The Role of Media in Promoting Social Development

The Case Study of SNNPR (Debub FM 100.9 Radio) in Hawassa Town three Sub Cities


Master's Thesis, 2020
106 Pages

Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS

Acknowledgement

Author’s Biography

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Figures

List of Appendices

Acronyms

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.3.1. General Objective
1.3.2. Specific Objectives
1.4. Research Questions
1.5 Scope of the Study
1.6. Limitation of the Study
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8. Organization of the Paper
1.9. Definition of Key Terms

CHAPTER TWO
2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Media effects and Social Change: Theoretical Framework
2.1.1 Effects of Media – Theories
2.1.1.1 Two-step flow Theory
2.1.1.2 Cultivation Theory
2.1.1.3 Bullet Theory
2.2 Development as a Concept
2.3 Development Media as Theory
2.4 The Social Responsibility Theory
2.5 Empirical Data
2.5.1 Research on FM radios for Social Development
2.6 Ethiopian Mass Media-An Overview
2.6.1 Broadcast Media in Ethiopia
2.7 Historical Development of Radio Broadcasting in Ethiopia
2.8 FM Radio as an Understanding
2.9 SNNPR (Debub FM 100.9 Radio)
2.10 Development Communication: - Overview
2.10.1 Participatory Communication as a Theory
2.10.2 Communication for Social Change (CFSC)
2.11 Modernization
2.11.1 Development Journalism
2.11.2 Diffusion of Innovation
2.12 Paradigm of Contemporary Global Development
2.12.1 Democracy and Diversity of Radio
2.12.2 Radio as Participatory Communication
2.12.2.1 Entertainment – Education
2.12.2.2 Social Marketing
2.13 Conceptual Framework of the Study

CHAPTER THREE
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Operational Definitions of Variables
3.3 Population and Sample
3.3.1 Sample Design
3.4 Data collection Techniques
3.4.1 Qualitative Study
3.4.1.1. Focus Group Discussion
3.4.1.2. Interview
3.4.2 Quantitative Study
3.4.2.1 Questionnaire
3.5 Data Analysis
3.6. Source of Data
3.7 Description of the Study Area

CHAPTER FOUR
4. DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Introduction
4.2. Response Rate
4.3 Respondents Background
4.4 Reliability of the Instruments
4.5 Validity of the Instrument
4.6 Analysis and Interpretation
4.7 Data Analysis and Interpretation of Findings
4.7.1 Effectiveness and quality
4.7.2. Media Quality
4.7.3. Media accessibility
4.7.4 Challenges of Media
4.7.5 Prospects of Media
4.7.6 Open Ended Questions
4.8 Forms and Degrees of Audience Participation
4.9 Educational Development Program types
4.10 Total Summation of Frequencies and Percentages of Respondents’ Opinion
4.11 Finding of the Research

CHAPTER FIVE
5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary
5.3 Conclusions
5.4 Recommendations
5.4.1 Public
5.4.2 SNNPR Radio and Television Agency
5.4.3 SNNPR Communication Affairs
5.4.4 Public at Large
5.4.5 Further Study

References

Appendices

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, I would like to thank the almighty God who made me exceed the challenges and obstacles faced throughout my life by hearing more than I say, by answering more than I asked, and by giving more than I imagined. The almighty God, I really thank you for the time being you created and help me to be strong, visionary and bold enough to knock and open the doors those seems unocked and unopened.

I would like to express my sincere and heartfelt appreciation to my advisor Senait Haileselase (PhD candidate) for her close supervision, valuable ideas and invaluable contribution that helped me a lot in preparing my thesis. Really, I admire her optimist behavior, kindness and patience to see my thesis deeply and for her sincerely guidance. Likewise, I would like to express my warm gratitude for my friends Dr. Asfaw Yilma, who is working in commercial Bank of Ethiopia at head office, for his advice and review my thesis. Also Ato Hussen Nuredin the head of SNNPR Communication Affaire office who has helped me in materials and financial during my study; I will never forget, Ato Tamene Tessema, the head of the SNNPR State Office of the President, for his heart full help & encouraging activities to join the University. In addition, Ato Ayalew Arja (SNNPR, South Ethiopian people’s Democratic movement Office) for his valuable support in my research. I also want to thank Ato Aman Nurhussen (a lecturer in Arbaminch University) for reviewing my paper.

I would also like to express my deepest gratefulness to my lovely and self-reliant wife Etenesh Harka for her tireless support; strong moral and tolerance in encouraging me were long-sufferingly isolated with me to make finalizing my endeavor successfully through her encouragement, appreciation and support until the end of this study during my stay in the campus. Moreover, I would like to extend my thanks to all SNNPR media managers Ato Yohaness Ture, Ato Semnegus Sheno, and Tadesse Abate, and all the journalists and editors, Leku kebele, Philadelphia and Gebeyadar Kebele participants in this study.

Finally, I would like to thank Ato Merkneh Yacob, Hawassa town Mehal Sub city administrator during the beginning of my research that made convenient situation for my research in the sub city. Lastly, I would like to thank Markos Tantu the chairman of Mehal sub city Youth’s association and Dessalegn Dawit who were supporting me in collecting questionnaires during my study.

AUTHOR’S BIOGRAPHY

The Author was born in 1973 at Hawassa town Leku Kebele, in SNNPR region, in Ethiopia. After the completion of high school, he studied and graduated his Bachelor of Education Degree (BED) at Debub University – Dilla in English, 2003.

