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3. Discussion Analysis Using Soft System Methodology (SSM)
Brother war is not a war that only involves two or more countries, but a war between two or several factions in a political entity that encourages division. In English brother war is known as the "Civil War" or literally known as civil war. The impact of a civil war is even more fatal than war in general, because it occurs within the country. The risk of greater and greater conflict arises. A brother war is an internal conflict that has a big influence on the development and progress of the country. It also threatens its existence it. In Indonesia with its heterogeneous constellation of geography as a multicultural country, the potential for friction is very likely to trigger conflict. This escalation can increase into a war where vigilance is necessary. In fact, there have been several civil wars in Indonesia. Therefore, these questions arise: "Can the brother war that has occurred in Indonesia be categorized as a civil war based on the understanding of civil war? What are the potential causes of civil wars in Indonesia? And is there a possibility of humanitarian intervention in Indonesia? In this regard, it needs to be discussed, bearing in mind that the spirit of the unity of the Indonesian people is very important and vital for the survival of the Indonesian people in the Republic of Indonesia.
Keywords: humanitarian intervention; brother war in Indonesia; the cause of civil war in Indonesia.
Why and how the brother war happened was , indeed among most brother wars was, due to political problems. Brother war is generally in the context of wanting to change or overthrow the government. Whereas the Civil War is often referred to as the first modern American war. That'sbecause technology in the 1860s had significantly improved over what was available during the Mexico War. Then, what is brother war and what is civil war?
Brother war is the most common form of conflict in the current world system, far beyond the traditional war between nations. Brother war incidents have increased since the end of the Cold War largely through the accumulation of unresolved conflicts 1. The 2003 Fearon and Laitin paper is a good example for a definition of brother war, namely: "They involve fighting between agents of (or claimants) a country and organized non-state groups who are trying both to take government control, to take power in an area, or using force to change government policy ". The conflict killed at least 1,000 during its journey, with an annual average of at least 100. At least 100 were killed on both sides (including civilians attacked by rebels). The latter condition is intended to rule out massacres where there is no organized or effective opposition 2.
According to Webster's School Dictionaries, that brother war is a war between groups of opposing citizens of the same country or nation. Meanwhile, according to the Oxford Advanced Dictionary, brother war is a war between groups of people in the same country. So, brother war is a type of war in which not only two or more countries become strongholds, but instead several factions (brothers) in a political entity. Conversation in the English dictionary, brother war is called brother war which means "civil war", Mexican-American years (1846-1848). Meanwhile, civil war is a conflict within the state between two or more groups that are fighting because of disagreements about the country's future. Thus, at least one of the warring groups is a non-state actor and another group may be a state government or an additional non-state actor.
Furthermore, civil war occupies a strange place in the typology of war and violence. On one hand they often resort to violence, and on the other hand civil war has been defended as a last resort for action against a corrupt, outdated, or stubborn social system 3.
According to Clausewitz (1831) in On War, "War is nothing but a duel on a larger scale. Countless duels go to make up war, but a picture of it as a whole can be formed by imagining a pair of wrestlers. Each tries through physical force to compel the other to do his will; his immediate aim is to throw his opponent in order to make him incapable of further resistance” 4. From Clausewitz it can be interpreted that the cause of a fight is the desire to force the will on the other party. It was also explicitly stated that, the purpose of a fight is to make the enemy unable to fight back. Clausewitz (1831) also states that war is a continuation of politics in another form. So that war has a very broad meaning both war in physical form (using force/hard power/force) and non-physical (soft power).
Meanwhile, one characteristic of Nicolo Machiavelli's thoughts is his belief that war is a branch of politics 5. War is a natural basis for solving problems and also an important thing to do. If a country fails in diplomatic efforts to resolve conflicts or in achieving its interests, war becomes an important path to take. Machiavelli added, if a country is involved in a conflict that ends in war, citizens must fully support the country, which is simply called the Conscript or conscription, where responsibility for supporting or defending the country rests with all citizens. Therefore, conscription becomes a thing that must be done by citizens in the responsibility of nationalism.
Furthermore, the glory of the great Archipelago Kingdoms was all destroyed because of the civil war. We know the history of the Paregreg war in the Majapahit era 6, the collapse of Demak Bintoro which was attacked by Pajang forces whose son-in-law wanted to claim rights, then Pajang was devastated because the Mataram Knights (with their pertikan land) felt most entitled to the throne, then Mataram was destroyed by the Giyanti war, until the birth of a new country that we know Surakarta and Yogyakarta 7. Thus, there are many other brother war tragedies in the archipelago. Dark history dissolved in the civil war occurred, the rulers and colleagues no longer care about the fate of the country and the people, making it easier for foreigners to set foot on the archipelago. Ignorance led to the occurrence of colonialism for many centuries until the end of the kingdom era in the archipelago. Brother war caused the people to suffer, wealth was seized and limited lives, while the rulers were busy looking for coalitions to perpetuate their power. Feeling colonized and deprived of the right to live, finally rose, united to seize and proclaim Indonesia's independence.
