Factors Affecting Safety Behaviours of Construction Workers in Malaysia

Management Commitment, PPE and Training

Academic Paper, 2020

111 Pages, Grade: 3.5




1.1 Research Background

The Department of Workplace Safety and Health in Malaysia (DOSH, 2017) reported that the largest number of occupational injuries per sector in 2017 is in the construction of high-rise building, with 15 deaths out of 70 (as in May 2017). Large construction projects in Malaysia have been exposed to hazardous conditions that can cause accidents, thereby impacting the safety performance of construction projects.

The causes of the incidents were related to human behaviour, inadequate site environment, hazardous operating system, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and poor safety management procedures. It was also assumed that one of the causes of the increased number of accidents on construction sites was due to a lack of understanding among many parties, in particular the commitment of management to provide arrangements to ensure employees' safety, health and welfare. Therefore, offering training and robust safety programs that could continually enhance safety behaviour was essential for any employer to reduce possible hazards in the high-rise construction project. In order to lessen the workplace accidents and indirect impact of the consequences of the event before the injuries or accidents passed off protection, safety behaviour was the important thing to put in force it. If management commitment, training in safety awareness and the PPE had been properly aligned, designed and delivered on employees’ safety engagement and behaviour, the effects should have been huge.

Consequently, there was amazing interest in finding ways to free up what could be carried out to inspire and retain staff so that it will achieve maximum employees' safety behaviour. However, many agencies struggle to find the proper aggregate and capability that may be carried out to deliver most employee safety behaviour and achievement of its objectives. The most effective manner to enhance employees' safety behaviour was by putting measures in place by the employer to broaden their staff so that they could think, work on their own and fulfil their responsibilities innovatively. Consequently a question arises about how PPE, management commitment and also safety awareness training affect the behaviour of the employees in the construction of high rise building.

1.2 Problem Statement

In DOSH (2018) figures on reported industry-specific fatal industrial injuries, the building sector is the highest for 2018. The high rate of fatalities was probably due to the fact that, the employees of mainly foreign labour dominated construction industries might not place enough attention to health and occupational safety at work.

Management tended to always place importance of work progress and profitability rather than employees' safety. The safety of employees' solely handed to them and they had been taking care of their own safety. From the statistics graph of occupational accidents in all sectors which is available at www.dosh.gov.my>index.php>32_statistik_kemalangan_sektor_2018.pdf as in Figure 1.1in page 3, it can be concluded that the highest industrial mortality is the construction of high-rise building sector in Malaysia with the highest fatalities percentage which is 48%. One of the major sectors in which nations can grow the economy of our country and thus improve our competitiveness is the construction industry. Nevertheless, the rapid increase in the construction sector also leads to the high accident fatality rate in line with the positive growth of the economy as shown in the below pie chart.

Fatalities Breakdown (percentage)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: www.dosh.gov.my>index.php>32 statistik kemalangan sektor 2018.pdf

Figure 1.1: Sector Statistical Report for Occupational Accidents 2018 (Investigated)

Employees from the construction of high rise building are routinely exposed to many inherent risks associated with construction site work conditions. It was time for those in the high-rise construction industry to re-evaluate their workplace safety status and decide whether they had done enough to ensure safety at construction sites for their employees. So the question is, how could the industry continuously improve safety behaviour? The key is to identify factors that are affecting employees’ safety behaviour. For the benefit of its employees, in order to fulfil the company's goals or priorities many construction companies had invested heavily in management commitment, training and PPE. According to Ling et al. (2008), nevertheless, very little attention had been paid to factors that motivated employees’ safety behaviour and the work field has been completely overlooked.

It was not clear if safety conduct was consistently done while employees worked with a full commitment from management; awareness training for employees were provided and implementation of the usage of PPE were done. There had not been such a study carried out in this form of construction in high rise building. Therefore, this study attempted to close this gap by giving a clearer understanding the influence of management commitments, training awareness and PPE on the safety behaviour of employees in the construction of high rise building in TME Builders Sdn. Bhd., No. B-13A-3, Jalan C180/1, Dataran C180, Cheras Selatan, 43200 Cheras, Selangor D.E.