Thereafter, he has served as a teacher of English for the last ten and half years in Gedio Zone (Dilla), a year in Aleta Wondo town administration as an information officer, three years as mass media team leader in Sidama zone Government Communication affairs and now working for eight years in SNNPR regional Communication affairs as a public relation officer in Hawassa and totally served in government activities for twenty years and above. He has joined the Institute of Leadership and Good Governance, Ethiopian Civil Service University for his post – graduate studies in Leadership and Good Governance in September 2013.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1: SNNPR Branch Radio Stations and Broadcast Languages

Table 2.2: Branch Radio Stations and Their Wave Length

Table 3.1: Population and Sample Size

Table 4.1: Response Rate

Table 4.2: Respondents Profile by age, sex, education and Categories

Table 4.3: Instrument Reliability

Table 4.4: Media Contents

Table 4.5: Processed Data summary of Media quality

Table 4.6: Processed Data summary of Media Accessibility

Table 4.7: Media Challenges

Table 4.8: Kruskal-Wallis test of Media Prospects

Table 4.9: Kruskal- Wallis test of Open Ended Questions

Table 4.10: Forms and Degrees of Audience Participation

Table 4.11: Some Educational Development programs on Debub FM 100.9 radio

Table 4.12: Feeling of the respondents on the appropriateness of the contents, quality, access, challenges and prospects

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1: (Researcher’s Own Source), Media not Effective

Figure 2.2: Effective Media

Figure 2.3: Conceptual Framework of the Study

Figure 3.1: Administrative Map of Hawassa City Administration

Figure 4.1: Media Prospects

Figure 4.2: Open Ended Questions

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix – I: Questionnaires for Respondents

Appendix – II: Interview Questions for Radio Journalists and Editors

Appendix – III: Interview Questions for Media Managers

Appendix – IV: Focus Group Discussion Questions for Listeners

Appendix - V: Focus Group Discussion Participants

ACRONYMS>

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges and prospects, quality and effectiveness of media. In the methodology of the study, by using randomly techniques 137 questionnaires were distributed to 3 kebeles participants. Out of these, for Leku kebele 46, for Philadelphia 46 and for Gebeyadar kebele 45 questionnaires were distributed to the respondents for quantitative study. For interview,20 participants were selected purposely from SNNPR Media institution of Debub FM 100.9 radio case. Out of 20, 16 were journalists, 2 editors, and 2 Media managers. In focus group discussion, 30 participants were selected purposely and participated in the discussion, of these, 10 from Leku kebele, 10 from Philadelphia and 10 from Gebeyadar kebele. This study treated the types of educational development programs that the FM radio broadcast. In the study totally 187 participants were participated. According to the findings of this study show that using a radio broadcast mainly as a tool of motivation rather than as a tool of development which is one of the impediments and threatening aspects of the growth of broadcast system in the region. The results of the study demonstrated that the effectiveness of media, challenges and prospects that hinders practicing of media, this revealed that the perception and attitudes of all respondents did not significantly vary across their responses. The major findings of the study discloses that FM100.9 radio has created programs that are not entertaining, and not preferable to listen as Fana FM 103.4 and Hawassa University FM 97.7 radio. The FM radio station devotes a reasonable percentage of their broadcasting time to the discussion of public issues of interest, i.e. educational and socially relevant issues but the audiences were not needed to listen the media. The study employed a descriptive statistics survey method and used both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Media managers, reporters, editors, and Hawassa town three sub cities of three kebeles local people were sources of data for the study. Using randomly techniques, questionnaires were distributed to three kebele’s people and were selected using simple random sampling techniques to distribute the questionnaires prepared for them. Besides, for purposefully selected respondents for qualitative interviews were made. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequencies, percentages, tables and bar charts. For data organization, the quantitative data analysis was used by coding them and analyzed through the software of SPSS 20 computer assisted programs. Respondents in their perceptions and attitudes towards the role of Media in promoting social development (educational development) were requested. Finally, the researcher recommended that media managers, journalists and editors, regional communication affairs and the public (audiences) have to build best practices of exemplary in reducing the problem of media effectiveness (contents, quality, access) and challenges and prospects.

Key words : Social Development, Educational Development, Challenges, and Prospects of media.

CHAPTER ONE

1. INTRODUCTION

This chapter lays the foundation for the rest of the thesis. From the background, and a statement of the problem, it proceeds to the objective of the study, research questions, the scope and limitations of the study, the significance of the study and organization of the paper, then it concludes with an outline of the subsequent chapters.

1.1. Background of the Study

The media plays a big role in empowering citizens to participate in all the processes of socio-economic development.

According to Steeves (2008) the media’s role in social development for the Third world countries like Ethiopia has an excellent solution for the problem of poverty and related causes such as backwardness, hunger, diseases, injustice and exploitation. The use of mass media and its effectiveness is a prerequisite for communication and attitudinal change which are very crucial in the process of social development.

In Africa, one of the main challenges for developing contents of radio is the need to produce programs on tight budget which has an impact on educational programs like, dramas- which require retaining dedicated teams of writers, technicians, editors, the prevailing culture of African radio is that of the live broadcast, rather vehicles, etc. - are housed and funded by donor aid. These are produced in separate production houses and funded by donor aid. Much development content is produced in this way, by charging airtime to NGOs and civil society organizations to broadcast their programs. Because of this reason, the researcher expects that developmental issues are not seriously aired on the radio without tight budget; even it may affect development issues and the effectiveness of media too. On the other side, which affect the effectiveness of media, is the preparation of journalists towards media contents (Mayers, 2008). These affect the effectiveness of media.

