Table of Contents
I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE
Statement of the Problem
Definition of Terms
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitation of the Study
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Data Gathering Procedure
Statistical Treatment of the Data
IV. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND
INTERPRETATION OF DATA
V. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
B. Published Materials
C. Unpublished Materials
D.Journals and Other Materials
This research would have just remained a dream if not because of the support, encouragement, inputs and inspiration from various people. The researcher would like to convey her warm gratitude and genuine appreciation to the following persons who have shared efforts and knowledge in shaping this research work in countless ways.
Dr. Mercilita T. Dollosa, the ever – amiable Dean of the Graduate School, Colegio de Sta. Rita, San Carlos City, Negros Oriental, for her constructive suggestions and invaluable guidance for the improvement of this thesis;
Dr. Victoriana C. Cabili, her thesis adviser, who shared her knowledge, gave her utmost support, patience, continued guidance and unwavering assistance that leads to the completion of the study.
Dr. Chona J. Bistis, EPS I – Science, Division of San Carlos City, Negros Occidental for sharing her insights, helpful suggestions, and various information on how to organize the researcher’s thoughts and ideas, and for her warm accommodation and persistent guidance by making herself always available when needed.
Mr. Antonio G. Uy, EPS I – Mathematics, Division of San Carlos City, Negros Occidental for his unceasing effort in going over the researcher’s statistical computations and giving useful tips on encoding matters. Beyond that, the researcher would like to express boundless gratitude for his constant encouragement and kind assistance in finishing this work.
Dr. Mario C. Andong, Schools Division Superintendent, Division of Guhulngan City, Negros Oriental for the permission to conduct this study;
Mrs. Marilyn B. Ompoc, District Supervisor of the Guihulngan North District, Division of Guihulngan City, Negros Oriental, for the permission to conduct this study in her district;
All Grade V Advisers and subject teachers of the Guihulngan North District, who spared their precious time in giving warm accommodation and providing the researcher the data needed for this research;
Mrs. Ingrid A. Martinez, for all her assistance, friendly encouragement that prodded the researcher to finish this work as soon as possible;
Mrs. Nera B. Sabillo, office clerk of Guihulngan North District, for the kind assistance in gathering the needed documents for this work;
Mrs. Gladys A. Casio, office clerk of Guihulngan South District, for the assistance and preparing the letters of endorsement from the office of the superintendent to conduct this research.
The library personnel of CSR, Madam Luisa Alcover and Ms. Rowena “Weng” Mangkit for their accommodation, assistance every time the researcher look for ample references and for providing her the books, facilities and equipment in the library for her research work.
Dr. Anelito A. Bongcawil, District Supervisor, District of La Libertad, for his words of inspiration;
Fellow researchers Sir Freddie Dipon and Sir Bonifacio “Bubong” Duran for the constant companionship and support;
Researcher’s buddies and fellow masterands, Jamm Y. Villavecencio, Helen Mae M. Estorco, Ellen Sablayan-Carugda and the rest for always bringing fun and chill in times of exhaustion; to Marilyn L. Delantes for her constant encouragement and words that brought hope and optimism in moments of despair;
Personnel of City Designs, Ramacho Photocopy Center, CMYX, D’Rec Press and Riel Equinan for the assistance in encoding, printing and producing the copies of this work;
To my parents, relatives and guardians for their love, unwavering support and inspiration for me to keep going especially in moments of fatigue to finish this work.
Above all, to our omnipotent, omniscient and omnipresent GOD, Who is the source of life, knowledge and wisdom for the opportunity to share some knowledge with others and for giving me the composure for the successful completion of this humble work.
God bless you all and thank you.
To my beloved and ever - supportive aunt,
Ma. Vilyn B. Albores,
To my loving parents:
Mr. Vily B. Albores
Mrs. Anatalia H. Albores
To my brothers
Francis and Nelvi Ray
To my Lolo Vicente, Lola Lydia and Uncle Alyb
whose love and guidance still I can feel beyond life
To my fellow teachers and friends in the Division of Guihulngan City,
To the people who had been with me
all throughout in the preparation of this study,
thanking them for all their best help.
