Literature

“Speech marks” stated in Fact sheet (2017) “We cannot always build the future for our youth, but we can build our youth for the future.” Former U.S. President Franklin D.

2.2.1 Definition and Concepts Youth

There is no agreed definition of “youth”. Youth is often understood to be the period of adolescence during which young people make the transition from childhood to adulthood. Youth become mature sexually and increasing social experience and economic autonomy. It can also be seen as a social class that is historically and culturally constructed (Thorsen, 2007). There may be social or cultural ‘events’ that are understood to define the transition from childhood to ‘youth hood’ to adulthood. In policy, youth is usually defined with reference to age brackets. Some of African countries define youth as follow table.

Table 2.1: Definitions of youth

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Anyidoho et al, 2012

According to Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) (Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture 2004) youth means the age between a periods of 15–29 years. Therefore, in this paper youth constitutes individuals who found between lower age limits of 14 years old and 29 years old of above age limit.

2.2.2 Youth Empowerment

According to Kar, Snehendu Bet al (1999-12-01)youth empowerment is a process in which children and youths are encouraged to take charge of their lives. They do this by addressing their situation and then take action in order to improve their access to resources and transform their consciousness through their beliefs, values, and attitudes.Youth empowerment aims to improve quality of life. Youth empowerment is achieved through participation in youth empowerment programs. However scholars argue that children’s rights implementation should go beyond learning about formal rights and procedures to give birth to a concrete experience of rights (Golay, Dominique; Malatesta, Dominique, 2014).There are numerous models that youth empowerment programs use that help youth achieve empowerment. A variety of youth empowerment initiatives are underway around the world. These programs can be through non-profit organizations, government organizations, schools or private organizations.

Youth empowerment is different than youth development because development is centered on developing individuals, while empowerment is focused on creating greater community change relies on the development of individual capacity (Ledford, Meredith King; Lucas, Bronwyn, 2013).

According to Wikipedia (2019), empowerment examines six interdependent dimensions: economic, psychological, community, organizational, social and cultural. Researcher focused on only one dimension of empowerment which is economic empowerment.

2.2.3 Youth Economic Empowerment

According to seethemgrow.org (2019), youth economic empowerment teaches entrepreneurship skills, how to take ownership of their own assets and how to have income security. Focus is directed to poverty alleviation; empowering poor youth, work toward livelihood promotion and protection.

2.2.4 Challenges for rural Youths Economic Empowerment

According to Making Cents international (2016) international Rural Youth Economic Empowerment Program 2013-2016 in developing countries the rural youth population is very large and vulnerable group. Globally, there is a bout three quarters of the poor live in rural areas, and among these one-half of this population are young people. This youth population is confronted with a number of challenges to building sustainable livelihoods. The quality of education in rural areas is worse than in urban areas and does not prepare youth adequately for existing livelihood opportunities. According to Adebayo (1999) youths are not only energetic with the ability to replace the older generation in agriculture, but are filled with new innovations and technological competence to carry out commercial and technological agriculture. Despite these attributes, the lack of basic infrastructure such as electricity and water supply limits livelihood options and burdens youth with responsibilities that can reduce training and educational opportunities. While agriculture is for many the most viable livelihood option, growing populations, the ongoing subdivision of land and soil degradation means that youth often lack access to or control of sufficient land for farming, thus preventing or inhibiting their pursuit of this opportunity(ibid).

According to Echebiri (2005) sighted by Ajani, E.Net al. (2015) factor affecting rural youths’ involvement in agricultural production in Nigeria is social, economic and environmental factors. Social factors include public perception about farming and parental influence to move out of agriculture. Economic factors include inadequate credit facilities, low farming profit margins, and lack of agricultural insurance scheme, initial capital and production inputs. Environmental issues include inadequate land, continuous poor harvests and soil degradation. Economic push factors include poor physical infrastructure and social amenities in the rural areas, search for education and skills acquisition, and the absence of desirable job opportunities.

According to FAO (2016), the serious challenge of young people in agriculture which are lack of productive resource(land, water, input, technology) and information, problem of extension services and credit, Participation in rural institutions and decision-making, lack of voice, Limited access to decent rural empowerment opportunity.