Indonesia is a large demographic country, its territory is broad and multicultural, both culture, ethnicity, language and religion and so on are heterogeneous. Several brother wars in Indonesia have taken place, such as: fraternal relations between Christians and Muslims in Ambon who are very tolerant of civil war that broke out; inter-ethnic conflict in Central Kalimantan reoccurred, after West Kalimantan was struck by conflicts between Dayak and Madura ethnic groups; Papua is also an area prone to local conflicts between tribes, where conflicts that often occur are as a result of religious conflicts, as well as; another civil war. While the rebellions that have occurred in Indonesia, such as: Darul Islam and the Indonesian Islamic Army; Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia; The Struggle of the Universe; etc.
Listening to the brother war that occurred in Indonesia in the context of the understanding of brother war and civil war as outlined, it was identified: is brother war in Indonesia a civil war?; then, what caused the civil war in Indonesia?; then, is there a possibility of humanitarian intervention in Indonesia?"
This paper uses deductive and desk study methods, including examination and analysis as well as secondary data information with a phenomenological approach that reveals the similarity of meanings that are of the essence, inspirational, interpretive and constructive, by paying attention to the dynamic life of the nation.
Freud (1932) assumed that war occurred because of the existence of destructive aggressive drive in human beings. This impetus comes from "thanatos" (instinct to die) that has existed since humans were born. This impulse arises because humans lose their sense of being loved (loss of love). Although Freud believed that human reason could control the emergence of the urge to kill or destroy, but that urge could never be eliminated because it was a basic human need, which is no different from the need to eat and drink. War, violence against others (murder), and violence against oneself (suicide) will occur when people in their lives with others experience frustration.
Meanwhile, in the theory of psychoanalysis, Adler (1956) considers that "superior impetus" is what drives a person to do aggressive-destructive. The same opinion was also raised by Rollo May (1943) by saying that the human desire to "reaffirm his power" (restructuring of power) that had been submerged by obstacles from others pushed someone to act aggressively-destructive. Reinforcement of this power aims to establish "self identity" and "self-actualization". Furthermore, in the theory of frustration-aggression, J Dollar et al (1939) hypothesized that: "Aggression is always a consequence of frustration, and the existence of frustration during causing action in the form of aggression (Agression is always a consequence of frustration, and the existence of frustration always lead to some form of aggression)".
In connection with these theories, several facts of high-intensity conflict occur and often involve military force, ongoing, organized and large-scale in Indonesia, including: The Struggle of the Universe which was declared by the civilian and military leaders of Eastern Indonesia on March 2, 1957 namely by Lieutenant Colonel Ventje Sumual. This movement opposes the central government and against the army so it must be crushed. The Struggle of the Universe movement also received foreign support, as evidenced by the fall of a military aircraft over Ambon on May 18, 1958 with a pilot named Alan Pope, a citizen of the United States (US). This rebellion was crushed by staging several military operations.
Then, Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia as the end of the protest of the local community who felt the injustice of the central government. Regions are disappointed with the central government which is considered unfair in the allocation of development funds. The disappointment was manifested by the formation of regional councils, such as: the Manguni council in North Sulawesi, which was headed by Colonel Ventje Sumual; the Garuda board in South Sumatra headed by Lieutenant Colonel Barlian; the elephant council in North Sumatra, headed by Colonel Maludin Simbolan; and the Banteng council in West Sumatra, led by Lt. Col. Ahmad Husein. The central government considers this action dangerous because the mission of the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia is to form a counter-governmental type supported by many parties, so that the Indonesian national army (TNI) is deployed to crush and succeed in thwarting this movement.
Furthermore, the Darul Islam/the Indonesian Islamic Army rebellion arose, because many people were disappointed with President Soekarno's leadership. Darul Islam the Indonesian Islamic Army aims to establish an Islamic-based state under the leadership of Kartosuwiryo. This group received support from many parties who even claimed to join the organization. In its development, Darul Islam/the Indonesian Islamic Army spread to several regions, especially West Java, South Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Aceh. The government considers this movement to jeopardize the stability of security and state sovereignty. Darul Islam the Indonesian Islamic Army was declared an illegal organization by the Indonesian government, so the rebellion movement was crushed, which eventually Kartosoewirjo was captured by the Indonesian national army (TNI) and executed in 1962.