And most of all to our
this book is wholeheartedly dedicated.
LIST OF FIGURES
1 Schematic Diagram of the Study
LIST OF TABLES
1 Research Subjects
2 Teaching Performance of the Grade V Teachers Based on CB – PAST in the North District of Guihulngan City Division
3 Academic Achievement of the Grade V Pupils in the North District of Guihulngan City Division for the 1st Grading of the School Year 2012 – 2013
4 Significant Relationship Between the Teachers’ Performance and The Pupils’ Academic Achievement
Title : COMPETENCY-BASED PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM FOR TEACHERS IN RELATION TO PUPILS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
Author : Christy Omni Sayon Albores
School : Colegio de Sta. Rita
Degree : Master of Arts in Education
Major : Educational Management
Year : March 17, 2013
This study focused on the Grade V teachers’ performance based on CB-PAST (Competency-Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers) of the North District of Guihulngan City Division,Negros Oriental in relation to pupils’ academic achievement during the 1st grading period of school year 2012 – 2013.
This research work included the 34 Grade V teachers and 1105 Grade V pupils as the research subjects from the twenty – six complete elementary schools of the North District of Guihulngan City Division.
To ensure success and effectiveness of this study, the researcher utilized the descriptive and documentary survey method. Data gathering instrument was used for documentary analysis. The researcher gathered the data on teaching performance of Grade V teachers from their CB – PAST This method used was appropriate as it attempts to organize, analyze and interpret data on the status of a thing. Moreover, it is concerned with conditions or relationships that exist, opinions that are held, processes that are going on, effects that are evident, while that of the Grade V pupils, the data were from Form 138.The statistical tool were frequency and weighted mean, Pearson – r and z – test.
The findings indicated that the Grade V teachers of the North District of Guihulngan City Division exhibited a proficient level of teaching performance based on CB - PAST in terms of Instructional Competence, School, Home, Community Involvement and Personal Growth and Development.
The Grade V pupils’ level of academic achievement was fair.
Statistical output using Pearson r revealed that the Grade V teachers teaching performance do not have bearing on the on the academic achievement of the Grade V pupils. The fair performance of pupils may be due to lack of study habits, lack of time to study and follow up from the parents.
Relevant to the results of the findings, faculty development strategies like peer mentoring and offering development opportunities focused on goals related to student success were proposed to enhance the teaching performance and to improve learning outcome.
On one hand, intervention activities for the pupils were also proposed to help pupils with low academic performance.
The Problem and Its Setting
The measurement of teachers’ teaching competence is seen in the Competency – Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers (CB – PAST). Competency – Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers which is a comprehensive appraisal system that addresses one of the mandates of the Department of Education as embodied in the RA 9155 whose primary object is to provide teachers with meaningful activities that encourage their professional learning and growth. It recognizes the quality of teacher’s accomplishments over a period of time for maintaining the high standard of work and properly rewarding excellent performance in terms incentives, awards and promotion.
Moreover, it will assure that school learners have the benefit of instruction at high level of proficiency from the teachers.
Through this, teachers are provided with meaningful activities that encourage their professional learning and growth. The procedure is supportive, non – threatening, fair, collegial and self – directed within the community of professional learners (CB – PAST Primer, 2010).
More so, the most important factor in student learning is the competency of the teacher. The more competent the teacher is the more successful are the students. The teacher knows that there is no best way to teach effectively. Therefore, the teacher wisely makes decisions that translate the available body of knowledge about teaching into increased student learning. Teachers are not afraid to take risks for they know that there is no accomplishment without risk.
Furthermore, it is also a well – known fact that learning and achievement go together. It cannot be separated from each other. If there is learning, there must be achievement. Achievement is the determinant of learning. Learning can be determined through the achievement of pupils in the cumulative learning area. (Senina,2000.)
In the North District of Guihulngan City Division, teachers’ teaching performance is assessed and evaluated at the end of the school year using the Competency – Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers (CB-PAST), conferred by the school head and approved by the district supervisor, the researcher feels that such is not enough to determine the level of competence of the teachers.