In developing rural area youth’s have specific challenge. In developing country have most youth’s have Lack of credit and lack of interest in agriculture, Limited skills and education to meet demand and Social pressure to migrate for household income (ibid).

Rural youth in Ethiopia influenced by Ethiopian is credit available problem, Lack of knowledge, skill, and commitment of leaders, experts; lack of stake holder integration, and Lack of monitoring and evaluation system. The above drawback especially, the problem of Challenge of credit and Poor Financial Management, lack of evaluation and monitoring system of implementing youth package and lack of commitment of leader and expert problem is common in Dire Teyara woreda of Harari Region.

2.2.4.1 Challenge of credit and Poor Financial Management

According to UNDP (2006) in rural area of developing countries in general in Ethiopian in particular the micro credit support and micro- enterprise have not expanded to reach most rural youth. The number of banks that support rural youth for credit support is limited. These conditions discourage rural youth to engage in self- employment.

The profit and income gained from informal employment of youth were not only to support themselves, but also contributes for poverty reduction (UNDP, 2006).

According to Linda (Mayoux, 2005), the income gained from such economic activities were used for household consumption and family support rather than re-investing it to expand their business. Similarly, being rural youth, most are illiterate and have no proper skill for full employment opportunity.

This means that when credit facilities and micro-finance support reach large number of poor and disadvantaged rural youth for borrowing, they increase youth’s ability to earn income that can support the well-being of youth and their families. Even though credit support and micro- finance facilities are very important for poverty reduction and economic empowerment of rural youth, most of rural youth do not have access to credit and micro-finance support. In the developing countries in general and in Ethiopia in particular, majority of rural youth are not benefited from micro-finance and credit support launched by government and non-government organizations for poverty reduction and for increasing capacity of the rural youth (ibid).

To increase youth income access to finance is very important, access of finance also build viable business, and reduce their vulnerability to external shocks. It can also be a powerful instrument for self-empowerment by enabling the poor, especially youth, to become economic agents of change (Bashir, 2008).

Like many of the African countries, in Ethiopia rural youth have very less access to financial services such as banking and micro-credit. To tackle the inaccessibility of rural youth to financial services, the political leaders and policy makers have to focus on enhancing the opportunity of youth for financial and banking facilities, integrate the issues of economic empowerment of rural youth in the national development strategies.

According to Linda, Mayoux (2005:65), the problem of youth to access for micro-credit was: lack of awareness, lack of skill to manage and serve to increase their income and to escape from poverty when they get credit support and micro-finance facilities.

Micro-finance and credit support are part of an integrated program for poverty reduction for the poorest people, creation of accessibility for credit and micro-finance is an entry point for youth’s economic, social and political empowering. On the other hands because of their illiteracy, absence of business management capacity, lack of exposure to information about the importance of credit and micro-finance for income generation, lack of confidence and fear to risk taking to borrow loan etc, affect the economic empowering of rural youth (Linda, Mayoux, 2005).

On the other hand, the problem of poor and inefficient financial and resource management in youth people is the most visible challenges in developing countries. It is reflected by poor budgeting, internal and external accounting, no penalties for fraud and misappropriation of resources (Baka, 2014).

Youth in rural area of Ethiopia in general and as well as Dire Teyara Woreda in particular face particular challenge to be empowered economically. Because rural youth generally do not have the same access as urban youth for training, equipment, financial and credit services.

2.2.4.2 Lack of knowledge, skill, and commitment of leaders, experts, and lack of awareness of youth.

Most Leaders are properly planned activities and also have strong belief in the implementation and realization of the entire planned activities. Opposite of this there is a lack of commitment in the practical accomplishment of the activities. Such limitations are the results of shortage of the leader and expert have lack of knowledge and commitment towards the youth development package which needs special focus to solve problems (Nerdos, 2013).

In addition, most youth have lack of awareness about youth policies and there is little evidence that young Ethiopians are involved in the decision-making processes and the livelihoods of their communities (Aragaw, 2014).