Another fact of brother war in Indonesia is the brother war or commonly known as the 1999 Ambon conflict that had occurred had changed the condition of Ambon collapsed at that time. Previously the fraternal relationship between Christians and Muslims was very tolerant. Both live in harmony and harmony in one area without ever experiencing bickering and debate about differences in beliefs.
The cause of this war began with a very trivial matter, because it began with a local conflict between a taxi driver and a Muslim passenger. This conflict became big because of provocation that increasingly ignited the flames of anger between the two parties.
Action against each other and vandalism is inevitable, which in turn has resulted in many casualties and increasingly uncontrolled situations. Previously, the brotherhood was very close, and the tolerance, that was once highly upheld and became the foundation of Ambonese people's lives, was damaged along with the tense condition of the city of Ambon. Moreover, this conflict is getting worse because the security forces are unable to act decisively against provocateurs. Ambon which was once harmonious became tense in 1999 until the following years, because it took a long time to restore conditions that were conducive after the brother war.
Then, inter-ethnic conflict in Kalimantan was repeated. After 1999 West Kalimantan was hit by conflicts between Dayaks and Madurese. The same conflict broke out in Sampit, the capital of East Kotawaringin Regency, Central Kalimantan in mid-February 2001. The riots that initially occurred in Sampit extended to Palangkaraya, even extending throughout Central Kalimantan. The conflict began with a dispute between two ethnic groups since the end of 2000. Clashes between Dayak and Madura ethnic groups occurred in Kereng Pangi Village, Katingan Regency, and made relations between the two parties tense. The tension grew more intense after a fight at an entertainment venue in the Ampalit gold mining village.
The next event was that the Papuan people were still very strong in holding traditional customs and culture. In Papua, it is very easy to find indigenous tribes who live in simplicity, rely on nature and are far from the word modernization. Civil war in Papua is a conflict that very often occurs as a result of religious conflict. The solution is also relatively difficult, because of their tendency to not allow outsiders including the government to become mediators in conflict mediation. However, now the Papuan people have been touched by development and are no longer left behind as before, so that they can provide fresh air in minimizing the occurrence of friction that led to brother war as before. Even so, there were still several riots in Papua, although not as extreme as before.
In connection with this, the war between ethnic, religious and conflict that developed into a brother war, which in a comprehensive manner the war in the sense of Ethnic, Racial, Religion, and Intergroup, occurred in Indonesia is a brother war, where the war that occurred was a war between civilians. As it is known that brother war will result in the surrender of one party from the faction (brothers) which leads to the oppression of the militia/overhaul and overthrow of the government 8. Listening to the understanding of brother war in the sense of Ethnic, Racial, Religion, and Intergroup that occurred in Indonesia and the understanding of civil war does not lead to the suppression of militias/overhaul and overthrow of the government, it can be concluded that the brother war in the sense of Ethnic, Racial, Religion, and Intergroup in Indonesia is not a civil war, even though the war was a war between civilians. If so, what about the rebellions that occurred in Indonesia such as The Struggle of the Universe, Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia, Darul Islam/the Indonesian Islamic Army and others, is it a brother war which is also a civil war category? To answer this question, it needs to be ascertained first, whether the rebellion is a civil war, because according to the English dictionary, brother war is a civil war and conversations in the English dictionary, brother war is called brother war which means "civil war", Mexico-America years (1846-1848), while rebellions confront military forces.
The involvement of civilians as a significant consumption of resources, both armed and unarmed, assuming casualties are also civilians, both directly and indirectly involved in the uprising and victims of the military, who are comprehensively the parties in a country. Furthermore, is the brother war (rebellion and brother war in the sense of Ethnic, Racial, Religion, and Intergroup and separatists) that occurred in Indonesia a civil war and what are the potential causes of a civil war in Indonesia?
Meanwhile, humanitarian intervention is a principle in customary international law, where a sovereign state is intervened by another country due to an event related to the occurrence of civil war, humanitarian crisis or humanitarian crime including genocide that occurred in a country that sovereign. According to Wall, Diehl, & Druckman, (1998), 9 "A peacekeeping intervention is minimally defined as any intervention by an outside state or international organization into the internal affairs of a state with the goal of preventing a resumption of military hostilities or to provide an environment where negotiations can occur, "which means: minimal peacekeeping intervention is defined as any intervention by an external country or international organization into the internal affairs of a country, with the aim of preventing the resumption of military hostility or to provide an environment where negotiations can occur. Listening to the meaning of humanitarian interventionshows, that the prerogative of foreign actors (state, coalition of states, international organizations) is to act in the territorial jurisdiction of a country to improve or end internationally recognized human rights.
