Area Bases Development. The City Akaki Kality Subcity in Adis Adeba

A Planed Project

Term Paper, 2018

22 Pages, Grade: 19 out of 20



1. Introduction
1.1 Background of Akaki Kality Sub City

2. Major Issue of Development in Akaki Kality Sub City

3. Vision and Objective
3.1 Vision
3.2 Objective

4. Environmental Scanning or SWOT Analysis
4.1 Strengths
4.2 Weaknesses
4.3 Opportunities
4.4 Threats

5. Integrated Area Based Development Projects Plans and Strategies
5.1 Creating and maintaining strong integration among various actors and stakeholders
5.2 Relocating (Resettling) residents and compensating them with respect to the Federal or Local Government Resettlement policy Framework
5.3 Reclassifying and assembling the fragmented land in order to attain to the optimum use of urban land
5.4 Constructing road that are wide enough and with proper drainage lines and street lightings
5.5 Providing more houses that are affordable by the poor through the proper implementation of integrated housing program
5.6 Designing and implementing a proper solid and liquid waste management system with great emphasis
5.7 Building integration among various governmental and non-governmental sectors and developing a comfortable environment for the creation of more job opportunities
5.8 Designing incorporated water service provision system and providing sustainable water service

6. Role and responsibilities of Actors or Stakeholders of the Development Project

7. Estimated cost of the project and sources of funds

8. Implementation of the Project

9. Management Structure



1. Introduction

1.1 Background of Akaki Kality Sub City

Physical Context of the sub city

This area based development project is going to be done for Akaki Kality Sub city. Akaki –Kality is one of the ten sub cities of Addis Ababa and is the industrial zone of Addis Ababa as well as the country. It is located in the southern parts of the city. It is 20 km far from the city’s center (Emmanuel Development Association, 2015). The latitude of Akaki Kality, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia is 8.895831, and the longitude is 38.789162. Akaki Kality, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia is located at Ethiopia country in the Districts place category with the GPS coordinates of 8° 53' 44.9916'' N and 38° 47' 20.9832'' E. And it is located 2,140 m above sea level (, 2012-2017).

The topography of this sub city include both gentle and sloppy. There is a river in this sub city i.e., Akaki River. This river is very risky during a rainy season because it causes for the loss of life and property many times. For example, in the summer season of 2009 E.C the overflow of the river had brought big consequences for people living in the surrounding, and it had made few people to loss their life and many people to loss their properties. Unless proper and sustainable measures are taken, risks will always be there.

According to the Emmanuel Development Association the sub city is an industrial zone where 60% of metal, paints, garment and food processing industries of Addis Ababa are found. Currently, there are more than 300 industries with estimated labor force of 80,000. The high urbanization associated with population flow to Akaki Kality, being the industrial zone of Addis Ababa influenced the city administration to designate the area as one of the 10 sub-cities in 2005, and the sub city is divided in to 11 woredas.

Physically, Akaki Kality sub city is one of the under developed sub cities of Addis Ababa. Even if it is the industrial zone of the city, it is poor in infrastructure. It does not have the necessary facilities that are necessary for the full functioning of industries and other business sectors as well as for the convenience of the habitants in a full package. In this sub city there are four types of roads their grading type, and these are Asphalt, cobblestone, gravel and earthen. The quality of roads in general is very poor and highly deteriorated. With regard to vegetation the area has little vegetation coverage like Eucalyptus, Auriferous and Acacia trees, and the access for public green spaces or greeneries is very low and even we can say that it is out of existence.

Population of the Sub City

The population of Akaki Kality sub city is estimated about 220,740 with 114,095 female and 106,645 male (2007 Ethiopian Central Statistics Authority cited in Emmanuel Development Association). Most of the Kebeles/woredas are found at the out skirts of the city (Emmanuel Development Association, 2015).

The Socio-Economic Context of the Sub City

The residents of the sub city are factory workers, daily laborers, people working in urban agriculture, civil servants, military personnel, commercial sex workers, unemployed youth and women, etc. From this factory workers and civil servants constitute the majority population segment. The factory workers earn between $ 500 and $ 600 annually. The majority of the factory workers and the rest of the inhabitants earn below US$ 1 a day (Emmanuel Development Association, 2015). This statement indicates as the socio-economic status of the sub city dwellers is not as such good, and even it is bad and poverty is there.

