Violation of Women’s Rights. Female Genital Mutilation

Culture, religion and society in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq


Academic Paper, 2020

45 Pages, Grade: B


Excerpt

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Research Objective
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Rationale of the Study
1.5 Study Outline
1.6 Summary

Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)
2.3 Summary

Chapter 3: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Social Dominance Theory
3.3 Social Norms Theory
3.4 Summary

Chapter 4: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Rationale for the Selection of Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq
4.3 Qualitative Data Analysis Method
4.4 Qualitative Study
4.5 Abductive Study
4.6 Limitations and Delimitations
4.7 Ethical Considerations
4.8 Summary

Chapter 5: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Presentation of Findings
5.3 Summary

Chapter 6: ANALYSIS
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Analysis of the Findings
6.3 Summary

Chapter 7: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
7.1 Conclusion
7.2 Recommendations
7.3 Future Scope

References

ABSTRACT

This study intends to analyze the causes of the high prevalence of the practice of female genital mutilations (FGM) in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq. For the attainment of this particular objective, the researcher had used the secondary data collection and the qualitative data analysis method. The results of the study indicate that the factors of culture, religion and society are the three most important ones which had directly contributed towards the high prevalence of FGM in the different developing nations like Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq among others. More importantly, the results also indicate that the practice of is an attempt on the part of the male dominated society of these nations to not only control the sexuality of the women but of almost all the aspects of their life. Furthermore, this particular ritual while adversely affecting the wellbeing as well as the health of the women and the girls is a gross violation of the human rights or the basic fundamental rights of the girls and the women. In addition to these, it had been seen that although the different nations of the world like Sudan and Iraq in the recent years had taken the help of various measures, legislations and others but they have failed to help these nations to effectively reduce the high prevalence of FGM. However, in the relation mention needs to be made of the nation of Nigeria which in the recent years had been able to reduce the prevalence of FGM by more than half through the usage of adequate implementation and monitoring strategies for the effective usage of the different legislations, regulations and others related to FGM. This as a matter of fact has important implications for the nations like Iraq and Sudan since they also have the option to reduce the high prevalence of FGM in their territory through the usage of similar measures. Lastly, the study recommends the usage of adequate implementation, monitoring and evaluation strategies for the legislations, regulations and others related to FGM, empowerment of women and the spread of required awareness regarding the harmful effects of FGM on the health and the wellbeing of the women for reducing the high prevalence of the same.

Keywords- Female Genital mutilation, sexuality, human rights, legislation, culture, religion, society

List of Abbreviations

FGM: Female Genital Mutilation

UN: United Nations

UNICEF: United Nations Children's Fund

WHO: World Health Organization

SDT: Social Dominance Theory

SNT: Social Norms Theory

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

As stated by Lurie et al. (2020), female genital mutilation (FGM) also called by the names of female circumcision, female genital cutting and others is the ritual practice of removing or cutting a part of or the entire external female genitalia of the female individuals mainly in the African, Middle Eastern and Asian nations. Shabila, Ahmed and Safari (2017) are of the viewpoint that in the majority of the cases the ritual is being executed before the girls turn five and generally involves the removal of the clitoral hood and clitoral glans, outer labia and inner labia and a small hole is being left for the passage of the urine and menstrual fluids. This as a matter of fact is a very painful process for the girls and usually entails with itself different adverse health effects like difficultly in urinating, chronic pain, recurrent infections, development of cysts, difficulty in getting pregnant, fatal bleeding, complications during childbirth and others (Ahmed, Shabu and Shabila 2019).

According to the official report of Unicef.org (2020) on female genital mutilations (FGM), every year more than 4 million girls all over the world belong the age of 15 years undergo the process of FGM and only 1 in every 3 cases are actually being handled by professional healthcare professionals. The large number of FGMs which are being executed by the unqualified professionals had significantly enhanced the health risks faced by the girls along with the health risks that they normally experience on account of the FGM that they undergo (Rouzi et al. 2019). More importantly, FGM in the nations of Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq since the traditional times had been the embodiment of the masochistic or misogynist culture which is dominated in the different nations of the world, particularly the third world nations (Klein et al. 2018). For instance, the primary idea behind the usage of this particular ritual in the nations of Sudan, Nigeria, Iraq and others is to ensure that the husband of the girl is being able to get the maximum amount of sexual pleasure while having intercourse with the girl, to prevent the girls from losing their virginity before marriage, to suppress their sexual desires, fantasies and others (Andro and Lesclingand 2017).

