An Analysis of the "Natursteig Sieg". Structures, Resources and Future Potential as a Sustainable Rural Tourism Region


Bachelor Thesis, 2013

52 Pages, Grade: Gut


Excerpt

Table of Contents

Abstract

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

1. Introduction
1.1 Motivational Background
1.2 Research Objectives
1.3 Thesis Structure

2. Literature Review
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Definition of Rural Tourism
2.3 Rural Tourism Destinations
2.4 Destination Strategies in Rural Areas
2.5 Measures and Evaluation of Competitiveness
2.6 Sustainability in Rural Tourism
2.7 Summary and Future Perspectives of Rural Tourism

3. Methodology
3.1 Methodology
3.2 Methods

4. Findings and Analysis
4.1 Research findings
4.2 Previous research
4.3 Stakeholders of the Natursteig Sieg
4.4 Rural tourism strategies and cooperation
4.5 Sustainability and competitiveness
4.6 Future Perspectives and Potential

5. Conclusion

6. References

7. Appendices

Appendix A: Geographical Position of the Natursteig Sieg

Appendix B: Interview with Mr. Oharek from the Octopus Hotel

Appendix C: Logo of the Natursteig Sieg

Abstract

Today’s tourism industry can be considered as an economically important asset. Particularly in rather structurally weak rural areas, tourism can significantly contribute to secure employment and to generate beneficial income. Rural regions in Germany have a high touristic potential. A tourists increasing demand to relax within a natural environment, away from urbanized areas, offers versatile possibilities to sustainably develop rural tourism. Therefore the analysis of the structures, resources and future potential of the ‘Natursteig Sieg’, a rural region in North-Rhine- Westphalia is the aim of this thesis. The focus is laid on future perspectives and sustainable development, which is extensively investigated with the help of academic frameworks. The main research was conducted in form of qualitative expert interviews with 7 respective industry stakeholders and participating project partners of the ‘Natursteig Sieg’. It has been found that there are several strategic management issues in terms of communication, transparency and marketing which can and should be solved in the long run, in order to guarantee an effective course of action. However, the region as such has indeed a high future potential of being a successful, economically valuable and sustainable rural tourism destination.

Keywords: rural tourism, future potential, Natursteig Sieg,

List of Figures

Figure 1: Concept of Market Orientation (Pena et al. 2012)

Figure 2: Framework of Horizontal and Vertical Networks (Kneafsey, 2001)

Figure 3: Types of Tourism and Receptivity (Oliver and Jenkins, 2003)

Figure 4: Sustainability Indicators (Park and Yoon, 2011)

Figure 5: Hierarchical Stakeholder Overview with Informational Flows and External Influences

Figure 6: Possible Marketing Strategy Model for the Natursteig Sieg

Figure 7: Modified Framework of Horizontal and Vertical Networks

Figure 8: Modified Framework of Types of Tourism and Receptivity

List of Tables

Table 1: General Sustainability Indicators for Rural Tourism (Choi and Sirakaya, 2006)

Table 2: Interview Analysis Description

Table 3: Research Participant Data

Table 4: Industry Overview of the Participating Stakeholders

Table 5: Stakeholder Evaluation Results

1. Introduction

This chapter introduces the reader to the topic of rural tourism and the related analysis of the ‘Natursteig Sieg’. Besides the overall aim and specific research objectives of the paper are explained and this chapter provides an overview of the structure and main content of the thesis.

1.1 Motivational Background

The rural tourism sector is a growing and forward looking industry. Especially in Germany, tourists are more and more interested in combining their holidays with relaxation in a natural setting. Having a great interest in both, studying tourism management at the university and actively hiking with friends in the near region, it is interesting to examine the local situation of rural tourism. The ‘Natursteig Sieg’ is a 115 kilometres long walking trail near the river Sieg and includes the four major communities, Siegburg, Hennef, Eitorf and Windeck. In addition, a map with the geographical location of the ‘Natursteig Sieg’ is included in the appendix (Appendix A). In order to achieve meaningful results in form of professional knowledge and profound data, expert interviews with key stakeholders of the ‘Natursteig Sieg’ were conducted. Particularly influencing factors like; strategies, issues, competitiveness and structures were researched with the help of former literature.