2.2.4.3 Limited access of training and technical support

According to Nnadi.et.al, (2012), the opportunity aimed rural youth economic empowerment is the improvement of the quality of education there should be a policy that will lead to the improvement in the quality of education in the rural areas. It is not just be the number of schools built but also the quality of teachers, the resources even better structure of the school as far as buildings is concerned. There have to be changes in the curriculum, teaching learning materials and the teaching strategy, a total revamping of the educational sector and changes in the attitude and the mind set of every member of the community: the learners, the educated, parents and society at large. This policy was affecting the learned and later impact on the farmers and the rural community at large (ibid).

According to Hope (2011), Technical Vocational Educational Training institutions (TVETs) in developing countries have confirmed to be effective in skills and training that are effective in empowering the youth to engage in sustainable livelihoods. Education is crucial to youth development and it has to be relevant education and training what is needed is relevant policy framework on education and training for effective human capital development for the country. Proper education makes youth agents of change in the development process. A range of skills are needed for gaining a particular job of interest. This is crucial to reducing youth inequality in of accessing opportunities (Hope, 2012).

2.2.4.4 Lack of monitoring and evaluation system

Monitoring and Evaluation programs and systems designed to identify what works and what does not in policy design and implementation (World Bank, 2013).

The main reason of performing monitoring and evaluation system in this context is to evaluate implementation status of rural youth economic development package by continues supervisions and record the progress and to give feedback to concerned body. Thus, the national youth council of Namibia (2013) argued that a strong emphasis on monitoring and evaluation should be put in place to amongst others keep track of the progress that has been made in youth economic empowerment and participation.

Monitoring and Evaluation used to increase government transparency. The information that Monitoring and Evaluation programs and systems generate is critical for raising awareness and promoting a debate about the efficiency of public programs and policies. It can empower citizen to hold their government accountable–as long as there are also the mechanisms in place for the government to use this feedback to make changes in budgeting, planning, or efficiency of programs. Senior Economist Gladys Lopez-Acevedo said that "The information that Monitoring and Evaluation programs and systems generate is critical for raising awareness and promoting a debate about the efficiency of public programs and policies. It can empower citizens to hold their government accountable."( World Bank, 2013).

However, there is no systematic collection of data used for monitoring, review and reporting on performance with regard to the implementation of the youth and economic development issue of the National Youth Policy. This is due to the fact that the Government and Non-government organization have failed to earnestly undertake these tasks (DTI, 2008). The challenges associated with Monitoring and Evaluation implementation in generally four main challenges or requirements that must be met for Monitoring and Evaluation programs to be successful: engagement at the highest level of government, incentives that promote the use and generation of performance information, capacity to sustain the efforts of Monitoring and Evaluation and access to good data and indicators.

In addition, according to HBOYSA annual report (2015) stated that the monitoring and evaluating system to ensure the effective implementation of the rural youth economic development package was one of the main problems. The challenge of monitoring and evaluation the youth package and job creation program also the main problem of Harari Region and Dire Teyara Woreda.

2.2.5 Rural youths development Programmes prospect for youths’ economic empowerment in Ethiopia

The aim of the study,investigatorassumedopportunityasprospectin implementation of rural youth economic empowerment in an efficient and effective method. Theseincludenational youth policy, rural youth development package, job creation,expectationsand short term plans,rules,accessibilityof youth developmentgroup,accessibilityofnatural resources,availablenessof technologywill to enhancerural youth economicempowerment.

According to plan international (2018), stated that sound Youth Economic Empowerment program is which focused on developing youth with the skills, attitudes and knowledge to access jobs and transition to the world of work. Program which provides youth with incorporated access to finance, entrepreneurship training, business start-up and mentoring support.

Similarly, Youth empowerment through agricultural development programmes will reduce poverty and also provide them with opportunities to get employment (Oyekale, 2011).