The primary idea behind the usage of this particular ritual is ensure the husband of the girl undergoing FGM is being able to derive the maximum amount of sexual pleasure, purity, beauty and the modesty of the girls and also to prohibit them from losing their virginity before their marriage (Awolola and Ilupeju 2019). Although the different international bodies like UN, WHO, UNICEF and others have formulated various policies, regulations and mandates the situation had not been resolved effectively (Alosaimi et al. 2019). It is in the light of these aspects that the researcher intends to analyze the causes for the high prevalence of the practice of female genital mutilations (FGM) in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq. The nation of Sudan had been selected since 87% of the women in the concerned nation undergo the process of FGM whereas the nation of Iraq had been selected since more than 40% of girls and women in Iraq have gone through this process. Furthermore, the Sudanese government had made amendment to the Criminal Law Article 141 on 22nd April, 2020 so as to criminalize FGM within the concerned nation (Bbc.com 2020). Lastly, Nigeria had also been selected since more than 27% girls and women in the concerned nation have undergone FGM and also on account of the fact that the nation in the recent years has been able to effectively reduce the high prevalence of FGM through the usage of different legislations and policies.

Furthermore, in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq it is seen that the practice of FGM is deeply rooted within the religious practices which are being followed by them. For instance, the religions followed within these nations considers the women to be subservient to the men which in turn had given rise to the notion that the women are intended for the sole pleasure of the men (Rogala, Kornowska and Ziółkowska 2018). In addition to these, the limited amount of freedom the religions followed within these nations offer to the women also becomes apparent in the limited freedom which is being offered to the women regarding sexual activities, their sex partners and others and the women are even being required to preserve or safeguard their virginity for their husband (Hrw.org 2020). Needless to say, these aspects completely deny the women of their rights, individuality, freedom and others that the women in the developed nations or even the developing nations are being able to enjoy. Lastly, the absence of any effective legislation in the different nations of the world had also directly contributed towards the enhancement of the usage of this particular barbaric practice in the different nations of the world (Biglu et al. 2016). For instance, despite having a prevalence rate of around 89.7% among the girls related to the age bracket of 15-49 years of age the national government of Sudan practically took no measures for stopping this particular ritual within the concerned nation till the year 2008 (Who.int 2020). However, despite having passed the legislation against the criminalization of FGM in the year 2020 the national government of the nation under discussion here had practically taken no measures for the effective implementation of the same and also the number of people who had been arrested related to this particular crime are very low which in turn had not contributed in any significant manner towards the resolution of this issue (Bbc.com 2020). Thus, in the absence of any effective regulation or legislation the different nations and thereby people simply refer to the international regulations and the mandates related to the same however even these are not been ardently followed.

1.2 Research Objective

The objective of this study is to analyze the causes for the high prevalence of the practice of female genital mutilations (FGM) in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq.

1.3 Research Questions

1. What are the factors which account for the high prevalence of FGM in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq?
2. What legislations and policy frameworks related to FGM exists in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq?
3. What are the ways through which the issue of FGM can be resolved effectively in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq?

1.4 Rationale of the Study

The specific issue that had been selected by the researcher for analysis in this study is the high prevalence of the practice of female genital mutilations (FGM) in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq despite the different legislations and the universal human rights prohibiting the same. More importantly, the researcher had also analyzed the manner in which it had been integrated within the social, cultural and the religious framework of these nations which in turn had made the resolution of this particular issue a very complicated one. For instance, as per the official report of Who.int (2020), around 89.7% of the female individuals related to the age bracket of 15-49 years of age had to undergo this particular ritual and the important issue arises less than 20% of the women in Sudan who had undergone FGM were being operated by professionally qualified healthcare professionals. On the other hand, the report of Unicef.org (2020) regarding the prevalence of FGM in the different nations of the world reveals the fact that in the nation of Iraq more than 125 million girls and women have undergone the process of FGM and in the year 2018 40% of all the girls within the concerned nation in the age bracket of 12-24 years had to undergo the concerned process.

