Chapter 1: Introduction
1.2 Conceptual framework
1.3 Problem statement
1.4 Research aim
1.6 Research questions
1.7 Scope of study
1.8 Concept clarification
1.9 Outline of chapters
Chapter 2: Literature review
2.2 Olympic Education background
2.3 Olympism to Olympic Education
2.4 Olympic Education implementation
2.5 Olympic Education prospects in the Olympic agenda 2020
2.6 Olympic Education in Physical Education.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology
3.2 Research design
3.3 Study setting
3.4 Sampling technique
3.5 Data collection tools
3.6 Data collection process
3.7 Data analysis
3.8 Data management
3.9 Ethical considerations
Chapter 4: Results
4.2 Olympic Education in Eswatini
4.2 Olympic Education in Zimbabwe
4.3 Olympic Education in South Africa
Chapter 5: Discussion, Summary, conclusion
5.3 Summary of the results
5.4 Significance of study
5.5 Limitations of study
The research work in this dissertation was conducted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in Olympic studies, in the institute of sport history and Olympic studies at German Sport University Cologne. The research was conducted in Eswatini from February to March 2019. The research topic for this study is entitled: Challenges and prospects of implementing Olympic Education in Southern Africa under the supervision of Professor Stephan Wassong. This dissertation includes five chapters: The first chapter is the introduction including a problem statement, chapter two, the literature review, chapter three the methodology, chapter four the results, and the last chapter five discussion, summary of the study results, conclusions and recommendations.
The work presented in this master’s dissertation is dedicated to the almighty lord for giving me this rare privilege and honor to conduct the studies without any hindrances. I will always be inspired by the following verse;
Ecclesiastes 9 vs 11: I returned and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding , nor yet favor to men of skill; but the time and chance happen to them all.
I would like to acknowledge and thank the following people who contributed towards the completion of this Masters dissertation:
- The Almighty God and Jesus Christ my lord and savior for giving me the gift of life and chance to complete the thesis.
- Professor Stephan Wassong for his unwavering support of my studies.
- Euro Africa Campus Eswatini, for providing support for my studies.
- My wife (Cecilia) and children for their unwavering support and patience during the time of studies.
The study aimed to investigate the challenges and prospects to the implementation of Olympic Education in Southern Africa. Three countries; Eswatini, South Africa and Zimbabwe were purposively selected for the study. The content document analysis method was used to analyse content in the public domains of Ministry of Education, National Olympic Committees and Olympic study centres where applicable. The main themes from the content analysis were presented in the results chapter of the thesis in chapter four. Results suggests that two of the three countries-South Africa and Eswatini, investigated have not professionalized Physical Education (PE) and sport as a compulsory and examinable subject. Zimbabwe professionalized PE in 2015 and implemented the new curriculum in 2016. South Africa is the only Southern African country with an Olympic study centre at the University of Johannesburg (UJ). Zimbabwe implements Olympic education through Zimbabwe Olympic Academy (ZOA). The OVEP document is the main source of Olympic Education in South African National Olympic Committee. The study concluded that challenges of implementing Olympic education in southern Africa are mainly nonprofessionalization of PE and sport and lack of a pedagogical context and structure. The prospects of Olympic education implementation in Southern Africa are premised in the professionalization of PE and sport and the maximum utilization of the University of Johannesburg Olympic study centre (UJOSC). The study recommends further qualitative studies be carried out in Southern Africa to increase awareness of Olympic education and also promote professionalization of Physical Education. It also recommended further that the Olympic study center at the University of Johannesburg take an active lead in providing structures and platforms for Olympic education implementation.
List of Tables
Table 4.1 Curriculum Structure for Eswatini senior secondary phase
Table 4.2 The instructional time in the foundation phase
Table 4.3 The instructional time in the intermediate phase
Table 4.4 The instructional time in the senior phase
Table 4.5 Output indicators
Chapter 1: Introduction
Coubertin founder of the International Olympic Committee and modern day Olympic Games advocated for an all-inclusive sport participation and education (Bennet & Culpan, 2014). The idealist envisioned a sport that would develop totally the body mind and soul. He also broadened the view of sport participation from merely participating to spread of Olympic based values and internationalism. Nobert Muller in realizing this blend of sports and culture branded this rare unity ‘Olympic education’ in the 1970s (Muller, 2004). The term has found expression in different publications and in the Olympic movement even though some scholars differentiate between Olympic education and Olympism education (Petrie, 2017; Arnold, 1996; Kidd, 1996 & Parry 1998). Notably, Olympic education has managed to spread to all the corners of the world, though the implemental contexts are not really known, especially in Southern Africa.