According to FAO (2016) youth’s in agriculture and food systems has key role to end poverty and hunger. To enhance agricultural and food security of developing country basic facilities include electricity, portable water, recreational centers, schools, good roads among others should be fulfilled in rural area (Nnadi.et. al, 2012). Regarding the roads, most produce have to lie idle in the farm which sometimes get rotten, therefore providing good roads will ensure fast and effective conveyance of produce from the farm to the market and thus a high value for their produce which in long-run improve their standard.

According to Nnadi.et.al, (2012), The Ownership and control over productive assets will create a sense of belonging and owing. It will help them to take responsibility in family and local ground activities. Access to productive resources will also enhance decision-making ability of youth farmers to meet some physiological needs like self-esteem and confidence. Again, micro-credit and loans be extended to poor people for self employment projects that generate income allowing them to care for themselves and for their families. To benefit from this programme are youth farmers and women who will pay no interest to the loans provided.

According to Oyekale (2011), youths are playing great roles in Nigerian agricultural development in as they are considered to be the active working group. According to Umeh and Odo (2002) signed by Ajani, E. N et al. (2015) noted that:-

“Various states in Nigeria have designed and executed several self-empowerment programmes to enhance the economic empowerment of youths. These programmes include: Farm Settlement Schemes (FSS) intended to increase commodity output and create employment for young school leavers; River Basin Development Authorities (RBDAs) for the purpose of harnessing water resources for farmers; Green Revolution Scheme (GRS) which encouraged all Nigerians in both urban and rural areas to go into agriculture for both commercial and provision of food for home consumption; Fadama programme which was initiated in 1992 to enhance food self sufficiency, reduce poverty, and create opportunities for employment for youths in the rural areas; and Agricultural Development Programmes (ADPs), among others (Oyekale, 2011).”

Similarly, the governments of Ethiopia have in the past introduced various agricultural development programmes for the benefit of all citizens, especially youths. The Ethiopian government also design and implement different policy, strategy, package, plan and program to empower rural youth in economy. Which include a Rural and Urban Youth Package with a Multi-Sectoral Youth Development Strategy Plan (2006- 2015), Ethiopia’s focus on Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI), plans and strategies or poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs), which include “Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Programme” (SDPRP), “A Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP)”, Growth and Transformation Plan I and II.

2.2.5.1 National youth policy

In 2004 Ethiopia has designed a national youth policy which specifically deals with youth issues. This policy is formulated with a vision to create an empowered youth with democratic outlook and ideas, equipped with knowledge, and professional skills, get organized and built on ethical integrity, and with the broad objective set to bring about the active participation of young generation in the building of a democratic system and good governance as well as in the economic, social and cultural.

According to preliminary finding from 2013, The Government of Ethiopia has shown considerable commitment to improving opportunities for young people. A National Youth Policy was approved in 2005 to promote young people’s participation in governance and economic, social and cultural activities. In 2006 a Rural and Urban Youth Package with a Multi-Sectoral Youth Development Strategy Plan (2006- 2015) were designed. In 2013 an Adolescent Development and Participation Strategy was drafted focusing on the 10 to 19 age group to reinforce linkages between policies, strategies and programmes designed for children, adolescents and youth.

According to IFPRI, (2016) Ethiopia’s focus on Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) has led the country to invest heavily in agriculture. This has played a large role in the country’s impressive economic growth – approximately 11 percent per year over the last decade. Given this growth, the economic literature would suggest that Ethiopia is on a path way to structural transformation of its economy.

The current Growth and Transformation Plan (2010-2015) has a section on Youth Development seeking to promote youth participation in democratic governance and economic and social initiatives, by mainstreaming youth issues within other development programmes, increasing the number of youth centers, strengthening youth associations, and encouraging youth entrepreneurship. Recently, Micro and Small Enterprises have been promoted on a large-scale, especially for urban youth and job creation program and development package encouraged to rural youth economic empowerment.

According to FAO (2015), FAO and the government ofEthiopiawas signed a partnership agreementthataims to innovative policieswhich willproduce jobs and business opportunities foryouthwithin theagricultural sector and in rural areasmoregenerally. This agreement wasto geta moreunderstanding of the dynamics that lead rural people-especially youth. Andadditionallyaimedto enhanceagricultural and rural development policiesso asto extendemployment opportunities, andcreaterural areasa more attractive to youth.