In the nation of Nigeria, it is seen that around 20 million women of the concerned nation or roughly about 27% of the girls and the women of the nation related to the age bracket of 15-49 years of age had undergone the process of FGM (Daly and Carson 2020). Ahmed et al. (2019) are of the viewpoint that the high prevalence of FGM had caused infertility, infections, maternal deaths, loss of sexual pleasure, cysts, issues in urinating and the passing out of menstrual fluid and others which in turn had adversely affected the health of the women. More importantly, the high prevalence of FGM in the different third world nations had reinforced the masochistic or misogynist society of these nations, deprived the women of their basic rights of equality, freedom, the right to lead their life on their own terms and others which in turn had adversely affected the quality of life led by them as well (Klein et al. 2018). Furthermore, the high prevalence of FGM in the nations under discussion here can also be seen as an attempt on the part of the male dominated society of these nations to control the sexuality of the women and thereby almost all the aspects of their life. This dominance of the male individuals over the female individuals of these nations in turn had given rise to the situation wherein it had been seen that the women of these nations have struggled to acquire the required amount of growth or development and have also been commoditized by the male members of the society as well. These aspects along with the damage that the ritual of FGM causes to the health as well as the wellbeing of the girls and the women had made it all the more important for the different nations like Sudan, Iraq and Nigeria to take the help of various measures for the resolution of the same. Lastly, the ineffectiveness of the legislative frameworks of the different nations of the world along with the failure to effectively comply with the international regulations, mandates, stipulations and others related to FGM formulated by the WHO, UN, UNICEF and others had also aggravated the issue even further (Shabila, Ahmed and Safari 2017). In the light of these aspects, it can be said that the issue selected by the researcher is a completely relevant one from the perspective of the contemporary times.

1.5 Study Outline

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1: Study Outline

Source: (Created by the Author)

The structure or the outline that had been followed for the completion of this study is being highlighted by the below given figure- The researcher had adhered to the academic standards of conducting research and thus the researcher had divided the entire study into seven chapters. Chapter 2 presents a review of the past literature related to female genital mutilations, the cultural and the religious connotations associated with this practice, the manner in which legislations and universal human rights have failed to address this particular issue and others. Furthermore, this particular chapter also discusses the prevalence of FGM in Sudan, Iraq and Nigeria while explaining the different facets of the same in the particular context of these nations. Chapter 3 presents the theoretical framework that had been used for the completion of this study. For instance, the two theories which had been used by the researcher for the analysis of FGM in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq are the social dominance theory and the social norms theory. Chapter 4 discusses the research methodological framework along with its different components that had been used for the completion of this study. Chapter 5 highlights the findings obtained from the analysis of the secondary data collected for the completion of this study whereas Chapter 6 presents a discussion of the same through the usage of theoretical arguments presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3. Lastly, Chapter 7 summarizes the findings or the results of the study.

1.6 Summary

To sum up, the above discussion highlights the different important attributes of the study like research aim, problem statement, research objectives, research questions and others which had guided the completion of this study. Along with these, the researcher had also introduced the theories and the research methodological framework that had been followed for the completion of this study. The next chapter of the study is “Background Research” wherein the researcher had undertaken a review of past literature related to the research topic of this study and also the different facets of the process of FGM in the nations of Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq had been discussed.

Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This chapter presents a review of the past literature related to the research topic selected for analysis in this study. This had been done so as to facilitate an understanding of the causes of high prevalence of FGM in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq and also the factors which have contributed towards the same.