The starting point for Olympic education was the lesson Coubertin learnt from modern sport in England and since then he encouraged the idea of making sport accessible to adolescents and even older as newly discovered part of a complete education (cf.COURBETIN 1901: Muller, 2014).As he renewed the Olympic games in Athens 1896, Coubertin perceived the internationalization of his educational visions as his main priority. The immediate idea was to promote peace among nations.
This political education he advocated for also came along with the desire to bring about enlightened internationalism. Understandably so because of his quest to return to antiquity which would be adapted to the modern age. Coubertin’s call for a contemporary application of the ‘’religio athlatae’’ forms a good base to understand the content and purpose of Olympic Education (Muller, 2000). The fact that the Olympic ideal came as a result of his continuous ‘’dialogue’’ with the events of his age gives the modern educators and Olympic movement an idea of the content and pedagogical framework of Olympic Education. In essence, the ‘’religio athlatae’’ concept encouraged the spirit of internationalism or universalism. That forms the basis of Olympism and Olympic Education.
Coubertin believed that sport and Olympism ensured progress and could bring a lot of good into the world. The Olympic ideals – good, truth, fairness, beauty, friendship, respect, tolerance, striving for perfection, and world peace – are ever near to each and every one of us (Desberny, Ploszaj & Firek, 2014). It is against this background that this study intends investigate the challenges and prospects of implementing Olympic Education in Southern Africa.
1.2 Conceptual framework
This study is based on the Fundamental principles of Olympism as enshrined in the Olympic charter. These are:
1. Olympism is a philosophy of life, exalting and combining in a balanced whole the qualities of body, will and mind. Blending sport with culture and education, Olympism seeks to create a way of life based on the joy of effort, the educational value of good example, social responsibility and respect for universal fundamental ethical principles.
2. The goal of Olympism is to place sport at the service of the harmonious development of humankind, with a view to promoting a peaceful society concerned with the preservation of human dignity.
3. The Olympic Movement is the concerted, organized, universal and permanent action, carried out under the supreme authority of the IOC, of all individuals and entities who are inspired by the values of Olympism. It covers the five continents. It reaches its peak with the bringing together of the world’s athletes at the great sports festival, the Olympic Games. Its symbol is five interlaced rings.
4. The practice of sport is a human right. Every individual must have the possibility of practicing sport, without discrimination of any kind and in the Olympic spirit, which requires mutual understanding with a spirit of friendship, solidarity and fair play.
5. Recognizing that sport occurs within the framework of society, sports organizations within the Olympic Movement shall have the rights and obligations of autonomy, which include freely establishing and controlling the rules of sport, determining the structure and governance of their organizations, enjoying the right of elections free from any outside influence and the responsibility for ensuring that principles of good governance be applied.
6. The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Olympic Charter shall be secured without discrimination of any kind, such as race, color, sex, sexual orientation, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
7. Belonging to the Olympic Movement requires compliance with the Olympic Charter and recognition by the IOC.
1.2.1 Theoretical framework: Post Modern paradigm
The study is also based on the postmodern paradigm. This paradigm states that there is no grand narrative. It is relativist and contextual. It challenges rules, boundaries, structures and conventions. In philosophy and critical theory, postmodernity expresses a situation or conditions in society that have arisen after the modern. Many theorists of postmodernity consider postmodernity as the historical situation specifying the end of modernity (defined as the period/condition identified with the Industrial Revolution and the Enlightenment) (Rzaveya, 2016). This paradigm suits this study as the discipline of Olympic Education implementation is at present being contextualized. There is also an unclear distinction between Olympic Education and Olympism Education hence the need to challenge some structures and boundaries of the current status qou.
In reflecting on Olympic education embedded in the fundamental principles of Olympism, the study gives various contexts presented by other scholars and also recommends other contexts including pedagogical. It gives a base upon which Olympic education researchers can debate on the best possible contexts for implementing Olympic Education in various set ups in the world.