Further, it has come to the observation of the researcher being a Grade V teacher that although the teachers’ performance is very satisfactory based in CB – PAST, the academic performance of the pupils in the test given is satisfactory at all levels that is National, Regional, Division Levels with an average percentage score of 60% which indicated a performance that is below the planning standard of 75% mastery level set by the Department of Education.
With these data as frame of reference, the researcher was impelled to conduct this study to find whether the Teachers’ Teaching Performance based in CB – PAST affect the pupils’ academic achievement.
Statement of the Problem
The purpose of this study was to determine the teaching performance of the Grade V teachers based on CB – PAST in relation to pupils’ academic achievement during the 1st grading period in the North District of Guihulngan City Division, school year 2012 – 2013.
More specifically, the study sought to answer the following queries:
1. What is the teaching performance of the Grade V teachers based on CB - PAST in the North District of Guihulngan City Division in terms of:
1.1 Instructional Competence
1.2 School, Home, Community Involvement and
1.3 Personal Growth and Professional Development and when taken as a whole?
2. What is the level of the academic achievement of the Grade V pupils during the 1st grading period in the North District of Guihulngan City Division, school year 2012 – 2013?
3. Is there a significant relationship between the teaching performance of the Grade V teachers based on CB – PAST and the pupils’ academic achievement?
4. Taking the findings as frame of reference, what faculty development strategy and intervention activities for pupils may be proposed?
Statement of Hypothesis
There is no significant relationship between the teaching performance of the Grade V teachers based on CB-PAST and the pupils’ academic achievement.
Conceptual Framework of the Study
This research work is anchored on the concept that teaching is a form of public service which requires of teachers’ expert knowledge and specialized skills acquired and maintained through rigorous and continuous study (Ogayon, 2004).
Furthermore, the concept of improving teachers’ performance can be worked in various ways. One of this is the evaluation of teaching qualities and performance of teachers not only by the principal but also by the teachers themselves. This further claims that the task of creating a much favourable environment and development of teaching style for teaching and learning process is the concern of everybody (Retrieved, May 2012, www.usersearch.com).
To distinguish between a good and poor or effective and ineffective teachers performance is indeed a very hard task to do. No one knows exactly for sure or agrees what a competent teacher should be. Besides authorities can define, prepare, or measure the level of teacher’s teaching performance more accurately (Tulio, 2000).
In view of the above context on teaching performance, the researcher has envisioned a conceptual framework, which serves as the guide of this study. The schematic diagram which is the sub-model of the conceptual framework is presented in Figure 1.
Grade V Teachers Performance Based on CB - PAST
1. Instructional Pupils Academic Achievement Competence
2. School, Home, Community Involvement
3.Personal, Social Growth and Professional Development Proposed Faculty Development Strategy Suggested Intervention Activities
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of the Study
Figure 1 on page 8 shows the schematic diagram of the study. As reflected in the diagram, this study consists of two variables namely: independent and dependent variables. The independent variables are the teachers’ teaching performance with regards to instructional competence, school, home, community linkages and personal, social growth and professional characteristics; and the pupils’ academic achievement.
The two – way arrow drawn between the two variables signify relationship. Based on the results of the findings, educational outputs were proposed which were the faculty development strategy and intervention activities for pupils that served as the dependent variables.
Definition of Terms
For the purpose of better understanding of this study, some terms were defined conceptually and operationally.
CB – PAST. It is the acronym for Competency – Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers. It is an assessment tool that is non – threatening, fair, collegial and self – directed within the community of professional learners. As used in the study, CB – PAST refers to the instructional competence, school, home, and community involvement and personal growth and professional development of the teachers in the North District of Guihulngan City Division.
Academic Achievement. This refers to a valid indication of important educational achievement, usually indicated by a mark of a grade that reports student’s progress or the extent of the student’s academic achievement in a subject (Microsoft Encarta 2009). In this study, this term refers to the 1st rating grades in school year 2012 – 2013 of the Grade V pupils in English, Filipino, Mathematics, Science and Makabayan as reflected in the DepEd Form 138 (Pupil’s Report Card.)