2.2 Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)

Battle, Hennink and Yount (2017) are of the viewpoint that Female Genital mutilation (FGM) refers to all the processes or the rituals which are associated with the removal of the parts of the external genitalia of the females or any kind of injury to the genitals of the girls as well as the women for non-medical reasons. Supporting this, Berg et al. (2017) have noted that in the majority of the cases the process of FGM is being undertaken for cultural, social and religious reasons rather than any specific medical reason and it is because of the manner in which this particular process had become ingrained within the religious, cultural and the social aspects of the different nations that the authorities are finding it very difficult to resolve this particular issue experienced by the girls and the women. For instance, in the majority of the cases it is seen that the parts of the external genitals of the girls are being removed within a few days of their birth and if not undertaken immediately after the birth of the girls then it is undertaken before they reach puberty (Connor et al. 2016). However, at the same time it needs to be said that regardless of the time in the life of the girls at which this particular process is being undertaken it involves the removal of the clitoral hood and clitoral glans, outer labia and inner labia and a small hole is being left for the passage of the urine and menstrual fluids (Chang, Low and Percec 2017). This actually is a very painful process and can adversely affect the health as well as the wellbeing of the individuals undergoing the concerned process.

The study conducted by Ahmed, Shabu and Shabila (2019) regarding the harmful effects of FGM on the health and the wellbeing of the girls reveal the fact that the girls undergoing FGM often experience difficultly in urinating, chronic pain, recurrent infections, development of cysts, difficulty in getting pregnant, fatal bleeding, complications during childbirth and others. More importantly, in some of the serious cases the bleeding from the concerned process can become uncontrollable and thereby can even cause the death of the girls on account of the hemorrhagic shock, septicaemia, infection, neurogenic shock because of the pain and the trauma that the concerned process entails and others (Darby 2016). In addition to these, it is seen that the pain of having to undergo this process does not stop after the completion of the surgery but is a lifelong process and can adversely affect the quality of the life led by the women through the menstrual problems, infertility, painful sexual intercourses and others that the women who had undergone this particular process in their childhood usually experience (Rouzi et al. 2017). Furthermore, in the majority of the cases it is seen that the process of FGM is being undertaken by unqualified individuals without having the required medical expertise or the knowledge which is required for undertaking the process under discussion here (Vogt, Efferson and Fehr 2017). The resultant effect of this is that because of the lack of expertise of the individuals the girls or the women undergoing the concerned process had to endure a substantial amount of pain along with the side effects of the same and there are numerous girls who even die due to bleeding on account of the lack of expertise of the individuals carrying out the process of FGM (Boddy 2016).

There are various reasons or factor which had made FGM an integral part of the lives of girls and the women within the different developing nations or the third world nations of the world like Sudan, Nigeria, Iraq and others. Reig‐Alcaraz, Siles‐González and Solano‐Ruiz (2016) are of the viewpoint that the process of FGM can be seen as the resultant effect of the desire of the society or for that matter the male members of the same to control the sexuality of the women or the girls. Adding to this, Arora and Jacobs (2016) have noted that the majority of the male individuals within the nations with a high prevalence of FGM believe in the idea that the women are generally insatiable in terms of their sexuality and the removal of the genitalia of the women helps in the reducing the insatiability of the women and thereby helps in the control of their sexuality. Furthermore, the usage of the ritual under discussion here can also be seen as a safeguarding measure to ensure the fact that the women are not being able to lose their virginity before their marriage without getting caught for the same (Johnsdotter and Essén 2016). More importantly, the process of FGM is also the resultant effect of the idea held by the people that this enhances the sexual pleasure that the men are being able to derive during the sexual intercourse. In addition to these, the submissive attitude of the women within the third world nations or the developing nations had also contributed towards the creation of the environment or for that matter the thought process among the individuals wherein FGM rather than being seen as a derogatory or illegal act is being seen as completely normal (Harari 2019). This in turn had also given rise to the kind of culture within the different nations within a high prevalence of FGM which influences the male members of the society to perceive the females as merely objects of their gratification and the resultant effect of this is that the women in these nations rather than being seen as human beings are seen as mere commodities or objects which can be possessed and used by the men in whichever way that suits their interests (Kandala et al. 2018).