1.3 Research Objectives

The purpose of this research was to perform a thorough analysis of the literature in order to obtain a better understanding of the term known as safety behaviours and factors influencing the safety behaviour of employees in the construction of high-rise building. To achieve this goal, three (3) objectives outlined are to;

a) Determine proper conduct between management commitment, safety awareness training, PPE and employees’ safety behaviour in the construction of high rise building.
b) Identify most influential factor among management commitment, safety awareness training and PPE that affect employees' safety behaviour in the construction of high-rise building.
c) Discover level of management commitment, safety awareness training and PPE in enhancing employees' safety behaviour in the construction of high-rise building.

1.4 Research Questions

This study on the factors influencing the safety behaviour of employees in the high- rise building construction site will address the following questions:

1. How do management commitment, safety awareness training and PPE affect safety behaviour of high rise building construction employees?
2. Which is the most influential factor among management commitment, safety awareness training and PPE that affects employees' safety behaviour of high rise building construction?
3. Why management commitment, safety awareness training and PPE are important in enhancing employees' safety behaviour in high rise building construction?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Management commitment, safety awareness training and PPE have different level of importance and effects in enhancing the safety behaviour of employees in the construction of high-rise building.

1.6 Significance of the study

This study involved 100 employees of TME Builders Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur who was randomly selected from one construction site which consists of structural workers, mechanical & electrical workers, architectural workers and finishing workers. To assess the results of this analysis, the data obtained will be analysed using IBM SPSS (Statistical System for the Social Sciences) version 26.

The aim of this study is to analyse the factors that affect safety behaviour among employees in high-rise construction of TME Builders Sdn. Bhd., No. B-13A-3, Jalan C180/1, Dataran C180, Cheras Selatan, 43200 Cheras, Selangor D.E. to create a safe working environment. This study is expected to give employees an awareness of the important aspects of safety behaviours that they needed to understand and abide by when working at the construction sites. By making the safety behaviour practices as a culture, it could help avoid unexpected hazards and accidents.

As a result of this study, the employer may also review the extent of safety behaviours practiced in a construction. Additionally, with such a study, it also gave employees an understanding of the value of occupational safety and health behaviour.. The study also attempted to bring awareness to the top management, contractors, supervisors and safety officers to emphasize on the safe behaviour practices in the workplace. In fact, this study was also a channel for employees to give ideas and insights that directly contribute to the birth of new systems or rules that support the safety of employees at work.

1.7 Definition of Terms

This research contains certain key terms and conceptual meanings. These terms were briefly presented in this early chapter of the study to allow the reader to have an understanding of what was introduced in the following chapters.

1.7.1 Safety Behaviour

Referring to Christian (2009), safety behaviours are actual activities performed by individuals at work, and can be interpreted as closed and open acts taken by individuals to avoid expected consequences and preserve a sense of safety.

1.7.2 High Rise building

Based on their findings, Hinze, J. and Gambatese, J. (2003) described a high-rise building as a building which was built with special engineering system and with a small footstep and roof area, and very tall appearance.

1.7.3 Management Commitment

Cooper. M (2012) defines management commitment as involving and managing habits that help employees achieve a target. This similar definition was stated by Charehzehi & Alankoob (2012) in their journal titled “Enhancement of Safety Performance at Construction Site”.

1.7.4 Safety Awareness Training

As stated by Barbara et al. (2002), safety awareness training is a training to equip the employees with the knowledge, skill and competence to recognise and maintain good health and safety practices in a familiar supervised environment.

1.7.5 Personal Protective Equipment

Rosli Ahmad (2008) referred Personal Protective Equipmment as any equipment worn by an employee to secure himself at his place of work from any danger or risk while working, especially at the construction site.

1.8 Summary

This study aims to determine factors influencing employees’ behaviour at high-rise construction building companies and to determine whether these factors have bilateral interactions. This chapter has given the research issue, the objectives and its hypothesis, the nature of the analysis and the scope a history. The next chapter presents a summary of the literature, followed by examination of methods and results, and finally gives discussion of the research.



2.1 Introduction

This chapter provides analysis of the study's literature. The literature review was relating to study issues in three parts. Literature on the relationship between management commitment, safety awareness training and personal protective equipment with employee safety behaviour was received and summarised at the end of the chapter.

2.2 Management Commitment and Safety Behaviour

Management commitment involves safety awareness (Charehzehi & Alankoob 2012), the attitude of management (Lee & Jaafar 2012), availability of specific company security policy, and enforcement of internal security laws, security system including emergency plans and procedures and conduct of security policy review. (Alaqqad 2009).