1.2 Research Objectives

The major goal of this study was to analyse the future potential of the ‘Natursteig Sieg’ as a rural tourism destination. To accomplish this, the following primary research objectives were defined:

- To review literature concerning rural tourism, tourism structures and rural tourism resources
- To identify the strengths and weaknesses of the ‘Natursteig Sieg’ among key stakeholders
- To examine future perspectives and strategies of the ‘Natursteig Sieg’ as a sustainable rural tourism region regarding key stakeholders
- To develop a set of conclusions related to the potential of rural tourism activities at the ‘Natursteig Sieg’

1.3 Thesis Structure

The dissertation is divided into five chapters, each covering specific contents. The first chapter provides an introduction to the research topic and highlights the central research objectives. Chapter two reveals and investigates existing literature regarding rural tourism. It considers definitions and explains structures and strategies of rural tourism destinations. Moreover sustainability, competitiveness and future outlooks are evaluated and some academic frameworks are observed. The third chapter comprises the methodology section starting with the justification of the developed and chosen method. Furthermore it deals with how the interview partners have been chosen and illustrates the development of the interview questions. According to this the next and main chapter covers the primary research findings, based on the expert interviews. The final chapter summarizes and presents the main outcomes by evaluating the results of the interviews and linking them to the secondary research. Last but not least it provides recommendations and concludes with a future outlook.

2. Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

Tourism is often seen as one way in which rural regions can overcome their continuing decline and prosper into new dimensions. The potential exists for tourism to support regional development in many rural places and research has addressed some opportunities and challenges of this effort (Giaoutzi and Nijkamp, 2006; Mose, 2007; Müller and Jansson, 2007; Hall et al., 2009; Brouder and Eriksson, 2012). Authorities at every level, from local to supra-national endorse tourism as a way to advance regional economies (European Commission, 2002; OECD, 2010). For instance in Germany, hiking is a traditional and important part of the rural tourism industry. It creates more than 140.000 jobs and produces revenue of nearly four billion euros each year. Since most of the money stays in the regional communities, local hotels, suppliers and restaurants can gain major benefits (Getz and Carlsen, 2000; GFUW, 2010). Thus the smaller and touristic not well known areas are investing in this segment, because it is equivalent with investing in the regional development (Augustyn, 1998; BMWI, 2010; Pena et al. 2012). Moreover rural tourism is an increasingly important asset for the European economy and a key factor in sustainable economic development (Buhalis and Deimezi, 2004). As an important alternative to the traditional tourism offer, it encourages diversification towards new destinations and helps redistribute demand to form sustainable rural tourist destinations (WTO, 2007). As decision makers became increasingly aware of the drawbacks of mass tourism, they searched for alternative tourism planning, management and development options. As a result, the notion of sustainable development emerged as an alternative (Choi and Sirakaya, 2006). This literature review indicates benefits, as well as some challenges of rural tourism. In the first part, a short historical context of the topic is provided and a definition of rural tourism is discussed. Proximate rural tourism destinations, their issues, policies, strategies and measures are examined with the help of academic frameworks. Thereupon a look is taken at sustainable aspects and problems of rural tourism. Finally a summary, possible future research and perspectives conclude the literature review. The main research of the paper will be conducted with regards to the ‘Natursteig Sieg’ which is a project of the regional government in the ‘Rhein-Sieg’ area. It comprises rural tourism activities in the region and supports local development. The former literature will help to provide a general knowledgeable and measureable framework in order to analyze the significant elements of being a successful rural tourism destination.

2.2 Definition of Rural Tourism

Rural tourism is tourism which takes place in the countryside. But, early commentators have pointed out that a simple definition of rural tourism is inadequate for many purposes (Greffe, 1992). Equally, it is difficult to produce a more complex definition which applies to all rural areas in all countries. Rural areas themselves are subject to a complex process of change. Since the 1980’s nature-based tourism and ecotourism have experienced dynamic development which includes recent mainstreaming tendencies (Wight, 2001). The impacts of global markets, communications and telecommunication have changed market conditions and orientations for traditional products. The rise of environmentalism has led to an increasing influence of outsiders regarding land use and resource development. Although some rural areas still experience depopulation, others are experiencing an inflow of people in order to develop new 'non-traditional' businesses (Lane, 1994). Therefore one can argue that rural tourism as such contains many fields and is a complex multi-faceted activity. It includes farm-based holidays but also comprises special-interest nature holidays and ecotourism, hiking, climbing and riding holidays, adventure, sport and health tourism, hunting and angling, educational travel, arts and heritage tourism and in some areas ethnic tourism (Bramwell and Lane, 1994; Oliver and Jenkins, 2003). Due to the fact that this study also focuses on rural hike tourism, one has to establish an understanding of the combination of both. It is necessary to move away from dependent definitions to more independent ones, because the dynamic field of rural hike tourism contains unique interactions between the two fields (Lane, 1994). During the course of parallel evolution the mutual interest expanded. From this array of varying definitions, two clear points stand out. Rural settlements may vary in size, but they are small. They are almost always in areas of relatively low population density. These points are important in tourism terms, since the majority of tourists come from densely populated and large settlements and seek a change of scene while on holiday (Plog, 1991; Oppermann, 1996).