According to Abdulcadir et al. (2016), the high prevalence of FGM in the different developing nations or the third world nations is deeply ingrained within the religious system which is being followed by the majority of the people of the concerned nation. Supporting this, Abathun, Sundby and Gele (2016) have noted that the people in the third world nations or the developing nations usually follow the kind of religions which not only require them to indulge in orthodox religious practices but also demand sacrifice as well. For instance, the pagan religion followed by the majority of the African tribes even in the present times and also the Islamic religion followed by the Middle Eastern nations even in the present times do not offer any significant amount of freedom to the women. Moreover, the religion followed by the African tribes, Islamic nations and others does not offer any significant amount of freedom, independence, movement, ability of the women to make important decisions of their life, the right to undertake education and others to their women (Hamid, Grace and Warren 2018). This in turn had given rise to the situation wherein it is seen that the process of FGM had become a part of life for the girls or the women residing in these nations regardless of the damage that they cause to their health and wellbeing (Bayes and Tohidi 2016). More importantly, the ritual or the practice under discussion here is in complete disregard of the basic human rights that all the human beings are entitled to and also the legislative frameworks which are being followed by the nations and has strong affinity with gender inequality, seclusion of the women from the main frame of society and others (Hodes et al. 2016). The practice under discussion here violate the basic rights of the children and also the women along with their right to health, to be free from violence, to non-discrimination, to life and physical integrity, to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment and others. As a matter of fact, the process of FGM is irreversible in nature and rather than causing any benefit to the women or the girls cause unnecessary pain and suffering which is a clear violation of the basic human rights that the women and the girls are entitled to (Koski and Heymann 2017).

In addition to these, in the face of the ever-increasing prevalence of FGM numerous international conventions and treaties have been signed by the international authorities and the different nations are required to follow the stipulations, mandates, regulations and others formed through the same. Some of the most important ones in this relation are International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (Kandala et al. 2018). Along with these, different international bodies like CEDAW Committee, the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Committee Against Torture, and the Human Rights Committee and others for have created in the recent years have monitoring the cases of FGM and taking measures which will help in the resolution of the same (Harari 2019). The “Plan of Action for the Elimination of Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children” (1994) is an important one in the relation (Earp 2019). However, at the same time it needs to be said that these initiatives, measures, action plans and others formulated by the international authorities along with the national government of the third world nations or the developing nations it is seen that the prevalence of FGM had not reduced in any significant manner (Von Rège and Campion 2017). This in turn raises questions not only regarding the effectiveness of the policies, regulations, mandates, legislations and others which are being used for the reducing the high prevalence of FGM but also about the extent to which the concerned process had become a part of the social, cultural and the religious environment of the nations that it is becoming almost impossible to eradicate the same.

2.3 Summary

To sum up, the above discussion had highlighted the research work that had been conducted over the years related to female genital mutilation and also the manner in which the lack of effective legislations, cultural, social and the religious traditions followed by the people have informed the usage of the same. The next chapter is “Theoretical Framework wherein the researcher had highlighted the major theories that had been used for the completion of this study.

Chapter 3: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

3.1 Introduction

This chapter highlights the major theories which had been used for the analysis of the high prevalence of female genital mutilation within Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq and also the manner in which they have become ingrained within the cultural, social and the religious traditions followed by the people of these nations despite the presence of different international and national legislations and also the human rights. The two major theories which had been used for undertaking this analysis are Social Dominance Theory and the Social Norms Theory.

3.2 Social Dominance Theory

Stewart et al. (2016) are of the viewpoint that the social dominance theory (SDT) belongs to the category of intergroup relations theory and thereby focuses on the stability as well as the maintenance of group-based social hierarchies. Elaborating this, Kunst et al. (2017) have noted that a per this particular theory the inequality with the different groups are being maintained through the effective usage of three intergroup behaviors, namely, institutional discrimination, behavioral asymmetry and aggregated individual discrimination. More importantly, the theory under discussion here also articulates the idea that the cultural ideologies or for that matter the legitimized myths followed by a particular group offer the required moral as well as the ethical justification for the above mentioned three behavior displayed the entire group as a whole (Redhead et al. 2019). The hierarchies outlined by this particular theory, introduced by Felicia Pratto and Jim Sidanius in the year 1999, are based on three important attributes, namely, age, sex and arbitrary set. For instance, the older an individual is the greater the amount of power that individual holds within the concerned group and this is the reason why the adults hold more power within the society in comparison to the children (Milfont and Sibley 2016). On the other hand, the male individuals hold greater amount of power within the different social groups or for that matter within the society of the different nations of the world (Dhont, Hodson and Leite 2016). Lastly, the arbitrary-set hierarchies are defined on the basis of the ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, religion and other important aspects of the members of the group.