Similarly, the effectiveness of media is growing from time to time, however, still it needs a lot to do on this agenda Servaes (2008) showed that when one sees the effectiveness of the Ethiopia media, the main factors that make the media effective is in producing better social, economic and political outcomes, but there is still a gap in reaching the society due to lack of infrastructure to access the information. In relation to the mass media landscape of Ethiopia, there are sub cities very high expectations for radio to play the central role in the dissemination of development information, among urban and rural dwellers simply because, compare to other mass media (television, newspaper or internet), “Radio is much more pervasive, accessible and affordable”. But, in the context of Ethiopia, there are some basic problems which can deter the effective and efficient use of radio for social development.

Development towards media have been witnessed that during the last ten - twelve years it has a rapid growth in the broadcasting industry of Ethiopia. The trend is mainly a result of the forces of globalization, chiefly liberalization, privatization and the free market economy. Government sets the regulatory bodies to regulate the operation of the electronic media that are also being charged with enforcing an ethical code of broadcasting. Some FM radio stations to air the programs related to the community based problems and issues, but many depend on entertainment without logical reasons. The governments of Ethiopia maintained the monopoly of the airwaves always viewed radio as an indispensable instrument in the processes of national integration. In this country where gaps existed between the illiterate and literate in both rural and urban areas, radio was/is seen as a vehicle for cultivating national consciousness (Tadesse, 2005).

The Debub FM 100.9 radio station is one of FM radios, established on March 1, 2005 by Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Media Agency in Hawassa, and is controlled by the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Government. In the region, it has 14 Zones and 4 Special woredas’ the access of south media information has different from Zones to Zones and special Woredas’. The Media Organization has recently broadened its horizon by upgrading the quality and diversity of its services. The main Radio Station and the transmitters’ have links by 10KW and 5KW with 1500 MHZ wave length. But to strengthen its effectiveness still it has a gap to fill it. Now a day, the radio station has main radio station in Hawassa and it has 8 branch stations which broadcast programs for 18 hrs per day by Amharic language from the main station and about 47 languages out of 56 national languages in the region broadcast their programs by their own language for one hour per day on average by this channel every morning. The television station is in the way to establish in the region (SNNPR Mass Media Organization, 2012).

Even though the SNNPR FM 100.9 Radio has eight sub FM radio stations, the stations and their staff, lack special social development programming approaches. Effective FM radio broadcasting should promote social development issues, which is relevant to the community totally. In spite of the fact that development implies change and the first change that takes place is the attitude of the people who are directly affected by the development. In this case, the city of Hawassa’s three sub cities, communities are directly affected by development, if they did not bring attitudinal change.

For change radio plays a vital role in the process of development. Therefore Debub FM 100.9 radio can be trusted as a source of information and a vital player of development in the Urban and rural community. This is only possible if the broadcast content is prepared strategically and appropriately to prompt to the people to be socially engaged in development activities. The study attempts to explore the role of media in promoting the social development issues like educational development programs on the media and there are needs to be filled the gap and researched. Through this, the researcher would like to see the challenges, quality and effectiveness of FM 100.9 radio in the process of social development in the selected three sub cities of three Kebeles.

1.2. Statement of the Problem

The effectiveness of media growing is changing from time to time, however still it needs a lot to do on this agenda. Any mass media are used to educate, inform and encourage people to build a national consensus and the public also evaluates any mass media output and the extent of its influence on society or, in other words, its educational value (Nigussie, 2006). Mass media plays a great role in solving the problem of the public in the process of social development. The FM radio has benefited to the public in social development issues, when broadcasted quality contents of media messages effectively. Today the FM radio stations are established in Ethiopia, but the effectiveness of the media is different from place to place.

According to the Ethiopian Broadcasting Authority (EBA), it requires each station should air educational and socially relevant themes. Thus, they are expected to integrate educational messages into an entertainment format with the purpose of informing the audiences about development issues in the country. Additionally, any broadcasting media has the basic roles of educating; informing and entertaining people as it is known from the classic theories of public service (McLeish, 2005).

Effective media is instrumental for building democratic governance and human centered poverty reduction endeavor of a poor country like Ethiopia as state media development in Ethiopia (2007). Media effectiveness depends on the context of access to information, autonomy, reach and quality. FM radio stations are established, but today the effectiveness of the media is highly in question in demanding. Media plays a great role in promoting about social development programs and has an impact on social relations. In the recent study of Zerihun (2012), the effectiveness, challenge and prospect of electronics media is addressed the problem of media (Debub FM 100.9 radio) accessibility to the public.

Similarly, according to Aderaw ( 2008) large scale surveys, conducted by either program producers or hired external evaluators, have not been sufficient to collect detailed individual response data on the effects of radio program such as serial dramas.

In this research, the study is focused on “the role of media in promoting social development” in reference to SNNPR Radio and Television Agency of Debub FM 100.9 radio as a case study of Hawassa town three sub cities.

Therefore, the researcher has taken the following points as the rationale behind to study this research and has no detail written on this issue in the region. Hence, it is necessary to assess the effectiveness, quality of content, challenges and prospects of the media (FM 100.9 radio) experiences in promoting social development programs like education and health programs by taking sample areas as a case study of the region. The quality of the program content and the professionals that understand the environment should be considered in the study.

But today, the quality and the effectiveness of media messages have a problem in solving social development issues of the audiences as expected and the public are not benefited as well from social development programs of the radio. Because, it lacks the quality contents and its effectiveness of media message to the audiences. Because of this, the social development issues of the public are not solved in different places. The researcher hopes that, the study contributes a lot to FM radio station. But, there are many challenges to sustain its contribution like quality, contents and its effectiveness.