2.3 Rural Tourism Destinations

Rural tourism is an increasingly important diversification activity for the progress/development of rural destinations (Brandth and Haugen, 2011). It is seen as a major asset for the European economy, and has been a key European Union objective since 1997 (European Council 2009). Although major expectations surround the development of rural tourism, it has been identified that greater efforts are required if rural tourism is to contribute effectively to the progress of rural destinations (Brandth and Haugen, 2011). European rural development policy is moving away from a protectionist stance focusing more on the market and global competition (Ward and Lowe 2004). This has increased the prestige of rural areas within the tourism industry, in line with market trends (GFUW, 2010). The significance of rural recreation in the European Union has been found to be high, with a reported 25 per cent of all Europeans expressing an interest in holidays which take place in rural areas (Davies and Gilbert, 1992).

However, although tourism has brought economic benefits, it has significantly contributed to environmental degradation, negative social and cultural impacts and habitat fragmentation. Tourism’s unplanned growth has damaged the natural and socio-cultural environments of many tourism destinations (Domet, 1991; Hall and Lew, 1998; Mowforth and Munt, 1998). In tourism terms, one critical point is that economically integrated rural regions tend to develop a strong day- visitor trade and may experience high levels of visitation. This presents specialised commercial opportunities, but also visitor management problems (Lane, 1994). The touristic offerings in rural areas are mainly characterised by traditional small family businesses. That refers to both, the hospitality and leisure industry. Although this kind of structure conveys an authentic and more personal relationship to the customer, it leads to some challenges (BMWI, 2012). Due to limited personal resources, many offerings cannot be provided throughout a whole season. Besides, short term requests can be served only partially. Missing integration into regional strategies and marketing makes it difficult to reach source markets (BMWI, 2012). As noted earlier, most enterprises are small businesses. They can be excluded from the capital market because of the existence of an information gap, which results in discrimination against them largely because they are unknown quantities (Binks, Ennew and Reed, 1992). Densely populated resorts, in an international style, under multi-national ownership and with a relatively anonymous management may actually deter some types of client. In contrast, the countryside's open spaces, lack of indoor facilities, locally owned and sometimes unprofessionally managed businesses and older buildings may be a main selling point for rural holidays (Plog, 1991). Ironically however, some rural communities see the development of resort facilities as a key to their future success in the world of tourism (Lane, 1994). Rural tourism provision is about a wide variety of activities, integrated with traditional countryside hospitality. It is a growth industry within the industrialised world, the growth being largely attributed to changing consumer trends such as behaviour, higher levels of disposable income, improved lifestyles, increases in health awareness and car ownership (GFWU, 2010). Interest in the countryside has contributed to this, and the increase in diversification and development activity within the tourism industry in rural areas have resulted in tourism industry bodies becoming more active towards rural tourism development. This growth can also be attributed to changes within traditional rural economies (Alexander and McKenna, 1998). Rural tourism is based on the premise of sustainable environmental, economic and social development (Simpson, 2008). It can be used to foster the sustainability and regeneration of rural areas (Lane, 1994). Specifically, it has an impact on the culture and character of host communities, landscape, habitats and the rural economy, all of which constitute aspects of increasing value for tourists (Lane, 1994). The origin and nature of rural tourism mean that it has its own particular characteristics that differentiate it from other forms of tourism. This issue constitutes a factor of increasing appeal in terms of tourism demand, with the volume of tourists seeking this type of tourism on the increase (Hall, 2004; Rodrigues, Kastenholz and Rodrigues, 2010). Nevertheless it is difficult to find sustainability indicators for the assessment of tourism destinations that actually meet these ideal characteristics (Hughes, 2002; Schianetz and Kavanagh, 2008). Not all areas are suitable for rural tourism development. Rural areas need to have a tourist attraction based on the beauty of the area (Sharpley and Vass, 2006; Wang, 2008). Given the nature and origin of these rural tourist destinations, they are characterised as being little-visited places and are therefore very quiet (Lituchy and Rail, 2000). This feature is of great importance since one of the main motivations for rural tourists is precisely the quest for peace and quiet to promote rest and relaxation (Lane, 2009). The existence of an attractive location is usually insufficient on its own as the rural tourist also requires a complementary range of services and it is these that make the operation of the rural tourist destination economically viable (Garcia-Rosell et al., 2007). The development of this additional provision should be based on the resources of the rural areas so as to achieve a perfect symbiosis between the tourist and the location. Usually, the market value of rural resources is enhanced through the development of clearly commercial activities. That said, it is important to remember that tourists do not want to lose contact with the authentically rural nature of the destination, nor with the local population (Canoves et al., 2004).