The usage of the social dominance theory is likely to shed insightful light on the process of female genital mutilation and help in gaining a better understanding of the concerned process and also the reasons for the high prevalence of the same in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq. For instance, this theory takes into consideration the attributes of age, culture and the gender and also considers the male and the female individuals as the social principles for the analysis of the social phenomenon of FGM. This as a matter of fact has important implications for the process of FGM since over the years it had been seen that within the patriarchal society of the nations of Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq the women had been dominated by the male members of the concerned group or the society (Vogt et al. 2016). More importantly, the different actions which are being undertaken by the females are intended for the fulfillment of their sole job role within the society, that is, satisfying the different needs or for that matter the requirements of the male members of the society (Zurynski et al. 2017). The resultant effect of this is that the women and the girls of these nations undergo the process of FGM on account of the societal pressure that they experience within the male dominated society rather than on their accord (Muteshi, Miller and Belizán 2016). This actually outlines the inferior position that the women have within these nations and also the desire of the male individuals to control the female community including their sexuality, their sexual desires, their decision to have sex and others (Cloward 2016). The hypocrisy of the male members of these nations become apparent from the fact that they have the option to indulge in polygamy however in order to ensure that the men are marrying virgin girls the girls are made to undergo this process (Odukogbe et al. 2017). In addition to the girls, it is seen that the married women and divorced women whose husbands go out for work to the other nations or are far from their wives need to undergo this particular process to ensure the fact that they are not having sexual intercourse with other men (Peters and Wolper 2018). Thus, it can be said that the process of FGM is a practice used in the nation under discussion here meant for the purpose of controlling the different aspects of the lives of the girls and the women including their sexuality.

3.3 Social Norms Theory

As discussed by Cislaghi and Heise (2019), the social norms theory (SNT) highlights the fact that the behavior or the attitude of the individuals is significantly influenced by their misperceptions of the manner in which their peers or their elder’s behavior. Substantiating this, Dardis et al. (2016) have noted that as per the precepts of this particular theory for influencing the individuals to display the desired behavior there should be a decrease in the problematic behavior displayed by them which can be achieved through the correction of the misperceptions related to perceived norms held by them. This had important implications for the process of female genital mutilation which is being undertaken in the nations of Sudan, Iraq and Nigeria along with the other nations of the world. For instance, as per this particular theory the individuals, especially the male individuals, develop misperceptions or conceptions regarding the process of FGM from their peers and thereby forced the girls or the women to undergo the concerned process on account of the power as well as the dominance that they hold within the society. More importantly, in the nations under discussion here since the traditional times the attributes or for that matter the values of purity, submission of women, hygiene, monogamy for women and others have held significance and thus it is seen that even in the present times the male members of the society of these nations force the women to live as per these values or attributes (Abdulcadir et al. 2016). Furthermore, the women or the girls who are not willing to undergo the process of FGM had to face the ire of the society and are even being excluded from the main society as well. This in turn had created the situation wherein it is seen that the women and the girls had to undergo the process of FGM regardless of their desire or the damage that it cause to their health and wellbeing so as to appease the desires or the norms held by the male members of the society.

3.4 Summary

To sum up, the above discussion highlights the theoretical framework that had been used for the completion of this study. For instance, the two major theories which had been used for analyzing the high prevalence of FGM in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq despite the different legislations and the universal human rights prohibiting the same and also the manner in which they have become ingrained within the cultural and religious traditions of the people of these nations are social dominance theory and social norms theory. The next chapter is “Research Methodology” wherein the researcher had highlighted the research methodological framework that had been used for the completion of this study.

Chapter 4: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

4.1 Introduction

The researcher for the completion of this study had taken the help of the abductive qualitative desk study method. This particular method had helped the researcher to analyze the different secondary sources of information related to the causes for the high prevalence of the practice of female genital mutilations (FGM) in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq despite the different legislations and the universal human rights prohibiting the same. The usage of this particular method had also helped the researcher to analyze the manner in which FGMs have become ingrained within the cultural and religious traditions of the people of these nations.