So, it needs to analyze what impacts it brought on people’s attitude the quality, contents and effectiveness of broadcasting message of FM 100.9 radio and what challenges and prospects are considered in the media station. The reason of the study is there are qualit y and effectiveness gap in the media institution.

1.3. Objectives of the Study

1.3.1. General Objective

The main objective of the study is:

To examine the challenges and prospects of mass media in promoting social development using the case of SNNPR Radio and Television Agency of Debub FM 100.9 radio in Hawassa town 3 sub cities.

1.3.2.Specific Objectives

The specific objectives of this study are:-

- To assess the quality and the effectiveness of FM 100.9 radio in promoting social development issues.
- To identify the challenges of FM 100.9 radio programs of social development.

1.4. Research Questions

The study attempts to find out answers to the following research questions.

- To what extent FM 100.9 radio is qualified and effective in promoting social development issues?
- What are the challenges of FM 100.9 radio to improve the quality, and its effectiveness?

1.5. Scope of the Study

The scope of the study encompasses the city of Hawassa which has eight sub cities and of these three sub cities is selected (Mehal, Addis ketema and Haikdar). From these sub cities the study examines three Kebeles like Leku from (Mehal), Philadelphia (Addisketema), and Gebeyadar (Haikdar) are the study settings.

The study is limited to examining the extent of the challenges and prospects of Debub FM 100.9 radio broadcasting in promoting social development issues in focusing on Hawassa city as a case study. The study also covers the perception of the radio audiences on the issues of educational and development themes aired on. In this study, from three sub cities, the researcher had taken one Kebele from each sub cities. The selected areas had taken as a sample for the whole region. The reason why these areas and the region selected that in the selected area as urban base the audiences have many opportunities to listen FM radio because of this vast audiences tilt to listen another FM radio. The audiences complain that FM 100.9 radio has given much air time to music and western cultural activities than social development issues like educational development program and also the effectiveness of FM 100.9 radio quality, content and its impact on social welfare are into consideration and allotted time to development issues are not enough. This is limited on a monthly report of SNNPR Radio and Television Agency (Debub FM 100.9 radio).

1.6. Limitation of the Study

During the time of data collection the researcher encountered some limitations such us shortage of time, respondents like journalists, editors, and media managers were busy because of different activities and meetings and some of the respondents were not willing to cooperate with the researcher to respond to the questions.

1.7 Significance of the Study

This study tried to respond how much the government/public FM Radio addresses the social development issues which meet the need of people. This research paper helps to mass media organization to improve its challenges, effectiveness and quality of the media service.

FM radios have in mobilizing the public for nation building, prepare them mentally for the changes that accompany development and reinforce national unity. In the study area, there has not been through researched in this area in SNNPR region; this study might fill the gap and can provide a point of references for similar interests in the study of FM radio’s role and its challenges and effectiveness in addressing social development issues.

As stated in to Zerihun (2012), Electronics media is one of the important tools for democratic society building. It plays an important role in all facets of social, cultural, political and economic life. But there is no enough research on the issue of improving its effectiveness and quality media service in SNNPR. Due to this reason the study has the following importance for regional government and for other stakeholders. First, it helps to afford written document/paper to SNNPR Radio and Television Agency to look towards their organization and to improve the challenges and effectiveness of the media. Second, it helps to motivate other researchers to conduct further study in the area and the third, it is hoped to become an input for the regional government to design/formulate a policy from the studied material.

1.8. Organization of the Paper

In this research thesis, it has five chapters, including the introductory chapter. Chapter two of this study organized as the relationship of development and the mass media and particularly the role of (effectiveness) of government FM radio in promoting social development, and the concepts of different scholars were seen in the organization. Chapter three of the study expresses about research methodology, the data collection and the analysis of these methods, and description of the selection of samples were gathered. Chapter four expresses about data presentation or the discussion and interpretation. At last, chapter five presents the conclusion and recommendation of the thesis.

In conclusion, the study basically focuses on three selected sub cities of Hawassa city: Mehal, Addis ketema, and Haikdar. Of these, Leku kebele from Mehal Subcity, Philadelphia kebele from Addisketema and Gebeyadar kebele from Haikdar were selected as the setting of the study. The study wants to assess the challenges and prospects of FM 100.9 radio quality and effectiveness by the basic variables: FM 100.9 radio effectiveness in its promotion of social development issues, its impacts on social development (educational development programs), quality, and the contents of the radio.

1.9 Definition of Key Terms

Educational Development Programs : The educational, instructional or informational radio programs concerning socioeconomic problems based on identifiable audience needs.

FM Radios : Frequency Modulation (FM) radio stations which have narrow and localized broadcasting, normally covering a radius of not more than 100 miles.

Social Development: is a type of social change in which new ideas are introduced in social systems. It refers to the improvement of human life condition of individual and social levels.

Effectiveness: is the extent to which the respondents have benefited immensely from mass media in terms of social development like – from educ ational development programs.

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0 Introduction

In this chapter it has seen the development and the mass media relationship in general and radios in particular, the theoretical framework which is related to radio and development, media effects and social change (development) theory is also undertaken. The theoretical framework of media effects and social change begins with the influence of media on masses and the different scholars’ definition of social change theories has been shown, and proceeds to see development as a concept and media theory, social development responsibility theory. The empirical data and the most critical dimensions of development, including mass media in Ethiopia and FM radio’s concept and effectiveness is included, communication for development and social change, and participatory communication is under this chapter is shown. Also, it looks development paradigm with regard to development.