2.4 Destination Strategies in Rural Areas

Most policies in the field of rural tourism have relied on the existence of positive side-effects resulting from combining the leisure usage of rural resources with other types of economic activities (Cloke, 1993; Getz and Page, 1997; European Commission, 1999). The state not only initiates regional cooperation and therefore local governance, but as Bocher (2008) depicts, ‘regional cooperation still needs an incentive from outside’. It is imperative that this incentive is beneficial to any activity that is promoted in territorial programmes. At a global, national or local level, the development of rural tourism suggests the need for synergy of purpose within and between communities, individuals, municipalities and other stakeholders (McAveray and McDonagh, 2011). A structured group approach may offer a way to develop and promote rural tourism, whilst creating inter-community collaboration will be a complex and difficult process (Heneghan, 2002). To avoid engrained posturing among stakeholders, conditions need to be created establishing a truly cooperative atmosphere. Adaptive management should be adjusted to the importance of social dynamics while also embracing social memory and the different forms of knowledge that actors bring to a particular process (Folke et al., 2005). Realising the interrelationship between tourism, the environment and local communities are of crucial importance. Collaboration and consultation with stakeholders are a critical starting point to any long-term perspective of what could be termed a successful sustainable rural tourism approach, but more deep-seated changes are necessary (McAveray and McDonagh, 2011). The importance of rural tourism as a major player in rural economies is evident. Therefore it is indispensable that support systems are put in place to ensure that training is provided to guarantee quality for the consumer and the survival and prosperity of the small rural tourism entrepreneur (Alexander, 1998). National governments in various countries adopt different approaches to ensuring that tourism is being developed in a sustainable manner. These approaches can be broadly classified into two groups according to the level of government intervention of a country (Augustyn, 1998). In states with a lower level of government intervention (e.g. UK) the development of rural tourism has become a priority of national tourism policies. Consequently, national guidelines relating to such developments have been established to provide a framework for future sustainable rural tourism development. In democracies with a higher level of government intervention (e.g. Spain), national governments undertake a more active role in ensuring the development of tourism (Augustyn, 1998). Hall and Jenkins (1997) list 18 different policy instruments used by governments for the promotion of rural tourism. They include regulatory instruments, voluntary instruments, expenditures, financial incentives and non- intervention decisions. An often missed fact in the debate about economic development via tourism is that its promotion is synonymous with small-business advancement and the industry is heavily characterized by small, family-centred enterprises (Fleischer and Pizam, 1997).

In tourism and regional development the case for intervention arises when private markets fail to provide public goods, when externalities are created, or when information asymmetries occur (Bartik, 1990; Hartley and Hooper, 1993). The firms themselves can also be party to the creation of this informational inequality and market failure. By failing to distinguish themselves from the pool of applicants, the failure is as much that of the enterprise as of the market (Fleischer and Felsenstein, 2000). However, small businesses in rural areas must work in collaboration with each other in order to develop healthy and successful tourism regions (Fagence, 1993). Niche marketing, with its emphasis on distinction for competitive advantage, may encourage local competition rather than collaboration and its application within many rural contexts is likely to be inappropriate. Tourism businesses must view their operations as part of a coherent regional offering. Within such a marketing approach formerly perceived competitors become collaborators (Roberts and Hall, 2004).