1.3 Problem statement
Implementation of Olympic Education (OE) in Southern Africa faces some challenges whilst the benefits and prospects of OE are immense and worth exploring. The majority of countries in Southern Africa perceives Physical Education (PE) as extra-curricular activity. The subject is not professionalized and has less status compared to others like Mathematics and English language. This poses some challenges to the implementation of OE as it has to find a base in PE, if it is to be effectively implemented in the schooling system.
1.4 Research aim
The study aims to investigate challenges and opportunities of implementing Olympic Education in Southern Africa.
1. To investigate the context and pedagogical frameworks of Olympic Education.
2. To find out the challenges faced in Southern Africa that hinders effective implementation of Olympic Education.
3. To investigate the prospects that come with implementation of Olympic Education in Southern Africa.
4. To explore ways of successfully implementing Olympic Education in Southern Africa?
1.6 Research questions
1. What is the context and pedagogical frameworks of Olympic Education?
2. What are the challenges faced in Southern Africa that hinders effective implementation of Olympic Education?
3. What are the prospects that come with implementation of Olympic Education in Southern Africa?
4. How can Olympic Education be successfully implemented in Southern Africa?
1.7 Scope of study
The study will be carried out in Eswatini, where the researcher is based. However documents to be analysed will be from nearby countries including South Africa, Zimbabwe and Eswatini. These countries will represent other countries in the Southern African region. Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent comprising the countries of Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Eswatini (formerly Swaziland), Zambia and Zimbabwe.
1.8 Concept clarification
Olympism: is a philosophy of life which places sport at the service of humanity. This philosophy is based on the interaction of the qualities of the body, will and mind. Olympism is expressed through actions which link sport to culture and education (Parry, 1998).
Olympic education: It is the education inherent in sport participation and taught through school curricular and/or structured educational programs (Muller, 2014).
The Olympic movement: according to Jackson (2001) is the result of the cooperation of the National Olympic committees (NOCs), international Federations (IFs) the international Olympic Committee (IOC) and all other liked minded organizations and individuals who wish to promote the Olympic Games and Olympic ideals.
1.9 Outline of chapters
This study is presented in the following five chapters;
Chapter 1: The chapter introduces the problem and also presents the research objectives and questions. It further elaborates the problem statement and defines the main concepts of the study.
Chapter 2: Literature review: the chapter reviews literature related to Olympic education, Olympism and sports education.
Chapter 3: Methodology: this chapter describes the study design, area and population, presents the sampling strategy, the tools and processes used to obtain the data, how it was analysed, and the ethical considerations that were applied.
Chapter 4: Results and Discussion: this chapter presents and discuss the findings of the content document analysis with respect to the four study objectives.
Chapter 5: Summary and Conclusion: this chapter summarizes the results of the study, outlines the study limitations, indicates its significance for Olympic studies as a discipline, and makes recommendations for Olympic education implementation.
This chapter introduced the study focusing mainly on Olympic education. A background to the study was given as well as the problem statement. The chapter presented research objectives and questions which allowed the researcher to design the methodology of the study and data analysis tools. The main concepts of Olympic education and Olympism were also clarified in the context of this study. The next chapter reviews literature related to the discipline of Olympic Education.
Chapter 2: Literature review
The main purpose of this study was to investigate challenges and opportunities of implementing Olympic Education in Southern Africa. Against that background this chapter focuses on Olympism and Olympic Education as the major concepts. It also reviews literature related to the background of Olympic education and how it is implemented in other countries of the world.
2.2 Olympic Education background
The ancient Greece concepts have a significant and lasting impact on the Physical Education theories, programmes and practices around the world today. By the 6th century Greece was not a unified nation, political units consisting of a city and its surrounding area (Wih, 2009). Each own city and state had its own government and military force supported by devoted citizens. The Greeks believed strongly on the development of the mind, body and spirit. Sparta was formed as a strong military power and Athens developed into a cultural and intellectual centre. Corinthians became a noted business centre, thus specific schools of Physical Education were differentiated in each
Greek city state in accordance with the prevailing values of that region. According to Wih (2009) Physical Education historians conclude that the Great city states of Athens and Sparta seen to have provided the strongest influences on the theory and practice of Physical Education that prevails today.