Related to this, an order as a political as if only a hope or demand that is difficult to fulfill, because in sharing interests will be difficult to realize. In fact, politics are used as a justification to achieve all the interests of one party dominantly or at least in order to win the majority of the interests of certain parties. That is the reason, exercising power of many parties in the effort to obtain supremacy in various fields in the interest relationship becomes a demand. As for that, acceleration of development in all fields as an absolute requirement is very difficult to achieve success because of the potential for conflict and rivalry in the country that develops internally that may be the creation of aggressors that are not felt by the target parties. Therefore, relations between nations as a conducive pattern of cohesion can be realized, if interventions between nations do not occur, so that multi-civilization will better meet the actual democratic principles.
In this connection, universalism in the globalization era that is rolling, needs to be realized that it is not fully acceptable to the global community, so communicative diplomacy between nations requires a shared understanding of values as the character of each nation. For this reason, it becomes increasingly important that the approach at one point be mutually respected as a pattern of accommodative global cohesion, where success will only be obtained if there is no pressure from one party and the resistance of the suppressed party.
As for so, the use of humanitarian issues such as oppression and massacre of the people by the state authorities, which was rolled by a party in order to obtain international support to justify the launch of hostilities. In fact, the use of humanitarian issues is quite effective in winning international opinion. On the other hand, the issue of democracy that promises the freedom of individual citizens to determine their own destiny can be a measure of a party in dealing with friends and opponents. Both of these issues are embryos of the concept of globalization along with the issue of environmental sustainability, especially the conservation of natural resources with strategic economic value which are in the spotlight of the capitalists. With regard to these three issues, without a strong protection of national identity based on the ideology of the nation itself, it means that the country can be more easily defeated or controlled by other parties.
Thus all the descriptions that have been presented, then to answer the three questions: is the brother war in Indonesia including a civil war?; What caused the civil war in Indonesia?; Then, is there a possibility of humanitarian intervention in Indonesia? ”Soft System Methodology (SSM) is used, which is an action-oriented process of finding a problematic situation in the real-world pioneered by Peter Checkland and colleagues (1990), which is a tool to find out questions social (social inquiry) based on the concept of an all-round system which is a tradition of analysis in sociology as mapped in full by Castellani and Haffetrty (2009) 10 in his book "Sociology and Complexity Scien: A New Field of Inquiry". Some books that discuss and focus on SSM include: books written by (Checkland & Scholes, 1990), (Checkland, 1999), (Wilson, 2001), and (Checkland & Poulter, 2006) 11.
Analysis Using Soft System Methodology (SSM)
The desire to take action in the framework of a real-world entity is very logical. Thus, the SSM method approach as a model can be a tool for understanding problems in real-world conditions. SSM in its development to date is used in quite a lot of research and publications, where SSM is based on all-round system thinking, besides hard system thinking.
In SSM, an understanding of the analysis of a problem is carried out as well as an analysis of the relationships and roles involved and those involved. With SSM, it can conduct studies on various complex problems in the real-world with a system-based approach.
Therefore, in answering these three questions the SSM analysis approach is used with a background of literacy in relevant theories as secondary data supporting the SSM process. In the SSM process, there are seven stages as a standard cycle, which are grouped in the realm of the real-world and the realm of systems thinking about the real-world 12:
a. Examinations of the problem situation: In this stage, the focus is on deepening the problem situation, because generally the problem must be solved more than one, so it needs to be identified one by one. As explained earlier, the process of social inquiry in SSM is related to real-world situations that are considered problematic. Therefore, the first stage in SSM is the process of determining real-world situations that are considered problematic. The process in this stage is very important because it is related to decisions by anyone, both researchers and certain parties in the organization, regarding problem situations that call for action to change, improve, or improve the problematic situation.
1) Is the brother war, that occurred in Indonesia, a civil war?
2) What are the potential causes of civil war in Indonesia?
3) Is there a possibility of humanitarian intervention in Indonesia?
b. Expressed the Rich Picture. Data and information collection should be carried out observation, interviews, workshops, and discussions followed by formulation and presentation of problems. This paper is more the focus of the investigation through secondary data and group discussions. In this stage the problem is described in detail in the rich picture method. The whole background is presented in one big and detailed picture to give you the widest possible ideas. In this rich pictures, structure, process, relationship between structure and process are presented and the subject of concentration. So, this stage is the pouring of problem situations that are considered problematic into certain forms of presentation commonly called rich pictures.
The preparation of rich pictures is intended to recognize from the outset the real-world situation related to something, organization or institution that is of concern.Therefore, at this stage several analytical activities are carried out which are commonly categorized as analysis one, analysis two, analysis three, (Checkland & Poulter, 2006).
- Quote paper
- Kunto Wibowo AP (Author), 2020, Brother And Civil War In Indonesia And Humanitarian Intervention. Horizontal And Vertical Conflicts, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/903945