2.2.1 Safety Awareness

Safety First”, "Safety Is Job One," and different trademarks rambled by the board over and over should be more than words on a banner; they should be inward mentalities that direct essential conduct of undertaking groups. This was especially true for projects that include hands-on work, for example, construction, assembling, vitality, and utility businesses. So as to have a powerful safety behaviour program, the project manager needs to be a health champion. This research incorporated few realistic approaches which management could incorporate safety behaviour into a part of a task to guarantee that "Safety First" was a fundamental belief. A plan was created, actualized and upheld. The task explicit arrangement ought to be a part of the customer's corporate safety behaviour strategy or of either customer or the executing association. A top-level task record would give all workers performing what is more, subcontractors, a framework for the implementation of safety processes and healthy work behaviour. The project manager must agree that a workplace free of injuries is conceivable (Shenhar and Holzmann, 2017).

Choudhry, R.M. and Fang, D, (2008) stated that construction organizations which successfully achieve strengthened health and safety practices invariably had been in place clear and acceptable safety and health policies. Safety and health policy is a written document that represents the organization's goals on safety and health management issues.

Effectively, Project managers and supervisors will participate in frequent on­site meetings with employees with a view to improving safety. Yule et al. ( 2007), found two significant determinants of safety satisfaction for the employees, which were management commitment to security and management organizational support.

According to Sari Tapura et al, (2014), For certain administrators, lack of or insufficient support from their own superior was a key obstacle, as the main support was supposed to come from one's superior. Mohd. Aqleem (2015) added that safety management play major role in influencing and enhancing the safety and health quality of work environment. Supervisor as the employees' immediate hierarchical status plays a crucial role in health and safety practices at the organization. As Haslam. R et al (2005) said construction supervisors still have little knowledge of safety and little understanding of the cause and prevention of accidents.

As expressed by Jannadi, 2002, each work environment brings about its representatives an obligation to guarantee their safety at work. Building site or a plant is a high hazard environment. It was especially essential to be fastidious about safety behaviour in light of the potential for the presence of risky accidents. In the expressions of Revathi.K, et al, 2017, whenever a domain normally hazardous and may offer chances to perilous circumstances, cautious administration was essential so as to guarantee employees safety. While safety measures can assist with decreasing the danger of work environment injuries, without management’s administration responsibility such measures might be rendered inadequate.

Prasad, 2001 referenced that numerous hazardous circumstances emerge in view of the passageway of an outcast into premises dangerous zones. Great project management’ gives all outcasts a first purpose of contact. This was to guarantee they don't wind up meandering around the premises unaccompanied. In the meantime,( Hu, Susan & Lee et al, 1998) expressed that as employees numbers increased; it got hard to be informed of what every individual group was doing. This circumstance may cause covers in tasks that can demonstrate the danger. Sound project management was required for compelling scheduling such as obliging securely most extreme number of individuals in a specific territory. Organizations will ensure that workers have a good understanding of those positions. They will have clear contact with the correct supervisor if they have questions or concerns.

Employee mentoring and encouragement promotes safe conduct and improves trust (Cormier & Magnan, 2007). Management should make transparent employee goals using goal-setting approaches to work together to produce results. Feedback is an integral part of this process. The most suitable way to communicate the input with the team should be decided by management. When an employee knew why it mattered, he was more likely to stay and do his job well (Goll & Rasheed, 2004).

According to Graham, H.T., Bennett, R., 1998, by imparting centralized organization, task management contributes pricelessly to workplace safety. This was especially vital while there were enormous quantities of employees or groups performing various tasks. At the point when employees and groups don't know about what others were doing, they accidentally cause dangerous circumstances to emerge. It was additionally agreed by Jackson (2004) that with clear and concise scheduling and employees who have a keen awareness of what goes on at the premises, risks in the workplace can be reduced considerably.

Based on his findings, Abudayyeh et al. (2006), mentioned that a strong dedication to management can be seen by an motivated individual in putting protection as their own personal objective and obligation to promote the concept of good conduct and influence in certain circumstances while modifying unsafe practices. Investigate the root causes of any accident and near miss, communicate the results, and correct any deficiencies. As stated by Hinze, 2013, for any, it is difficult to obey the safety protocol, evaluate and change the process or function as appropriate so that the employees are not tempted to violate the rules and work unsafe.