The term Olympic Education was first used in the 1970s, as researchers tried to contextualize the education inherent in sport participation and taught as expounded by Coubertin (Muller, 2000). In actual fact, Coubertin- the idealist, promoted ‘Olympism as opposed to elitism and professionalism (Parry, 1988). He envisioned sport that is combined with culture and structured to develop the total human being-body, mind and soul (Tafireyi, 2017).
‘Olympism’, the philosophy developed by the founder of the modern Olympic Movement, Baron Pierre de Coubertin (1863-1937), a French aristocrat who had been much influenced by the British Public School tradition of sport in education(Sport administration manual, 2010). This philosophy has as its focus of interest not just the elite athlete, but everyone; not just a short truce period, but the whole of life; not just competition and winning, but also the values of participation and cooperation; not just sport as an activity, but also as a formative and developmental influence contributing to desirable characteristics of individual personality and social life.
By blending sport with culture and education, Olympism promotes a way of life based on;
- The balanced development of the mind, bond and character;
- The joy of effort;
- The educational value of being a good role model for others;
- Being socially responsible and observing the universal ethics of tolerance, generosity, unity, friendship, non-discrimination and respect for others (Olympic charter, 2015).
It should be noted that before Coubertin revived the Olympic movement, the games were the most celebrated and credit was given to the most elite athletes. Renewing the Olympic Games of antiquity through the resolution of the International Olympic Committee’s founding congress in 1894 in the Sorbonne in Paris also meant a reception of antiquity of the 19th century which reached a climax which is still felt today (Muller, 2014).
The Olympic Movement founded by Coubertin therefore needed not just an institutional framework (IOC, NOCs, Olympic Games), but also spiritual direction, an Olympic philosophy which Coubertin called “Olympism” (“Olympisme” in French, meaning the Olympic Idea, Olympic Ideals or principles). Logically, Coubertin therefore often stressed that Olympism was “not a system, but a state of mind” which, “as in a pencil of rays, endeavors to unite all principles that work towards the perfection of mankind” (1917). He devised educational concepts and created teaching resources to serve as models for this purpose (Muller, 2004). Olympic Education is thus consequently on the fundamental values of the human personality.
According to Muller (2004), Coubertin did not want to give an explicit definition of Olympism, but often invited people to consider the meaning and value of the human body. Coubertin developed fundamental concepts of Olympism in his comprehensive writings, in the famous radio speech of 1935. He described four basic elements that form the “philosophical basis of modern Olympism” to be discussed in the following paragraph. The International Olympic Committee (2016) rubber stamped the ideals of Olympism as; the balanced development of body, will and mind; the joy found in effort; the educational value of being a good role model and the universal
2.2.2 Fundamental concepts of Olympism
According to Muller (2004) Coubertin envisaged the following being evident in the modern Olympic games:
1. The religious basis of sport, following the ancient example of the “religio athletae”, heightened by internationalism and democracy, symbolized by the flag, anthem and oath;
2. “Nobility and the élite” as a declaration of belief in sporting performance, demonstrated in the Olympic motto, “citius altius fortius”;
3. The four year cycle for the constantly changing human race with the Games as the culminating festival of peace;
4. The integration of the arts and the mind in eurhythmic embellishment and holistic perfection.
The relationship between nationalism and international peace, which had previously been onesided because it was always considered an inner contradiction, is precisely what makes Olympism so fascinating. Coubertin’s intention from the very beginning was to create competition between peace loving nations and an internationalism highlighting the peaceful honor of the nation in a ceremonial manner (Muller, 2004).
2.3 Olympism to Olympic Education
Coubertin died in 1937 and the Olympic movement had to continue with the spirit of Olympism. He had published approximately 15,000 printed pages, from which there are 30 books, 50 brochures and about 1,100 magazines and magazine articles (Muller, 2000). Though he was not regarded as a historian but his philosophy of Olympism and idea of the Olympic Games had to be carried on but within a context. Since the mid-1970s, the theme of Olympism has increasingly become the focus of educational programmes, largely thanks to the work of the IOA and the National Olympic Academies .Olympic education endeavours to provide a universal education or development of the whole human being. Muller says this in contrast to the increasingly specialized education encountered in many specialized fields.