Ethiopia has given a priority forcreatingjob opportunities foryouthand people particularly at risk of migration. The Ethiopian Growth and Transformation Plan II have given stress to make employment opportunities for teenagers to scale back impoverishment and tackle irregular migration (FAO, 2017).

2.2.5.2 Plans and strategies related with youth

The governments of Ethiopia designing youth policies and programs that can empower youth with income-generating and other entrepreneurship skills that could improve the quality of life in the rural areas (Billystrom A. Jivetti et al, 2016).

In pursuit of realizing Ethiopia’s vision ofturning intoa middleincome country inabout20years time from Millennium and achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), job creation has been articulatedone of the eight pillarstrategiesof its MDGs-based5Year Development Plan entitled Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP).It'swell knownthat employment and earningstherefore the labor markets play a vital role in poverty reduction through promoting each economic process and enhancing its effectiveness in reducing poverty. It'salsowell recognized inEthiopiathatthe provisionof employment opportunities and their characteristicsrepresentan importantchannelfrom growth topovertyreduction. The link that bridgeseconomic growthwithpovertyreduction and itsultimate eradicationis job creation. Employment opportunities and their characteristicsoffera mechanism for shared and pro-poor growth.

An Ethiopian program against poverty is focused on the comparative analysis of the Ethiopia’s national development plans and strategies or poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs). These three PRSP which are entitled the “Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Programme” (SDPRP) and spanning the three-year period (2002/03 – 2004/05), “A Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP)” covered from 2005/06-2009/10, and the current “Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP)”, 2009/10- 2014/15.

According to MoFED documents, both SDPRP and PASDEP were a short term poverty reduction strategy programs that formulated to achieve the MDGs.

PASDEP

Ethiopia governments youth empowerment police started to get attention since five year development plan called a Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP) from 2005-2010. In this development plan addressing youth disempowerment was much focused on education and training, particularly improving quality of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET), providing skill training for unemployed youth, enhancing job creation through private sector participations and Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) development (MoFED, 2006).

the Plan for Accelerated and Sustainable Development to End Poverty (PASDEP), the Government of Ethiopia gives due emphasis to employment creation, both in the context of poverty reduction through creating employment opportunities and using labor resource for growth as one of the most important resources the country is endowed with(ibid).

GTP

Growth and Transformation Plan of Ethiopia (GTP) from (2011-2015) more emphasis was given to youth development ,such as empowering women and youth to ensure their social, economic and political participation than directly focusing on the issue of unemployment (Marta, 2012). In the two successive development plans the government has induced employment interventions for youth through integrating TVET to the need MSEs development and subsidizing the employment creation projects in integrated housing, construction and infrastructure development programs (MOFED, 2010).

According to Haile T. G (2015), GTP is more comprehensive than PASDEP and it has proposed to eradicate poverty and to improve people's livelihood, it is imperative to sustain higher economic growth during the five years and beyond. Since it is the latest national development plan, GTP is implementing so as to insure the long-term vision of the nation and the MDGs by taking the positive experiences and by avoiding the negative challenges of PASDEP. Like PASDEP, GTP maintains agriculture as a major source of economic growth, but it wants to create favorable conditions for the industry to play a key role in the economy (Haile. T. G. 2015),

2.2.5.3 Youth development package

According to Ethiopian Herald (2017), Ministry of Youth and Sports revised youth development strategy and package. This was intentions of curbing governance problems, rural and urban youth unemployment and political as well as economic injustice.

The package enables the youth to integrate with every government plan and program. In 2017 the government of Ethiopia was cite the establishment of a 10 billion Birr youth revolving fund, the Ministry indicated that a guideline was prepared to make the youth gets hassle free access to training, loans and jobs unlike the previous days. Also, it would solve problems related to inflated interest.

2.2.6 Strategies to improve youth economic empowerment

According to Sumberg et al. (2012), suggest that there are endless opportunities that Africa can reap when they mainstream youth participation in agriculture. There can be profound benefits in food security, improvement in standards of life, economic and social development. Youth empowerment through agricultural development programmes will reduce poverty and provide them with opportunities that will enable them to be gainfully employed (Oyekale, 2011).