2.2.2 Management’s Attitude

The attitude and dedication of the management to safety has been an important factor in shaping the willingness of the workers to adopt safety protocol. In a study at 42 manufacturing plants in the United States; employees who considered their management to be more committed to safety had higher injury rates (Smith, 1978 & Yule et al., 2007). One of the parts of project management, asset was group building. The individuals from the group must realize that the supervisory group were worried about their own safety behaviour. This would be increasingly adept to pay special attention to their behaviour and the safety of their partners. Lots of workers in modern society have been worried. Help or actions from superiors may affect the employees' emotional or psychological part (Meyer et al., 2000).

One of the primary obstructions to accomplishing safety conduct was the nearness of risky circumstances or perilous activities in the working environment. Noteworthy research directed by the safety and health organizations showed that the quantity of recordable incidents was contrarily relative to the quantity of close to misses distinguished and cured. The more close to miss incidents recognized and rectified, the less recordable injuries were continued. One of the central point's influencing this relationship was getting the inclusion and duty of everybody engaged with recognizing issues as well as adjusting them. Employees should be urged to self­distinguish risks and assume liability to address risky conditions and make safe conduct.

In a report on employee attitudes to the workplace, Chandrasekar, K (2011) found the working climate has played a critical role in inspiring workers to carry out their work. Ömer Sadullah (2005) stated that organizational safety climate was the factor that affects safe/unsafe behaviours of employees which affect the safety and health behaviour of high rise construction building employees. The actions of managers could affect job stress rates for workers, and work-related stress was a significant problem that could have an detrimental impact on the health and safety of employees.

The actions of managers could affect job stress rates for workers, and work- related stress was a significant problem that could have and detrimental impact on the health and safety of employees. As Lack (2002) states, "there is nothing more obvious for employees than a plant manager who frequently makes himself or herself recognizable and accessible by walking around the site and occasionally stopping and talking to employees about healthy work practices. Likewise, the top management of building workers must be seen as responsible and active in the protection measures (Zeng et al . , 2008).

Weigmann (2002 ) claimed that a positive attitude towards safety was demonstrated by its senior management's ability to be consistent in promoting safety at all levels of the company despite facing numerous challenges even in times of economic downturn.

As defined by Adebiyi and Charles-Owaba (2009), motivating employees could be expressed in many activities , such as providing a safety award scheme for good housekeeping, holding health and safety competition among employees, or holding a suggestion competition to improve security that offers attractive awards. Similarly, security rewards and punishments (I / P) were introduced in encouraging the contractors at the construction site, and the results showed a reduced number of incidents and better safety performance compared to the project without I / P provisions (Hasan, 2013).

The utilization of motivating forces to compensate greater safety and health practices could be a technique for including employees in improving the workplace from a safety behaviour point of view. An incentive scheme, which encourages workers to recognise and correct unhealthy behaviours combined with the fulfilment of safety goals at job level is extremely viable. Employees who say they have power over their situation were increasingly mindful and beneficial. Try to actualize a compelling, minimal effort strategy for distinguishing and remedying risks in the working environment.

According to Curran (2004), acknowledging the commitment of employees for healthy behaviour more individually, more locally and more frequently by acknowledgment could boost employee morale and enhance overall management attitude. Private and public recognition were among the forms of recognition used most frequently. Personal appreciation refers to a discreet thank you or a hand on the back whereas more formal public recognition. This inspires loyalty and engagement, and fosters stronger behavioural expectations (Syedain, 1995). Public acknowledgement became an important aspect of the incentive because the individual's conduct influences more than just one employee explaining publicly why the person earns acknowledgement and how it may serve as a motivator for other employees in relation to the organization's objectives (Wiscombe, 2002).

Most unsafe behaviours didn't simply occur all of a sudden. Rather, they were frequently gone before by apparently considerate circumstances that in any case uncover potential risky practices. For instance, representatives failed to wear appropriate safety equipment could for the most part be distinguished as a hazard even before an accident happens. (Botani et al, 2009). Numerous hazardous circumstances likewise created over extensive stretches of time and could be spotted before any hazard happens. For example, any mileage or harm to equipment was generally seen before it prompted accidents. Great management commitment panel would give any individual who saw conceivably hazardous circumstances with a brought together purpose of contact to report such hazards.