Instructional Competence. This refers to one’s ability to promote learning developed through the appropriate preparation of experience made easy by natural talent (The Webster’s Fifth New International Dictionary 2005). In this study, this term refers to the teacher’s instructional competence which included the provision of appropriate intervention activities for learners at risk, provision of appropriate learning tasks, portfolio and projects that support development of good study habits and to provide timely and accurate feedback to learners to encourage them to reflect on and monitor their own learning growth.
School, Home, Community Involvement. As used in the study, this refers to the learning environment and community linkages.
Personal, Social Growth and Professional Characteristics. This refers to a distinguishing personal trait, quality or basic attributes of a teacher such as having sufficient ability to socialize with the learners (The Webster’s Fifth New International Dictionary, 2005). In this study, such term embraces the personal, social growth and professional development of the teachers of the North District of Guihulngan City Division.
Relation. This refers to connection (The Webster’s Fifth New International Dictionary 2005).In this study, this term refers to the connection and/or relevance between the Grade V teachers’ teaching performance and their pupils’ academic achievement.
Faculty Development Strategy. This refers to an institutional process which seeks to modify the attitudes, skills and behaviour of faculty members toward greater competence and effectiveness in meeting student needs, their own needs and the needs of the institution (Wolozkiewiez, 2000.) In this study, this term refers to the selected, planned, and organized sets of activities designed to provide teachers’ opportunities to enhance themselves with various new insights and experiences for the improvement of their personal and professional qualities necessary in the performance of their roles as educators.
Intervention Activities for Pupils.
The act of intervening, especially a deliberate entry into a situation or dispute in order to influence events or prevent undesirable consequences (Merriam - Webster’s Dictionary,2009). In this study, it refers to the undertakings done by the school to cater existing academic problems of the pupils.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study may yield valuable information regarding teachers’ performance whether or not they bear influence on the academic achievements of the pupils.
This research work may be beneficial to the following people:
School Administrators. The result of this study may serve as basis for administrators to have awareness and to sort out the strengths, weaknesses and the level of instructional competence of their teachers, furthermore, for the improvement of superior – subordinate relationship. This may also give them the insights that may help them understand the true meaning of guiding the teachers to become good performers in the classroom. The findings may give the administrators proper direction in creating an optimum climate for a fruitful teaching – learning situation in the classroom.
Teachers. The findings of this study may help them to be aware of their strengths and weaknesses in teaching thus giving them the opportunity to find ways and means to improve the aspects in teaching where they found themselves deficient. This may also strengthen the conviction of the teachers to improve their instructional competence, thus, they may benefit to have high rating in the evaluation of their performance and at the same time they can help out in the fulfilment of DepEd’s vision and mission.
Pupils. This study may be beneficial to the pupils since they are the recipients of quality instruction that may lead them to better academic achievement.
Parents. Through this study, parents may have the feeling of satisfaction with the performance of their children and that the investment for their children’s education may be assured of quality instruction from competent teachers.
Future Researchers. This study may motivate future researchers to conduct further related studies on teachers’ instructional competence and how it may affect pupils’ academic achievement in the years to come.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study focused on the Grade V teachers’ teaching performance based on CB-PAST in relation to
the academic achievement of their pupils during the first grading period in the North District of Guihulngan City Division, Guihulngan City, Negros Oriental as baseline data for the proposed faculty development strategy and pupils’ intervention activities. This research work included the 34 Grade V teachers and 1105 Grade V pupils.
More so, this research study is limited to the teachers’ teaching performance based in CB-PAST in terms of instructional competence, school, home, community involvement and personal, social growth and professional development.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents both conceptual and research literature which have direct bearing of this study.
The researcher utilized both local and foreign studies related to this study.
Drawing from the Vision and Mission of the Department of Education, (CB-PAST) Competency – Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers is a comprehensive appraisal system which addresses one of the mandates of the Department as embodied in the RA-9155 (CB – PAST – Primer, 2010).