The Government of Ethiopia (GoE) gives due emphasis to employment creation (as asserted in PASDEP and GTP) and different policies and strategies have been introduced and implemented by the government for rural youth economic empowerment.

In Ethiopian development plan youth employment policy has started to receive attention since five year development plans 2005-2010 called a Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP). In this development plan addressing youth empowerment was much focused on education and training, particularly improving quality of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET), providing skill training for unemployed youth, enhancing job creation through private sector participations, and Micro and Small Enterprises (MSE) development. The Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) (2011-2015) more broad based policy of youth development, such as empowering women and youth to ensure their social, economic and political participation than directly focuses on issue of youth economic empowerment (MoFED 2010).

In thetwosuccessivedevelopment plansthe government hasinducedemployment interventions for youth throughintegrationTVET tothe needSME development, subsidizingthe employmentcreationjobin integrated housing, construction and infrastructure development programs. However, despite these efforts inEthiopiayouth disempowerment remains widespread.In asimilar manner, measuresaretakento arrangeyouth bureauswithin their regional states.So asto boostthe issueslong-facedby youth the organization ofgovernment bodies’ pareswouldn'tdo.It's sobecome necessary to formulate a comprehensive National Youth Policythat willenablethe youth to registermeaningresults andtake pleasure inthe results by actively, efficiently, and widely participating in the country's development efforts and the building of a democratic system through the coordination and integration of the previously separate efforts being made by various bodies.

In order to increase the role of the policy implementers at an early stage and create a sense of ownership, various consultations that would help gather and compile the views and opinions of stakeholders and partners were organized and conducted both at federal and regional levels.

2.3 Empirical Literature

This section of literature review concentrates on the previous studies that have been conducted in the area of rural youth economic empowerment in developing country in general and in Ethiopia in particular. These previous studies conducted by different scholars were come to the conclusion based on their findings. The major empirical studies that are related to the practice and major challenges facing the youth empowerment in developing countries as well as in Ethiopia were discussed and summarized below.

2.3.1 Youth economic empowerment practice in sub-Saharan Africa Uganda

In terms of the (GEM Report, 2005) cited by (DTI, 2008) youth economic empowerment is prioritized in Uganda which has made rank number two in the world. The mandate of Uganda ministry of Gender, Labour and social development is promoting youth economic empowerment of the country. This ministry is accountable for youth affaire and spearheads the overall policy implementation, monitoring, evaluation and review, and also to mobilizing necessary resources for the implementation of programs. The ministry developed in National Youth Policy to encourage youth economic empowerment. The policy contains an action plan with specified action, time frames and budget allocations (Rahel, 2015). It also defines youth and strategies aimed at mainstreaming youth economically in the country (Ibid).

Nigeria

In terms of the (Nigerian National Youth Policy, 2001) cited by (DTI, 2008) Nigerian government recognized that in order to effectively empower young people (between the ages of 18 to 35). There was a need to formulate the national policy on youth development. The aim of Nigerian national economic empowerment and development strategy is to transforming its youth of the country (Ibid).

Local studies

According to Francies (2002), Sub-Saharan African countries is affected by the extended poverty and deep rooted that has had extremely negative impact in the well-being of the society in general and the youth in particular. This is a typical case for the Ethiopia (Rahel, 2015).

[...]

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Title
Challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment. The Case of Dire Teyara of Harari Regional State, Ethiopia
College
Ethiopian Civil Service University  (individual)
Course
thesis
Author
Year
2019
Pages
111
Catalog Number
V490580
ISBN (eBook)
9783668970038
ISBN (Book)
9783668970045
Language
English
Tags
assessment, case, dire, teyara, harari, regional, state, ethiopia
Quote paper
Barudin Abdi (Author), 2019, Challenges and prospects of rural youth economic empowerment. The Case of Dire Teyara of Harari Regional State, Ethiopia, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/490580

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