According to Sawacha et al . ( 1999), the provision of PPE to employees will affect the level of safety performance in an organization. In reality, it was the duty of the employer to provide the requisite personal protective equipment to the work force. A sufficient number of safety equipment, for example safety shoes and safety helmets, should also be regularly assured and in good condition especially for PPE (Hasan, 20130.

Organizations were not solely responsible for the nature of the workplace environment, and the actions of the workers may have a significant effect on the atmosphere they were working in. Avoiding unpleasant conditions in the workplace, such as talking poorly about co-employees or managers, can be difficult to avoid but may also make the difference between a toxic workplace and a safe one. In comparison, engaging with co-employees and managers as freely as possible will help to minimize misunderstandings and inappropriate conduct (Christian et al, 2009). It was not sufficient for the board to identify who was doing what and where. All representatives should be also notified of what was happening so they don't commit errors that may offer ascent to dangerous circumstances. This was best finished with an everyday early daytime preparation that would stay up with the latest before they started work (Griffin, 2000).

In a construction project, the management team acts as a role model to influence healthy attitude among building workers, thus fostering safe environment. Several researches showed that highly qualified workers in the sector are able to reliably measure relative safety risks for different activities and work environments (Hallowell, M.R., 2010). In view of this, it was important to provide insight into the attitudes or prior experience of building management workers in evaluating the probability and nature of hazards and health threats.

2.2.3 Safety Policy, Rules, Program and Review

Griffith and Howarth (2001) described safety policy as a distributed declaration representing the vision of the organization and its vital link with the administration of safety and health matters. The safety policy will describe the organizational way of thinking of the company in terms of its business activities on safety and health matters. This must be clearly implemented as a clarification of policy and beginning from the leading body of official administration of the association. In addition, Kin and Bonaventura (2006) conducted an investigation into safety management activities in Bhutanese construction industry explained that safety policy was a composite statement of requirements and priorities that could illustrate the duty of top management to ensure safe working techniques and conditions at the construction site.

Essentially, Ahmadon Bakri et al .(2006) stated that safety policy was a requirement of the approach to safety and health which reflected the responsibility of the management towards the safety and health of the company.

The approach chosen by manager about safety concerns has been successful in the establishment of protection level within an organization. The definition of specific procedures and the introduction of safety guidelines such as the 1994 üccupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) will allow the process to operate properly. In addition, the management was responsible for allocating people with the appropriate degree of competency and expertise in each part of the work as a representative. In terms of problem solving, this approach will lead to employee needs.

Ilyani Ismail (2006) explained that any safety program is dependent on an approach which requires employee safety insurance. "The agreement completely integrates job safety and other business-related problems." Nonetheless, Shim (2006) reported that given the fact that Malaysia has an excellent law on security policies, there is no compliance from the specialists, however. As Mohd Khairolden et al. (2008) put it; careful implementation of the written structure has to be made particularly for high-rise construction. This was to give all contract workers confidence and security seeing that they knew that the equipment and systems at worksites were not harmful to the workers themselves and to people in general. Be that as it may be security and health officials faced a serious problem because they did not have the resources to enforce the guidelines carefully.

Another solution to the urgent duty and dedication to safety was to limit the role of security experts to that of staff advisors. The security officer ought to set up executing strategies and methodology dependent on the undertaking explicit Safety Plan. (Parringa, L. A. 2010). The workforce would at that point utilize these systems. Safety Specialists will gather organizational risk information and forward data to job leaders, supervisors, and working groups. The security officers will be used as security consultants and not as armed police. The aim was to focus the workers on safety and not rely on the security experts to protect them. (Sari Sapura et al, 2014).

As reported by Aref & Alireza (2012), Safety Policy includes some notice exhibiting roles, obligations, culture, behaviours and standards to ensure a workplace was safe, healthy and appropriate. This statement would also enable all staff and other people on the site who have been affected by the condition of the site to pay attention to such alerts to improve the efficiency of the health. The remit of this strategy is as follows:

a) Creating a framework for ensuring workers work in a safe and secure climate.
b) Diminish the risk-causing condition.
c) Provide secure equipment and tools.
d) Give accurate working methods and procedures.
e) Provide the necessary details, training and guidance regarding site condition and type of project.
f) Emphasize the use of appropriate footwear and protective equipment.
g) Assign employees according to their skills and competencies.
h) Set up mandatory site admission rules for visitors.