This sub city is one of the crowded sub cities in Addis Ababa, and it has three socio-economic groups. These are high, middle and lower socio-economic classes. However, the socio-economic groups who are at the top of the socio-economic pyramid are few in number. The number of medium socio-economic group is still low as compared to the lower socio-economic groups. Most of the residents who resided in this sub city have low socio-economic status. A considerable number of people live in houses that are not well built and/or houses that are built from non-standard construction materials. In addition, a considerable number of people do not have well-built toilets. Instead they used shared toilets, and they do not have access for better sanitation.

In addition, most of the youths and even the adults are not as such educated or skilled. A considerable number of people are either primary or secondary school completed. And those people are either factory workers, daily laborers or engaged in a governmental or non-governmental institution jobs that do not require special skill such as guard or janitors. Therefore, they generate low income, they spend and save low, and thus socio-economic status become low.

With regard to availability of health facilities, there are a number public health care centers, 1 hospitals i.e., Tirunesh Beijing Hospital and also various private clinics. Moreover, with respect to marketing and financial services, there is a large open public market i.e., Akaki Market, where transactions of various products which range from perishable to non-perishable (durable) are taken place. And there are also various macro- finance institutions or banks such as Commercial Bank of Ethiopia, United Bank, Oromia International Bank, Wegagen Bank, Debub Global Bank, Awash Bank and others in a near distance. And there are also various insurance companies such as Awash Insurance Company, Nyala Insurance and the like.

Besides, the problem of drainage and waste management is also common in this sub city just like other sub cities of Addis Ababa. Most of the roads do not have drainage system, and the existing drainage lines are blocked by various ill-managed waste materials. The amount of waste generated in this sub city is large since there is high population density and there is considerably high number of industries that generate high amount of wastes. Those waste materials have various nature i.e., they range from non-hazardous waste to hazardous waste materials.

In general, those people who have lower socio-economic status are living in ramshackle attached houses that are built without regard to sanitation or drainage; have low educational status; earn lower income, and they spend low for their day to day home or domestic consumption and to get other services like health service, education, sanitation, etc.

2. Major Issue of Development in Akaki Kality Sub City

Akaki Kality sub city is one of the 10 sub city of Addis Ababa, and it is one of the under developed sub cities. It has a considerably large population density and high concentration of different factories but lower infrastructure and facilities concentration.

In this sub city there are various issues of development that are in need of real improvement and new development. These include road and road light, housing, drainage and waste disposal, water, unemployment, poverty and greeneries.

With regard road, in this sub city there is a high flow of heavy load trucks that pass through this sub city and transport different imported items from outside the country to various parts of the city. In addition to these heavy load trucks, there is also high flow of various vehicles. However, roads are highly deteriorated and very dusty, and even they are not wide enough that allow the free flow of those heavy load trucks and other vehicles. Roads in this sub city require not only maintenance but also they need to be rebuilt in such a way that they can allow the flow of many vehicles at a time. At current circumstance the traffic jamming is very high due to the high flow of trucks, the slenderness of the road, and the deterioration of the road. Due to this reason many transport provider especially private transport providers do not prefer to transport people from various part of the city to Akaki Kality. And this makes people especially the sub city dwellers to suffer from lack of transport service, and many times they get forced to pay above the tariff by those private transport service providers (taxi owners). In addition to this, those roads and /or streets do not have street lighting, and it creates its own difficulty and inconvenience for the vehicles as well as pedestrians during the night.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2.1 Deteriorated Road (field survey, 2018)

Housing is another development issue of Akaki Kality sub city. Many people in this sub city do not have their own house, and they live in a rent house. The rent of house is getting higher from time to time. Many houses in this sub city are built from non-standardized construction materials and aged, and they are constructed without taking drainage and sanitation into consideration. Many people live in ramshackle attached houses that do not have individually built toilets. Therefore, the problem of housing is one of the most fundamental development issues that need to be addressed by the integrated area based development project.

The other development concern is drainage and waste disposal. In this sub city there is no well-built drainage systems in enough amount and even the existing drainage systems are stuck by various solid waste materials. And this resulted in the happening of flood during the rainy season and loss of life and property. Besides, solid and liquid waste materials are poorly managed and this resulted in environmental pollution (for example Akaki River is highly polluted by solid and liquid waste materials). This also should be resolved through the designing and application of proper waste management system.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2.2 Defected Drainage System (field survey, 2018)

Access to pure portable water is also lower in this area. A considerable people do not have access to portable water in their home, and they are forced to travel some (short distance) from their home to get water. And in other circumstance even if the water line is piped to various homes the water may not come at a regular basis. That means there is high interruption of water service.