2.1 Media Effects: Theoretical Framework

2.1.1 Effects of Media - Theories

2.1.1.1 Two-step Flow Theory

Bob (2005: p266) explained about “a two-step’’ flow of media messages and that the audience has the ability to “select and interpret media messages”. The media messages filtered through the mass media to opinion leaders, peers or relatives, who then play roles in decisions that people make after being exposed to media messages. The radio influences the minds of the masses aroused numerous social inquiries. This theory is a popular media effects theory, and to some extent is related to the diffusion of innovation hypothesis. This theory is still a relevant theory for studying the relationship between FM radios and the development in the developing countries.

2.1.1.2 Cultivation Theory

George (1994, p17-41) said that media shape the people’s view of the world. It explains about the passage of time, the usages of media will “cultivate” inside users a distinct view of the world. This theory helps to understand that how a person’s perception shapes or sometimes it is distorted by the media. The media can be a source to change in the perceptions, attitudes and behavior of the people.

2.1.1.3 Bullet Theory

According to Melvin (2008,p163), in this theory people who are watching different movies become influenced by those movie messages. If they watch violent movies become violent and those who read immoral comic books become morally wrong. This theory shows that media effects flow directly from the media to an individual like a bullet.

2.2 Development as a Concept

Waisboard (2011) said that development has no single definition, because of different factors of the nature of concepts, the different physical environment, culture, natural resources and general ways of life.

Matterlart (1998) defines development, it is synonymous with “growth’’, “modernization”, and “social change’’. In the middle of the 20th century.

According to Servaes, et al. (1996, p82-83), development can be defined as: “a multidimensional process that involves change in social structures, attitudes, institutions, economic growth, the reduction of inequality, and the eradication of poverty”

2.3 Development Media as Theory

According to Denis McQuil (1984), the development media theory is appropriate to the media situation in developing countries for economic, political and social requirements and also the media should be constructive instead of being destructive.

The theory shows that the relationship between the national government and mass media to promote national development. The media organizations, professional, governmental agencies and officials are expected to work closely together to achieve national goals rather than assume an antagonistic relationship.

2.4 The Social Responsibility Theory

The free market approach to press freedom had only increased the power of a single class and has not served the interests of the less well-off classes. The emergence of radio, TV and film suggested the need for some means of accountability. Thus, this theory advocated some obligation on the part of the media to society. One pivotal characteristic of the view which is an emphasis on the media’s responsibility to use its powerful position to ensure appropriate delivery of information to audiences, furthermore, if the media fails in carrying out its responsibility, it may be relevant to have a regulatory instance enforce it. The power and near monopoly position of the media impose on them an obligation to be socially responsible, to see that all sides are fairly presented and that if the media do not take on themselves it may be necessary for some other agency of the public to enforce it (Seibert et al.,1956).

2.5 Empirical Data

As we know that Fm radio is the new phenomenon in our country, not many research have been conducted related the contribution of effectiveness of FM radio in social development– like education. However, the researcher wishes to cite a few local and international studies whose findings and conclusion are relevant to this research.

2.5.1 Research on FM Radios for Social Development

According to Milkissa(2010), educational and development themes and social analysis have been disseminated /aired through many popular programming formats such as talk shows, chat shows, commentaries, the magazine reports, radio drama news, phone-ins and music and special thematic programs. Of course, there are some weaknesses for which the FM radios are accused very often. Because of its Private FM radios, their profit motives, they feed the audience with too many advertisements, music and DJ jokes. In fact, these privately owned radio stations rely on local and nationally significant businesses for ad revenue. The researcher recommends that analyzing the content of FM radios in quantitative research is better to reach good performance and fill the gaps.

Similarly, in the recent study of Zerihun (2012), the problem addressed about effectiveness, challenge and prospect of electronics media in SNNPR. There has been an argument regarding the problem of accessibility of media to the public and the context in which information is disseminated by electronic media to the public especially in common consensus and democratic society building. There has been a suggestion concerning media in the region in the quality of content, professionalism, understanding the environment in which the message is transmitted, etc. Based on this, the researcher recommends that audience analysis of FM 100.9 radio needs to assess and fulfill the problem is preferable.

2.6 Ethiopian Mass Media-An Overview

Mass media are playing a great role in information dissemination. Our time witness that again and again, we hear that information is power, power to achieve sustainable development. The Ethiopian mass media are a century old, with the print media taking up the leading role in the history. The demand to be informed properly for the sake of achieving sustainable economic, political and social development and lay down a strong foundation for democracy is growing. However, the mass media are not showing a significant development, possessing a number of problems that occurred in its life cycle. Nevertheless, it is worth mentioning the historical background, in order to understand the present status of the mass media in Ethiopia, with special reference to the widely popular medium in the country, i.e. radio (Gissila, 2008).

2.6.1 Broadcast Media in Ethiopia

According to Ministry of Information of Ethiopia (1996), broadcasting, primarily the radio, reaches a much larger part of the population, both literate and illiterate, than does print, though the distribut ion is limited. Radio was first introduced in 1935, prior to the Italian invasion. However, the Ethiopian soldiers broke down the installation, so that it won’t be used by the Italian invaders. Following this, the Italians installed radio service for their propaganda, which was later on overtaken and restored by the Ethiopians after the victory, in 1941. Gradually, its transmission capacity, facilities and programming were expanded during the imperial era. In 1960, for the first time it was possible to start international broadcast to Europe, West Africa and Middle East. Meanwhile, its capacit y and quality of transmission was upgraded in reception of domestic services.