4.2 Rationale for the Selection of Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq

The three nations, Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq, had been selected for analysis in this study because of the high prevalence of FGM in these nations. Sudan had been selected since around 87% of the girls and the women had to experience FGM and the majority of them had to undergo the genital mutilation when they are between 0-5 years of age (Sabahelzain et al. 2019). The Sudanese government over the years had passed different legislations yet they have failed to reduce the prevalence of FGM within the concerned nation. Furthermore, the Sudanese government had made amendment to the Criminal Law Article 141 on 22nd April 2020 so as to criminalize FGM within the concerned nation (Bbc.com 2020). Similarly, the nation of Iraq had been selected since around 40% of the girls and the women within the concerned nation are the victims of FGM (Ahmed et al. 2019). An important similarity between Sudan and Iraq is the fact that the religion of Islam which is being followed in both of these nations supports the process of FGM and this in turn had directly contributed towards the high prevalence of FGM in these two nations. Thus, these two nations had been selected by the researcher so as to analyze the manner in which the factor of religion followed in these two nations had contributed towards the enhancement of the prevalence of FGM. On the other hand, in the nation of Nigeria it is seen that around 27% of the girls and the women had to experience FGM (Borokini, Ige and Folusho-Ojo 2020). The interesting fact to note about the prevalence of FGM in Nigeria is that rather the factor of religion the factor of culture or society is the major cause or the reason for the high prevalence of FGM in this particular nation. Thus, Nigeria had been selected for analysis since this had helped the researcher to understand the role played by culture or society towards the enhancement of FGM.

4.3 Qualitative Data Analysis Method

The data or the evidence required for the completion of this study will had been collected from the different reports related to FGM, credible newspaper articles, peer-reviewed articles, the documents, press releases and others prepared by UN, UNESCO, national governments of Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq, medical reports and case studies related to FGM and others. Furthermore, for the analysis of the secondary data collected from these secondary sources the researcher will use the qualitative data analysis method. Sovacool, Axsen and Sorrell (2018) are of the viewpoint that the qualitative data analysis method requires the researchers objectively the things which are being said by the authors within a particular text or for that matter the information that they intend to convey through the same. Adding to this, Danermark, Ekström and Karlsson (2019) have noted that the primary focus of the researchers taking the help of the qualitative data analysis method is to effectively analyze the arguments of the texts rather than the content or the debates presented by the concerned texts. The resultant effect of this is that the usage of this particular data analysis method helps the researchers to pierce through the veneer of the plethora of information presented by the different texts or secondary sources and use only the arguments presented by the same for the effective analysis of the research topic that they have selected for analysis in the study (Silverman 2016). Thus, the researcher had used this particular data analysis method since it had helped the researcher to objective analyze the arguments of the different secondary sources of information that had been used for the completion of the study and thereby use the same for the analysis of the research topic of this study.

4.4 Qualitative Study

The researcher had chosen to model this study as a qualitative study rather than as a quantitative study. Taguchi and St. Pierre (2017) have observed that a qualitative study is the one which takes the help of descriptive, non-numerical and non-statistical information for the analysis of the research objectives or for that matter the research questions that had been formulated for the conduct of the study. Adding to this, Ledford and Gast (2018) have noted that unlike the quantitative research the focus of which is on the quantification of things the focus of the qualitative research works is on the effective interpretation of the human beings and the social life led by them. This is usually being done by the researchers through the usage of the information or the data provided by the different secondary sources of information like the peer-reviewed articles, textbooks, credible newspaper articles, government reports, different kinds of reports published by UN, UNESCO and others. It is in the light of these aspects that the researcher had opted for the usage of this particular study method so as to analyze the high prevalence of the practice of female genital mutilations (FGM) in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq despite the different legislations and the universal human rights prohibiting the same while focusing on the manner in which FGMs have become ingrained within the cultural and religious traditions of the people of these nations.