By unemployment, in this sub city there is a considerable number of youths who are not well educated and well trained. As we described in the socio-economic context there is high number of youths who just completed primary and secondary education and who do not either take technical and vocational education or continue further (higher) education. Those youths are factory workers, daily laborer, and/or they are engaged in jobs that do not require special education and training or skill. Those employees generally earn lower income. And besides those lower level laborers, high numbers of youths are still unemployed.

This low income generation and unemployment is manifested in poverty in the region. High number of people is living under poverty. They generate low income; therefore, they spend less to their day today consumption and also save low or nothing for their near future investment. In addition to poverty, in this sub city access to public green space is almost zero. Most of the environment are not well conserved and do not provided with greeneries. Instead they are deteriorated. Therefore, poverty reduction and the provision of public green space should be given high concern and they must be resolved.

In general, addressing those development issues is the priority of this integrated area based development project. And the resolution of these issues needs the active involvement and integration of various stakeholders ranging from the government to individuals.

3. Vision and Objective

3.1 Vision

Make Akaki Kality Sub City a well-constructed as well structured place that is convenient to live and work by the end of 2020.

3.2 Objective

3.2.1 General Objective

The general objective of this integrated area based development project is to support improved performance of the sub city in planning and delivering sustained provision of significant services and infrastructure that are required to make the place more expedient to live and work and to improve the socio-economic status and environmental health of the sub city through creating comfortable and willing business environment and conserving the natural environment.

3.2.2 Specific Objectives

The specific objectives of this project include

- To maximize the efficient and effective land use.
- To provide proper housing through the effective implementation of integrated housing program
- To create commercially active, environmentally safe and socially integrated neighborhood.
- To provide suitable and well-organized infrastructure and public services to the inhabitants of the sub city.
- To provide relatively just public green spaces and conserve the environment.
- To create more job opportunities and to provide the youths and women with initial capital to establish small scale enterprises and start their own businesses.
- To create positive synchronization with the neighbor-hood development activities.

4. Environmental Scanning or SWOT Analysis

Akaki Kality Sub city have many strength that could support and facilitate the implementation of this area based development projects and the fulfillment of the project’s vision and objective on the one hand, and it has various weakness that could hinder the successful implementation of this integrated area based development project unless they are properly managed or resolved. In addition to the strengths and weaknesses, there are also opportunities and threats that could accelerate/ expedite or hamper the implementation of and the fulfillment of the vision and objectives of the area based development projects. Those strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats include the following.

4.1 Strengths

Strengths that could support the implementation of the integrated area based development project include

- The presence of various industries that engaged in various production fields which create wider job opportunities for different social groups (for the youths and adults and for highly educated, skilled and less skilled work forces).
- The availability of skilled man power
- The ability of the sub city to establish strong relationships with rural areas surrounding the sub city and also with other sub-cities of Addis Ababa.
- The presence of broad tax bases due to the concentration of various activities in this sub cities.

4.2 Weaknesses

The bottlenecks that could hamper the successful implementation of the integrated area based development projects comprise
- Lack of infrastructure
- Improper budget utilization
- The reluctance of the sub city administration to create and facilitate integration among various public actors, between public and private actors and with various non-governmental organizations within the sub city
- Inability or unwillingness of the city government to integrate and work together with other sub cities, governmental and non-governmental organizations outside the sub city as well as with the surrounding rural centers .
- Political assignment of sub city managers without taking into consideration the merit requirement of the position, and lack of conceptual, technical and managerial skill by those politically assigned managers
- Inability to assign the right person at the right place for the right job in non-managerial positions.
- Absence of real leaders in various public organizations in the sub city since all managers are gripped to do what they have been told and “the right things” instead of being flexible and “doing things right” as per the requirement of the existing situations.
- Lack of good governance in the sub city and expansion of corruption.
- Negligence of public servants (from top level managers to the bottom level).


Excerpt out of 22 pages


Area Bases Development. The City Akaki Kality Subcity in Adis Adeba
A Planed Project
Ethiopian Civil Service University  (College of Urban Development and Engineering)
19 out of 20
Catalog Number
ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
area, bases, development, city, akaki, kality, subcity, adis, adeba, planed, project
Quote paper
Emebet Hailemichael (Author), 2018, Area Bases Development. The City Akaki Kality Subcity in Adis Adeba, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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