Radio Voice of the Gospel, owned by the Lutheran World Federation, operated prior to the overthrow of the Emperor in 1974. Their facilities were seized under the Derg, and it turned out to function as the voice of revolutionary Ethiopia international service. Some documents show that there is no significant difference in broadcast media, between the previous regime and Derg, mainly in contents. Compared to the development of media globally, it was mentioned as ‘backward’, monotonous and unbalanced in content (Gissila, 2008).

2.7 Historical Development of Radio Broadcasting in Ethiopia

Media has a long history in Ethiopia when we compare the history of the media establishment in Africa. During the regime of Emperor Menelik II (1885-1913) which is considered as the first legal domestic media. The Ethiopian Radio was introduced to Ethiopia in 1936 since then the station has been trying to redesign the organizational structure in order to accommodate new technology and provide quality services.

Makuria (2005:10) stated that in 1936 the Radio Ethiopia started its transmission with a 7 kilowatt short wave transmitter and hardly covered the scale of Addis Ababa. Immediately, the Italians took control of the station and used it as an instrument of propaganda. In 1941, after the withdrawal of Italian troops, the Ethiopian government used the Radio for disseminating Amharic news, government statements, declarations and music (Basic Information’s of Ethiopian Radio and television, 2000:4).

In 1963, Foreign and Domestic Broadcast Services started. For example: the Ethiopian Radio for the first time broadcast news in English to West Africa, Europe, in French, in the Middle East, East and North Africa and in Arabic to the Middle East audiences. After 1970, the Radio Ethiopia made changes by overcoming the problems of its formative years with coverage of 40 percent of the people in all major cities, towns and villages of the country under the direction and guidance of the Ministry of Information. Following the 1974 Revolution, the Dergue regime changed the name from ‘Radio Ethiopia’ to ‘Voice of the Revolut ionary Ethiopia’ so as to fit the name into the revolut ionary changes which occurred at that time. As Makuria (2005:10) indicated the name Radio Ethiopia was restored soon after the incumbent government came to power 1991.

In the regime of Haile Sellassie, Radio broadcasting was started in Addis Ababa in 1941. Shortwave broadcasting was resumed in 1941 and then in the subsequent years Radio Ethiopia operated from three locations: Addis Ababa, Harar and Asmara broadcasting in six languages and the first provisional radio station was inaugurated in 1933 in a contract signed with an Italian company (Tadesse, 2005). The first airwaves came to Ethiopian earth from their native soil at the time of Emperor Haile Silassie (1930-1974) in 1935. At the time of the Emperor, however, radio broadcasting was employed as an instrument of unification, “to help overcome the internal linguistic and ethnic divisions which geography has perpetuated over Ethiopia’s long history of independence” (Negussie, 2006: 10). Though by the late 1960s the country’s radio system had been organized under the imperial government’s Ministry of Information, radio broadcasting (as this was also true to the other mass media) was neither employed as a means of development nor in a position to exercise freedom of expression as the government was an absolute, undemocratic monarchy (Brook, 2000: 18-19).

During a Mengistu’s regime (1974-1991), the radio was employed as a major tool for propaganda and counter-propaganda purposes since “Broadcast played a primarily propaganda role, aimed at promoting national unity under state socialism” (Brook, 2000: 19). It was very negligible, radio was “used for education purposes to promote literacy campaigns, health and farming”.

At the time of the Derg virtually there had never been any remarkable change or even improvement in the landscape of Ethiopian mass media. From the technical perspective, they were still backward; from a professional point of view they were still monotonous and filled with imbalanced reports. Inefficient and slow reporting, a lack of interesting news and analysis, and insufficient technical means needed for the proper functioning of newspapers, all helped explain why the Ethiopian press was not considered a significant social institution compared with the press of other developing countries (Negussie, 2006: 13).

Since 1991, Up to 2005, there were only three broadcasting stations in the media landscape of the country, i.e. Radio Ethiopia, Radio Fana and the Voice of Wayane Tigray. It was after this time that Regional States started to establish local radio stations.

According to the report that the researcher obtained from the Ethiopian Broadcast Authority, up to February 2012, there were 26 radio stations that were operating in the country. From these seven radio stations are belonged to state media; they are owned either by the Federal Government or Regional States. In Ethiopia, there were no regional broadcast media before 1991, but now there are many government and private broadcast media, which were established in different regions like FM 97.1, 98.1, 102.1, 90.4, 96.3 in Addis Abeba and FM 100.9 of Hawassa, FM radio of Dire Dawa, Bahirdar, Mekele (dimtse weyane), and oromiya TV station of Nazret are some examples of broadcasting media established.

To put in place the legal and regulatory frameworks and institutional arrangements for media development, and broadcast law has recently been endorsed broadcasting authority was reestablished. The 1992 press proclamation, which abolished censorship, has been revised. The private print media, FM radios and community radio were granted licenses. Moreover, a number of national and regional states owned broadcast media have expanded their reaches and language diversity. Today there are many FM radio stations are established, but today the effectiveness of the media in governance is highly demanded.

2.8 FM Radio as an Understanding

The first FM station was launched in Ethiopia in June 2000, established under Radio Ethiopia. FM Radio is a device that can influence to its listeners in worldwide areas. It has the capacity to increase one’s knowledge, ideas, and understanding of any issue while maintaining personal relationships with its transmission. Its listeners interact with their environmental subjects. It can also be noteworthy, such as bringing change in a person’s attitudes, culture and can cause for social change. This study would call attention to the effectiveness of FM Radio in promoting and causing the development (Social development). The drawback of the medium is that they mostly focus kill the air time on traditional and Western music transmission. Radio has proved itself as a powerful medium in all over the world where it has become also a tool for disaster management (Sadaf Naqvi, 2011).