4.5 Abductive Study

The researcher will focus on the analysis of the prevalence of FGM in three nations, namely, Sudan, Iraq and Nigeria and thus adequate amount of information or the data related to the usage of the practice of FGM in these three nations is required for the effective completion of this researcher. However, on account of resource and time constraints it is not feasible for the researcher to take the help of the method of field trip and thereby visit each of these three nations for the collection of data required for the completion of this study directly from the stakeholders of the study or for that matter the women who have undergone FGM. Thus, rather than using the method of field study, the researcher had opted for the usage of the method of desk study. The usage of this particular method had helped the researcher to take the help of different theoretical models, frameworks, observations, ideologies and others for the analysis of the high prevalence of FGM in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq. More importantly, through the usage of this particular method the researcher also got the opportunity to take the help of different perspectives, viewpoints and others for analyze the issue of FGM in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq from different angles like cultural perspective, religious perspective, legal perspective and others. This in turn had not only helped the researcher to effectively analyze the research topic but also to substantially enhance the quality of the study as well.

4.6 Limitations and Delimitations

Kanazawa (2017) is of the viewpoint that the limitations of a study are the shortcomings or the limits that the study has and it is not the fault of the researcher rather it stems from the circumstances or the condition in which the research is being conducted whereas a delimitation can be seen that the limitation of a study which is the result of the choices made by the researchers. The most important limitation of this study can be attributed to the fact that the researcher on account of time and resource constraints had to rely primarily on the secondary data for the completion of this study and thereby no primary data had been used for the completion of this study. For instance, the usage of the method of interview for the collection of evidence or the information needed for the completion of this study would have improved the quality of the work and also its accuracy significantly. Another important limitation of the work can be attributed to the fact that the researcher because of the word count constraint had not been able to undertake an in-depth or for that matter a detailed discussion of the research topic. Lastly, the research topic selected by the researcher is very broad in nature and the scope or for that matter the quality of the study could have been improved significantly had the researcher narrowed down the research topic and thereby focused on one specific aspect of FGM in the developing nations like Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq.

The limitations of the study notwithstanding there are certain delimitations of the same which in turn had also adversely affected the quality and the scope of the study. For instance, the process of FGM had been in existence since the traditional times and millions of women had undergone the concerned process. However, the researcher had placed the focus of this study on the high prevalence of FGM in the 21st century. More importantly, the process of FGM had been practiced by the different tribes notably the African tribes, African nations, Middle Eastern nations, Asian nations and others yet the primary focus of the research is on the three nations, namely, Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq because of the high prevalence of FGM in these three nations in the recent years. Furthermore, it is not only the women or the girls who are the victim of FGM rather it is seen that the different religions or the cultures of the world like Islamic culture, Jewish culture, the pagan culture or the tribal culture followed by the various tribes and others require the male members of their community to undergo the concerned process. As a matter of fact, just like the girls, the boys in these communities are required to undergo genital mutilation at an early age and that too at the hands of the individuals who are neither medical professional nor have the required professional training for the purpose of undertaking the process under discussion here. In addition to these, the resources that had been used for the completion of this study were all published between the years 2016 to 2020 and no resource published prior to the year 2016 had been taken into consideration for the completion of this study. This is an important delimitation of the study since numerous high-quality studies were being published before the year 2016 and the usage of the same could have significantly improved the quality and the scope of the study. These in short are some of the delimitations of the study which had adversely affected the scope and the quality of the study.

[...]

Excerpt out of 45 pages

Details

Title
Violation of Women’s Rights. Female Genital Mutilation
Subtitle
Culture, religion and society in Sudan, Nigeria and Iraq
College
Linnaeus University  (Social Science)
Course
Peace and development studies
Grade
B
Author
Year
2020
Pages
45
Catalog Number
V937799
ISBN (eBook)
9783346266477
ISBN (Book)
9783346266484
Language
English
Tags
violation, women’s, rights, female, genital, mutilation, culture, sudan, nigeria, iraq
Quote paper
Christian Troh (Author), 2020, Violation of Women’s Rights. Female Genital Mutilation, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/937799

Comments

  • No comments yet.
Read the ebook
Title: Violation of Women’s Rights. Female Genital Mutilation



Upload papers

Your term paper / thesis:

- Publication as eBook and book
- High royalties for the sales
- Completely free - with ISBN
- It only takes five minutes
- Every paper finds readers

Publish now - it's free