The reality of Olympic education and specifically values to be learnt though the Olympic Games and beyond meant that there had to be some kind of pedagogical framework to be adopted (Bennet & Culpan, 2014). Expectedly, the framework would face contextual problems as people outside the Olympic movement perceive Olympic education as sport education and there is also no single universal curriculum that was developed and adopted internationally.
In addressing the pedagogical frameworks of Olympism and Olympic education, the coach is integral to the whole process. He/she has to understand the content and pedagogical frameworks as concluded by Bennet and Culpan (2014). They also elaborated the position of the coach in the Olympic Education context as asserted below.
2.3.1 The coach as educator
The coach as educator concept is evident right through Coubertin’s idealistic views and the Olympic charter, to such an extent that the Olympic charter has different sections mentioning Olympic education, and the Olympic Agenda 2020 has also included various agenda focusing on Olympic education. The argument is that for the coach to fit in the vision of Coubertin’s educational value of the coach and the athlete then like Bennet and Culpan (2014) suggested, there has to be some content and pedagogical frameworks. With this in mind there is an overwhelming need to redevelop and review the education system –to provide a holistic education system that is better suited to the needs of the current athletes and students.
Further implying that the definition of coach has to change from merely being a technically capable individual to more of a teacher –embracing all the teaching qualities inclusive of scheming and planning and also paying particular attention to the cognitive, social, intellectual, moral and physical skills. All the domains of learning which are the cognitive, psychomotor and effective must find expression in the teaching and learning process in a bid to develop the body mind and soul. With that in mind, the critical questions would be, what kind of training is supposed to be received by coaches to become Olympic educators? (Light & Dixon, 2007). How do the Olympic education coaches fit in the school conventional sporting system? These questions would be relatively easier to answer in the developed world like Canada but quite challenging in African countries where Physical Education and sports has not been professionalized, South Africa included. (Tafireyi, 2017). The other question would be, how Olympic Education is separated from sports education? It has been clearly mentioned before that Coubertin never used the term Olympic education but rather sports education (Muller, 2000). So the context of coach being educator seems to face institutionalization challenges as many interpret it to mean Olympic education whilst it is more relevant when it metamorphosis throughout the sporting fraternity.
Whether or not Coubertin referred to Olympic education or sports education, the idea remains the coach has to become an educator. In the African sporting fraternity, the sports coach is sometimes without relevant qualifications to work as a professional teacher or coach. The sports development system is also uncoordinated and rarely finds harmonious working relationship for sports development purposes. (Kanhukamwe, 2013.) On the other hand, the African continent seems to look at Olympic as the Games only and a preserve of the few excelling and elite athletes. (Tafireyi, 2017). To the extent now that drawing pedagogical and content frameworks becomes challenging and somehow idealistic. It is the spread of sports education and professionalization of physical education that may need more consideration for Olympic education to be appreciated. The coach in an African set up, is also the teacher who concentrates to a larger extent on academic subjects with little technocratic knowledge and experience on sports education and Olympic education respectively. Bennet and Culpan (2014) are in preponderance with the idea, the development of reflective practice , particularly critical reflection , may provide coaches and athletes with the much needed flexibility to acknowledge the complexity and diversity associated with the coaching process.
This diversity requires a critical analysis of how to develop the coach as an educator in various contexts, bearing in mind the differences in continents on professionalization and level of sports and Olympic education respectively. Of critical importance is also asking questions on the relevance of Olympic education and whether or not it should be incorporated in the mainstream curriculum through other academic subjects such as history, physical education and/or life skills. In doing so, curriculum designers are informed on the ways of incorporating Olympic education and of training the teacher and or coach to become an educator.
2.3 Olympism as part of the school curriculum
Muller, (2000) cited part of Coubertin’s writings as follows, “Among COUBERTIN’s copious body of writings is an essay entitled “L’Olympisme A l’ecole. Il faut l’encourager!”(1934). In it, COUBERTIN expresses his preoccupations at the end of his life. It is of little use to schools today to offer COUBERTIN’s interpretation of Olympism as an educational subject without practical examples. In particular, his much-quoted philosophical retrospective of 1935 entitled “The philosophical principles of modern Olympism” can only be understood by picturing this value structure of Olympic education as the end product of a process that continued over many years. If we are to answer the question of what Olympism can mean in educational terms and what an “Olympic education” can contain, we must seek a starting point, once again, in COUBERTIN, since nothing has been done since his time to revise its content. ’’ So the Olympic ideal as COUBERTIN’s educational vision .must be retained, but it must also be continuously reviewed and revised.