The primary purposes of the CB-PAST are (1) to ensure support for the continuous professional growth of teachers and (2) to recognize the quality of teacher’s accomplishments over a period of time for maintaining the high standard of work and properly rewarding excellent performance in terms incentives, awards and promotion. The first purpose is formative-developmental in nature which will provide teachers with meaningful activities that encourage their professional learning and growth. The procedure will be supportive, non-threatening, fair, collegial and self-directed within the community of professional learners.
The second purpose is summative-evaluative which will assure that school learners have the benefit of instruction at high level of proficiency from the teachers. Appraisal of teacher performance is made on the basis of the evidences collected, observations made, conferences, and dialogues that accompany each procedure. The ultimate intention of the performance appraisal is achieving high levels of learners’ performance and improved learning outcomes as part of the school outcomes.
As an appraisal system, the CB – PAST adheres to standards of the competency – based performance which is the National Competency – Based Teacher Standards and the job – embedded requirements of the teachers in their duties and responsibilities, promote and encourages teacher personal growth and professional development and provides a new paradigm of instructional leadership and supervision which ultimately will improve learners and school performance outcomes.
The CB – PAST Framework
The National Competency – Based Teacher Standards (NCBTS) with the job – embedded requirements of the teachers guide the CB – PAST and primarily form the bases of the Teachers Performance Indicators. The required teacher competencies as determined through Teacher Strengths and Needs Assessment (TSNA) and their utilization in the teacher’s Individual Plan for professional Development (IPPD) are significant considerations of the appraisal system.
Parallel to matters on CB – PAST, the following studies are interrelated to it as it confers about appraisal of teachers’ performance and its effects to learners’ outcomes.
Ornstein (2002) remarked that in the past few decades, theorists were more concerned with teachers’ processes in an attempt to define and explain good teaching performance. Recently, researchers have become more concerned with teachers’ products – the students’ outcomes. The assessment of products focuses on teachers’ competence and effectiveness that make up the teachers’ performance.
Concomitantly, the teachers’ unique teaching experience gained deserves a closer look. Every day, a teacher faces her class; she is ready to address the whole class as a group at the same time, and attends the students as individuals. During her everyday classroom encounter, she is able to satisfy two educational objectives simultaneously the cognitive and affective. Such is what educators term as the challenging dailiness of teaching. The ensuing interactions, emotions and sometimes confusions that add flavour to ones learning give teaching its one – of – kind characteristic. Good teachers said that daily teaching make them teach their lessons exciting and enjoyable. This is the intellectual journey that teaching paves for both teachers and students.
Teaching is indeed a noble calling and mission – keeping for others, despite its daunting list of diversified roles. Rewards come in the form of winning the students’ love and emulation and the parents’ acknowledgement and gratification.
Similarly, Silberman (2006) stressed that teaching calls for the exercise of talent and creativity; but it also involves a repertoire of techniques, procedures and skills that can be systematic presentation of facts, ideas and skills and techniques of students, thus teachers who are in charge of educating, instructing and tutoring students must be well prepared and well equipped academically in order to impart the body of knowledge they have acquired.
Parallel to the above views of Silberman, some educational analysts averred that to reach the peak of teaching performance, teachers are required to master any new strategies, techniques and skills quickly and effectively. With this line of thoughts, according to Ogayon (2004), a highly successful teacher creates success on purpose.
Cognizant to this, Ogayon (2004) still disclosed that effective teachers develop through research and should implement an expensive series of teaching, learning and assessment strategies that will, among other things, offer all learners opportunities to demonstrate what they have learned in a variety of ways. They practice a good balance of traditional and alternative assessment strategies to enable them to fairly and holistically assess an individual student’s learning.
Mezirow (2005) averred that teachers need to find out the best approach in helping the learning develop to the maximum as possible. The effective teacher goes beyond teaching facts and knowledge to helping students critically reflect on what is taught. She helps the learner transcend conformity to independent thinking, at the same time encouraging collective effort, to grow from self-interests to global concerns, and from materialism to spiritualism.