Workplace safety and health policy, as described by the Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division (OR-OSHA, 2002), is "a concept that defines what people such as business owners, managers, and employees do to prevent injuries and incidents at their workplace." Many researchers such as Anton(1989), Abdelhamid and Everett(2000), Rowlinson(2003), and Aksorn and Hadikusumo (2008) have claimed that the safety system can be an effective element of management in significantly reducing injuries as a framework for a more efficient approach to operations and creating a healthy working atmosphere in an attempt to support employees.

Abudayyeh et al (2006) claimed that management dedicated to ensuring safety should continuously enhance their safety systems and strategies by tracking the performance of workers and using accurate input as a method to improve workplace conditions. However, Zeng et al (2008) claimed that the dedication of top management was one of the elements needed to implement a framework in the effort to strengthen the safety management system in which it could prevent duplication of effort and minimize the input of resources while enhancing construction health. It is important to underline and check the value of offering a safety guide or manual to workers when entering a organization. (Sawacha and et al.1999).

As mentioned by Sharolnizam, 2007, uncompromising management commitment on the urgency in correcting unsafe act and unsafe condition, employees were found continually violating the safety rules and procedures, there were no directly involvement from other department to champion at their own area, employees were not seen to prioritize safety while doing their daily jobs and inactive health and safety communication among managers and subordinates. Choudry et al (2008) found that one of the best practices for advancing safety and health by group of executives was by showing safety materials on notice board with the goal that employees can peruse and get it. Apart from that, the undertaking management may also show calculation of project site accidents on safety announcement bulletin board. This was one of the methods that Directors should be able to support their employees' safety and health. At the other hand, Masayuki (2006) suggested that a safety board should be formed to provide the security indications provided by the management at the building site. Employees should then be constantly conscious of this.

Health was an economic as well as a humanitarian issue that required careful supervision of management. Safety and health benefits may include less accident, less harm to property, less downtime, improved morale, improved labour relations, increased efficiency, lower cost and better quality (Promfret, 1997). üther advantages include reduced insurance premiums, reduced hidden costs, and enhanced morale of staff, increased productivity and improved marketability (Levitt and Samelson, 1995).

The majority of construction site injuries were preventable by introducing an effective safety policy. Unsafe situations and injuries were typically a warning that the management team had been wrong about something. Health and safety must be handled in the same way as handling other facets of an organization (Peterson, 1979). While an effective safety program could prevent or minimize injuries, safety programs are not adopted by all contracting organisations.

Hinze and Wilson (1999) argued that there was correlation between good safety performance and high productivity and that safety should not be compromised in an attempt to improve productivity. Good performance in safety was often linked to the management style, and the application of undue pressure to the workmen by any means contributed to increased injuries. Crew productivity can be adversely affected by an injury to an employee. For example, the incident will possibly result in a crew working in the area of the accident working less productively. Such crews could initially simply stop work to monitor the activities surrounding an injury. The crews may be less successful due to discussions of the incident with fellow staff.

2.3 Safety Awareness Training and Safety Behaviour

Training was a method for hazard relief. Guarantee your employees were prepared to play out the errands they had been doled out. That incorporates the undertaking itself, nonetheless such preparation as the best possible use of fall defence equipment, scaffolding client and how to do when circumstances change, or when accidents happen suddenly. Urge staff to Wait, Consider, and Act and Review any action they participate in. This procedure, whenever utilized appropriately, would urge every supervisor to examine what should be done before starting an undertaking, played out the assignment per the arrangement and afterward audited what was practiced and search for methods to improve efficiency, quality or any other part of the errand execution. (Praveen, B. 2011).

Training workers shows management's dedication to health. Trained workers often accept protective actions more readily because they were aware of the risks and the impact they could have on preserving safety at work. Review key messages from training sessions often aimed at improving learning (Sun, J. et al. 1997). Ensure that training has been conducted to create understanding of "essential habits" for each task and that the training has been replicated regularly enough. Training should also be carried out immediately after any major changes to the job activity. Perform refresher exercises at staff meetings to ensure all workers have undergone the same training. (Hislop, R., from 1999).