FM Radio can be a trusted source of information for the people, this is only possible if the broadcast content is prepared strategically and appropriately prompts for the people to be economically aggressive and engage in self-income generating activities. There is a need for the radio stations to provide development related programs and content rather than allocating a lot of time for mere music and entertainment. This means that the staffing (journalist/editors) at these local stations require special skills to design programs to accelerate development. Radio enables communities to articulate their experiences and to critically examine issues and policies affecting their lives, for example, a communit y can use the radio to highlight new educational policies. These policies can be debated upon and discussed using the radio and immediate feedback can be given to relevant authorities to take action (Amany, 2011).

2.9 SNNPR (Debub FM 100.9 Radio)

SNNPR Media Organization was established in March 1, 2005. The organization has recently broadened its horizon by upgrading the quality and diversity of its services. Now a day, the radio station has main radio station in Hawassa and it has 8 branch stations broadcasting about 47 languages of the region. The main Radio Station and the transmitters’ have links by 10KW and 5KW with 1500 MHZ wave length (SNNPR Mass Media, 2012) (See Table 2.1 below).

Table 2.1: SNNPR Branch Radio Stations and Broadcast Languages

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: SNNPR Mass Media Organization, January 29, 2012

The Radio Expansion Project of FM 100.9 consists of 8 additional branch stations which covers 80% of the target population. Each branch station has its own Wave length or MHZ (See Table 2. 2 below).

Table 2.2: Branch Radio Stations and Their Wave Length

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: SNNPR Mass Media Organization, January 29, 2012

2.10 Development Communication: - Overview

According to Thomas (2009:3) development communication is intervening in a systematic or strategic manner with either media (print, radio, telephony, video, and the Internet), or education (training, literacy, schooling) for the purpose of positive social change. Develop communication, particularly radio, was viewed as being central to improving the economic and social lot of the poor in the southern hemisphere. Theorists like Daniel Lerner, Wilbur Schramm, Paul Deutschmann, Walter Rostow, Everett Rogers, Luis Beltran, Michel Foucault, along with other scholars, as well as agencies such as the Ford and Carnegie Foundations, UNESCO, and the UN’s Department of Economic Affairs looked at development issues, some cautiously, some critically, and others creatively.

Of these, Daniel Lerner and Wilber Schramm were influential in this regard because their work stressed the role of communication in development (Servaes, 2002, P 15-16). They theorized that communication was the transmission of information from the Western World to the Third World. They had strong belief that if traditional societies were exposed to the mass media, they would also be exposed to modern western attitudes which would make them change (Servaes& Melkote & Steeves, 2002: 15-16; 2007: 71).

2.10.1 Participatory Communication as a Theory

This focuses on the effects of individuals on mass communication with special emphasis placed on the development of the third world. Unlike other mass communication theories which deal with the effects of the few and powerful with the masses via vertical diffusion. Waisboard (2001) as cited in Ocwich (2004) defines participatory communication as the process by which people within a particular community “create and share information with one another in order to reach a mutual understanding (Ocwich 2004, p20).In the case of radios, it means debates or other active forms of participation in the decision making, production and the trashing out of numerous diverse ideas over radio. This can be on any pertinent issue affecting the community’s welfare (Thomas, 2009, p3).

2.10.2 Communication for Social Change (CFSC)

According to Elizabeth (2011) communication for Social Change uses participatory approaches. This is stressing the importance of horizontal communication, the role of people as agents of change, and the need for negotiating skills and partnerships. It focuses on dialogue processes through which people can overcome obstacles and identify ways to help them achieve the goals they set for themselves through better life.

2.11 Modernization

The concept of modernization refers to the fundamental proposition that people in traditional societies should adopt the characteristics of the modern societies in order to modernize their social, po litical and economic institutions. Studies about development were heavily dominated by modernization theory which applied insights from communication models to address the shortcoming of development and modernization in Third World countries. The modern mass media supplement and complement as mobilit y multipliers, the oral channels of traditional society, radio. As to Servaes, the mass media could speed up and ease the long, slow transformation that was necessary for economic growth and the mobilization of human resources ” (Servaes, 2002 : p20).

2.11.1 Development Journalism

Analysts and scholars who propound this idea believe that the media could be harnessed to promote social, and political development, as well as national or community building. This perspective became consistent with the dominant communication paradigm advanced by Western, mainly American communication scholars, which urged that “the mass media could play a crucial role in society and, by implication, could be an agent in the ‘modernization’ of the Third World” (Thussu, 2000: p325). This scholarship emphasizes the importance of development news on radios and other media, as opposed to infotainment (Waisbord, 2001).

The issues addressed by the media must affect the lives of the ordinary people or the majority (Fisher, 2001). The modern mass media are dousing the public with too much entertainment, sex, fashion, food, celebrity story travels and sensationalism Nordenstreng (1975) ;Thussu (2000: p325-341); (Waisboard, 2001).

2.11.2 Diffusion of Innovation

Everret Rogers defined modernization as a process of diffusion where individuals move from a traditional way of life to a different, more technically developed and more rapidly changing life. In this model an innovation, which is a new idea or practice, is communicated through certain media over time, among members of a social group with the aim of changing their way of thinking and doing things.