Rural tourism enterprises must take strategic action focussing on improving the competitiveness of the entire sector. One possible strategy can be market orientation. Market orientation involves permanently orientating the firm towards the systematic creation and delivery of superior value for its customers (Kohli and Jaworski, 1990). Hence such a strategy is able to benefit both parties involved in the product exchange, namely customers and suppliers (Slater and Narver, 1994). This joint perspective can provide a more complete picture when evaluating whether market orientation constitutes a strategy that maximizes the value of the offer delivered to customers while helping to achieve improved performance on the supplier’s side (Krepapa et al., 2003). In the rural tourism context, as well as the rural tourism enterprises internal perspective on market orientation and its impact on outcomes, the tourist perspective also needs to be taken into account. From this, their perception and evaluation of company offers can be identified (Pena et al. 2012). Plus market orientation is considered to be a strategy capable of causing a competitive advantage in so far as it contributes to generating improved behavioural intentions among customers (Slater and Narver, 1994). It is therefore of interest to examine the actual mechanisms by which market orientation contributes to this improvement; considering the variable of ‘perceived value’ seen from the customer’s perspective as a key antecedent of behavioural intentions (Pena et al., 2012). As mentioned, when analysing the effect of market orientation on tourist behaviour and outcomes, the specific characteristics of the rural tourism sector need to be taken into account. For this purpose an adoption scale that has been adapted to reflect the particular capacities, resources, and aims of companies needs to be used. Similarly, a scale covering the particular outcomes that are of major importance to stakeholders is required. In addition to financial results, the scale should include outcomes related to the rural destination itself (Simpson, 2008) and outcomes that are less tangible in nature and linked personally to a manager of a rural tourism enterprise (McCartan-Quinn and Carson, 2003). The following diagram shows a conceptual framework of market orientation and its effects on rural tourism destinations and the involved parties (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Concept of Market Orientation (Pena et al. 2012)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The usage of market information increases the ability to develop responses to the market. A better fit to the current needs and wants of customers is gained, which allows anticipating future needs and wants (Kohli and Jaworski, 1990). Therefore, those firms that adopt a market oriented approach will be focused on the creation and delivery of superior value for their customers. Ultimately this should be perceived and valued by customers; generating improved behavioural intentions towards the company (Slater and Narver, 1994; Steinman et al., 2000). This implies that developing and improving the strategy of market orientation may make enterprises capabilities become more distinctive in the sector and in turn, may translate into the achievement of better outcomes (Agarwal et al., 2003). This scenario reveals how important it is for the sector to adopt actions that respond to the current situation within the tourism market. Therefore, a key area for decision making among public bodies involved in the rural tourism sector is that of policies and actions aimed at creating greater competitive capacity and a higher level of appeal for the market in each rural area in which they operate (Pena et al. 2012). In general this would solve some major issues of small sized rural tourism enterprises creating a cooperative, distinctive and competitive market.

2.5 Measures and Evaluation of Competitiveness

If the influence of tourism on all aspects of community life is to be effectively tracked, indicators must be based on policy relevance, analytical soundness and measurability. While the dynamic natures and unpredictability of tourism systems have been observed and discussed (Butler, 1999; McKercher, 1999), little research has been conducted in order to adopt tourism assessment and management tools that account for uncertainty, non-linearity and unexpected changes such as resilience analysis, adaptive management and system dynamics modeling (Farrell and Twining-Ward, 2004). Indicators are to serve as a guideline for future tourism development at all levels of planning. In addition, they are to be tailored in such a way that they clearly reflect the situation of tourism with respect to sustainability while assisting regional and local stakeholders with tourism planning (Park and Yoon, 2011).