Bennet and Culpan (2014) concluded that the conceptualization of the two frameworks; an Olympism based content framework and a synthesized constructivist pedagogical framework gives due focus to an overall coaching framework that is educative, engaging and moving coaching in a more professional direction. It consolidates the coach as educator in an environment which is progressive, educationally sustainable and with a strong focus on meaning-making, reflection and reciprocity. If Olympism is to be part of the school curriculum, then the educational environment must be professional and sustainable. Sustainability may come from professionalization of physical education and sports, first and foremost and then professional training of coaches as pedagogic technicians. (Galvan, Fyall, & Culpan, 2012 ). That dynamic is still nightmarish in the
African sport education fraternity hence the need to critically review the coach as educator concept in every set up in order to inform the theoretical gap. It is however imperative that sports education and Olympism become professionalized for the coach to fully assume the role of educator.
2.4 Olympic Education implementation
Recommendation 22 of the Olympic Agenda 2020 is concerned about the spread of Olympic values-based education. The first point on the recommendation 22 of the Olympic Agenda 2020 says, ‘the IOC to strengthen its partnership with UNESCO to include sport and its values in school curricula worldwide’.(www.IOC.org). With this assertion in mind, it must be noted that in countries like Swaziland, there is still a long way to go. To start with, it is not the strengthening of IOC partnership with UNESCO that is more important but rather a psychological orientation of the importance of sports and Olympic education at grassroots level.
Many theoretical documents have been written but very little has been done on the ground to spread Olympic values-based education with the exception of randomized and rare workshops and events organized by NOCS. Olympic education is seen as a celebrated event done on a single day or week per year rather than as a process. In the quest to achieve recommendation 22, more impetus should be put on its feasibility in African states, which have more problems financially and politically, that distract them to concentrate on sports education in general.
Besides implementing Olympic Education in the school system, the IOC developed concept documents including OVEP that can used for delivering OE in various platforms.
2.4.1 The IOC and Olympic Education
The IOC came up with the Olympic charter in September 2000. The charter refers on several occasions to the form and content of Olympic Education. The following references to the Olympic Education in the Olympic charter are noted:
- Article 2 in the Fundamental principles of Olympism made reference to the blending of sport with culture and education as the foundation of Olympism.
- Article 6: The Olympic movement aims to contribute to building a peaceful and better world, especially through sports education.
- Rules 2, 6-7: The IOC is committed to the sporting ethic and particularly fair play, it therefore supports the International Olympic Academy (IOA) and other institutions dedicated to Olympic Education (Rules 2, 14-15).
- Rule 31, 2.1: The IOC charter obliges the National Olympic Committees (NOCs) to promote Olympism in all areas of education. This can be done through adopting independent initiatives for Olympic Education through National Olympic academies.
2.4.2 The Olympic Values Education Programme (OVEP)
The Olympic Values Education Programme (OVEP) is a series of free and accessible teaching resources that have been created by the IOC. Using the context of Olympic sports and the core principles of Olympism, participants are encouraged to experience values-based learning and to assume the responsibilities of good citizenship. It communicates the benefit of sport and physical activity through an understanding of Olympism and its impact on individual health, enjoyment, and social interaction (www.olympic.org).
Whilst the IOC is the brain child of the packaged OVEP, it is critical to analyse the possibility of the fusion of Olympic education with sports education in a manner that shows a working relationship of the sporting movement. For instance, will it be wrong to say the same values inherent in sports participation and taught before, during and after participation are also inherent in non-Olympic sports? If the answer is yes, the other question could be why in particular should the IOC spearhead Olympism/Olympic education without including other stakeholders such as the curriculum designers and education authorities? Of course, IOC has a custodian right and obligation to do so but the worry is over emphasis of the coach as educator in an Olympism context rather than in general sports.
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- Cecil Gabriel Simbarashe Tafireyi (Autor:in), 2019, Challenges and prospects of implementing Olympic Education in Southern Africa, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/937893