The model sees development as a type of social change in which new ideas are introduced into a social system to improve agriculture, health, education and politics. To put it in Roger’s own words, “development communication is a process by which an idea is transferred from a source to a receiver with the intent to change his/her behavior Rogers (1962 & 1983)developed the diffusion of innovations theory as another communication model of modernization.

2.12 Paradigm of Contemporary Global Development

Development might mean different things, to different people. But of late, global development organizations like the United Nations (UN), the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, have codified standard indicators of development. For this study, we refer to this as ‘contemporary paradigm of development’. The UN Development Program (UNDP) has a Human Development Index (HDI), a composite indicator which it uses to measure and rank the progress in different countries every year- which findings are published in its annual Human Development Report (HDR).

The HDI covers three broad dimensions of human welfare: income, education and health. These are then broken down to numerous significant indicators of human development. They include life expectancy, adult literacy, enrollment in schools, gender equality, infant mortality, maternal mortality, access to information, health services, transport and communication, child rights, democracy and food security. Other elements encompass employment, capital intensive technology, investment, and access to water and electricit y (Zinnabauer Norris, 2002).

2.12.1 Democracy and Diversity of Radio

There are key elements that determine whether a society is democratic or not. These include the rule of law, respect for human rights, transparency and accountability of local leaders, regular and free elections of leaders, freedom of expression and of the press, justice and equal opportunity for all members of the community (White, 2001). As the UNDP puts it in its annual HDR 2005: Democracy is a fundamental aspect of human development. It is both intrinsically valuable, and therefore a human development indicator in its own right, and a means towards wider human development goals (UNDP, 2005:p20). It is important to study the relationship between radio and democracy because, as Hendy (2000:p139) explains, “Radio imbues itself with an aura of democracy.”In a free society, the multiplicity of opinions and expressions through debates, talk shows, phone- in etc on radio is good for the community.

2.12.2 Radio as Participatory Communication

According to Hendy(2000: p195) quot es German playwright, Bertolt Brecht to have once urged against radio being a channel through which homes passively received information and entertainment: If listeners could transmit as well as receive, he argued, then they would become producers of radio as well as consumers, and it would be a truly public, two way forum of communication.

2.12.2.1 Entertainment – Education

An entertainment, education strategy is being implemented in much of the world is because of its grounding in development theory. It is a communication strategy to disseminate information through the media.

It is not a theory, but a strategy to maximize the reach and effectiveness of development messages through the combination of entertainment and education. The fact that its premises are derived from socio- psychology, human communication theories place entertainment-education in the modernization/diffusion theory trunk. Like diffusion theory, it is concerned with behavior change through the dissemination of information. It is based on Stanford professor Albert Bandura’s (1977) social Learning theory, a framework currently dominant in health promotion.

Entertainment-education is premised on the idea that individuals learn behavior by observing role models, particularly in the mass media. Imitation and influence are the expected outcomes of interventions. This process depends on the existence of role models in the messages: good models, bad models and those who are in transition from bad to good (Waisboard, 2002: p13). Entertainment–education refers to “the process of purposely designing and implementing a media message to both entertain and educate, in order to increase audience knowledge about an educational issue, create favorable attitudes, and change overt behavior”. Some of the educational development programs which are airing by the media are like, health education, cultural practices, agricultural development programs, etc.

2.12.2.2 Social Marketing

It is one of the approaches that have carried forward the premises of diffusion of innovation and behavior change models. Since the 1970’s, social marketing has been one of the most influential strategies in the field of development communication (Waisboard, 2002: p6).

In this marketing is an advertising technique used for selling social messages. Such campaigns can address a variety of development needs, from health issues to environmental issues. It is marketing’s response to the need to be socially relevant and socially responsible. It is the reaction of marketing as both discipline and industry to be sensitive to social issues and strive towards the social good.

Social marketing consisted of putting into practice standard techniques in commercial marketing to promote pro-social behavior. One of the standard definitions of social marketing is the one given by Andreasen (1994:110) as quoted by Waisboard. He defines social marketing as the adaptation of commercial marketing technologies to programs designed to influence the voluntary behavior of target audience to improve their personal welfare and that of the society of which they are a part.

Concept Note

It is better to check up FM 100.9 Radio whether it plays significant roles or not, or it addresses Social development issues. FM 100.9 radio gives considerable time to educate and social development issues, but, according to its contents and quality of message, it is questionable. Most programs conform to the parameters of development, when we say development, we should not only think of agriculture, health programs. Even the fact that FM radio stations have broadened the people’s horizon to access to information is in itself an aspect of development is necessary.

Effectiveness of media depends upon the context of access to inform, autonomy, reach and quality. To enhance development, promoting development issues to specific community, the media plays a significant role.

1. Media (FM 100.9 radio) 2. Social development programs (educational development) /themes/ like, health, education etc 3. Context and quality of media is/ not attractive 4. Public participation becomes less/more 5. Media does/doesn’t bring any change and people’s attitude is changed/not changed. 6. Media is not effective/most effective

[...]

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Details

Title
The Role of Media in Promoting Social Development
Subtitle
The Case Study of SNNPR (Debub FM 100.9 Radio) in Hawassa Town three Sub Cities
College
Ethiopian Civil Service University  (Leadership and Good Governance)
Course
Leadership and Good Governance
Author
Year
2020
Pages
106
Catalog Number
V513180
ISBN (eBook)
9783346104472
ISBN (Book)
9783346104489
Language
English
Tags
role, town, hawassa, radio, debub, snnpr, study, case, development, social, promoting, media, cities
Quote paper
Tefera Geleso Genemo (Author), 2020, The Role of Media in Promoting Social Development, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/513180

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