The setting of development within a framework smaller than the nation state, and often smaller than administrative regions, shows the importance of conducting analyses at the scale of regional and local landscapes (Oliver and Jenkins, 2003). Full vertical and horizontal integration is likely to be relatively rare in tourism collaboration (Bramwell and Lane, 2000) and it is therefore necessary to explore the processes whereby different types of partnership alliance are formed in specific situations and regions. For example, there are different levels of partnership such as: co-existence and involving partnership at the level of tolerance rather than actively working together; co-operation characterized by positive efforts to solve common problems; collaboration, which tends to occur in regions where joint efforts are well established and where partners actively seek to work together; and integration, where partnerships are sufficiently advanced for each entity willingly to waive a degree of its sovereignty in the name of mutual progress (Martinez, 1994; Timothy, 2000). Vertical integration is manifested in co-operation and partnership. As in any supply chain, people must reconcile their potentially conflicting roles of competitor and co- operator. Good integration along vertical axes allows a region to use its tourism ‘product’ and to export its qualities through successful marketing and relationship building which forge alliances with tourists located outside the locality. Many of these alliances may be temporary resulting in on-off visits from external visitors. However, a successful integrated approach could result in the development of more stable alliances resulting in repeat visits and a greater sense of ‘connectedness’ between communities, tourism-related businesses and tourists (Oliver and Jenkins, 2003). On the horizontal axis the integration, tourism- related businesses and activities, and ultimately tourists themselves are linked to other economic, social and cultural activities within a particular landscape. Whereas vertical integration enables links to the outside, horizontal integration promotes greater integration of the tourism product and the touristic experience within the rural landscape. Horizontal integration should ensure that more value is retained in that landscape by encouraging visitors to consume more of the local products and activities and to travel less extensively once they have arrived in a particular area emphasizing the experience of the landscape rather than long distance tourism. From a planning perspective, this suggests that less attention should be given to the development of specific tourist locations or single attractions and more attention to encouraging more dispersal of tourists within a particular region. Kneafsey’s network framework (2001) can be used in order to demonstrate such a process (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Framework of Horizontal and Vertical Networks (Kneafsey, 2001)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Another crucial aspect is the interaction of tourism and the rural landscape on a continuum ranging from ‘hard’ to ‘soft’ (Oliver and Jenkins, 2003). Hard tourism tends to exhibit little penetration into the rural landscape and its links are likely to be international rather than local (Stabler, 1997). In contrast, soft tourism is likely to exhibit deeper penetration with good absorption possibilities and retention of control and value by host communities. Soft tourism is more likely to meet sustainability criteria and its economic rationale is linked to the endogenous model of rural development (van der Ploeg and van Dijk, 1995) which is based on locality, valorisation of local resources through small-scale and flexible capital investment, response to niche demand and on the capacities and values of local people. At the same time, soft tourism is likely to generate larger income and employment multipliers per unit of tourist spending than hard tourism, although hard tourism may have larger absolute impacts on landscape because of its greater volume. The next figure explains tourism penetration and its local landscape receptivity (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Types of Tourism and Receptivity (Oliver and Jenkins, 2003)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Park and Yoon (2011) emphasized several indicators in order to evaluate rural tourism. He divided it into four dimensions, namely ‘Service quality’, ‘Facility’, ‘Management system’ and ‘Outcome’. Each of those dimensions have sub dimensions which are highlighted in the next diagram (Figure 4). These aspects differ from general dimensions in previous studies, such as the economic, the social, the ecological and the technological. These indicators are based on more practical policy relevance and measurability rather than theoretical approaches. There is a total of 12 indicators in the management system and outcome dimensions including the ‘collaborated community business’, ‘tourism business’ and ‘income’ categories. The second priority is the technical dimension. It covers nine indicators including the ‘accessibility’, ‘convenience’ and ‘community management’ category. The third priority has tourism environmental dimension. The dimension has six indicators including ‘environment’, ‘accommodation’ and ‘subsidiary facilities’. The final priority has five indicators within the social dimension, including portions of the ‘community management’ and ‘satisfaction’ categories (Park and Yoon, 2011). These indicators could help the administration to regularly monitor the interaction among stakeholders and avoid poor decisions that may disrupt relationships with these stakeholders.

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Details

Title
An Analysis of the "Natursteig Sieg". Structures, Resources and Future Potential as a Sustainable Rural Tourism Region
College
International University of Applied Sciences Bad Honnef - Bonn
Grade
Gut
Author
Year
2013
Pages
52
Catalog Number
V500107
ISBN (eBook)
9783346043986
ISBN (Book)
9783346043993
Language
English
Tags
rural tourism, future potential, sustainable, resources, structures, tourism destination
Quote paper
Kerem Kopuz (Author), 2013, An Analysis of the "Natursteig Sieg". Structures, Resources and Future Potential as a Sustainable Rural Tourism Region, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/500107

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