As Paringga (2010) points out, the purpose of instruction and training was to avoid human error that could lead to accidents and to motivate employees to conduct a difficult task. The monotonous layout of the task is programmed before it is added. Lai et al., (2011) expressed that training on safety was a best device for alleviating risk because preparing assists with improving employees' aptitudes and capacities to distinguish dangers. Permana (2007) conducted a review of safety and health practices in Batam, Indonesia and found one of the safety practices through his discoveries was education and training. Being aware of your surroundings on a construction site was the first step to increasing safety on the job. Being alert to hazards and potential hazards was the best way to prevent accidents. A construction team that was cognizant of the activity in and around their work area and practiced situational awareness reduced the chance for error, accident, and injury.

Safety Awareness Training was a term which refers to the need for safety enlightenment to prevent accidents (Paul, B. 2001). Security perception, according to Pirani and Reynolds (1976), was more linked to personal behaviours than anything else. Based on previous studies, this item could lead to productivity improvement which would then boost income (Raad, V. D., 1999). The provision of a safety manual was noticed at the construction site as one of the factors shaping safety behaviour, where this manual offered brief safety training to any new employee during their first week (Sawacha et al., 1999).

A supervisor was otherwise called an individual with experiences, an individual who can fix the issue and, moreover, a good example at the key management level (Nijman, 2004). As an experience master, the supervisors have been constantly concerned with directing a training system in this manner. The training plan under way is, for example, the establishment of destinations, the selection of coaches, the preparation of workout schedules, the selection of the program approach and the programs to be used, the preparation of resources, the program planning and, in addition, the preparation requires review. As suggested by Rabey (2007), she mentioned that a supervisor may be a coach for the employees as the trainer would help the employees complete their task by leading the employees to the operational procedure, in particular with regard to another operational approach to enhance employee safety behaviour.

It was clear that training has a role to play in identifying management activities to improve the efficiency of the protection. Providing daily exercises improved employee awareness of dangerous activities. The safety training, on the other hand, was very helpful as it allowed workers to anticipate possible injuries or near misses. (D'Oswald, 2013). The management level will consider a systematic and holistic approach to protection at the construction site in order to increase the standard of safety and health on a wide scale. This method should be clarified clearly by detailed procedures for every hazardous activity found during the design stage. For all the method should be transparent and comprehensible. The company will also maintain system of safety and health training for new workers. The approach would put the organization's orientation in a preventive phase. Workers who were adequately qualified would make the correct decision when dealing with workplace-related events (Vredenburgh, 1995). With the aim of training, the company might avoid accidents and injuries while it advised its workers of adherence to safety regulations.

Wilkins (2011) believed many business leaders have reacted positively to the increasing number and quality of health and safety training programs. This may be because preparation would improve workplace health (Spellman, 1998). According to Fernandez-Muniz, Montes-Peon and Vâzquezürdâs (2007), the aim of training and improving the skills of the employees was to provide employees with the requisite skills and capabilities to carry out their tasks properly. As stated by Botani et al (2009), this principle allowed workers to have workplace understanding and knowledge of risks and was also equipped with realistic countermeasures in safety managements.

Toole (2002) also conducted a study in the United States and indicated that one of the causes of the injuries was due to a lack of adequate management instruction. It will be easy for workers without adequate training to act unsafely and make mistakes while carrying out the job. They lacked information about how to use the equipment, and they also did specialized work, such as working at height, hot work, etc. It definitely would make them vulnerable to injuries.

In spite of the fact that a large portion of a working skill could be picked up at work, safety was one range of abilities that was best learned before employees enter the building site. Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA), and numerous organizations distributed a few assets to assist managements with preparing their new employees on standard health and safety works on, including hand outs, worksheets, preparing recordings, and even nearby preparing chances. As indicated by Khans (2011), experienced supervisors ought to be required to revive their insight into standard safety by going to normal instructional meetings consistently. These instructional courses could go over straightforward things, for example, fall security and appropriate utilization of stepping stools, yet the objective was to ensure everybody was satisfactorily prepared.

Given the fact that they needed workers to go to typical safety instructional meetings about construction safety and health consistently, having the option to rehearse safety training skills on location would help construction employees authorize the safety rules and safe conduct. (Tabish, 2015). Rehearsing building site safety preparing abilities on location would drive employees to rehearse these aptitudes in a domain where safety behaviour conduct was fundamental and would ensure they were prepared. Without the correct preparing, construction employees could be handily harmed or even executed because of dangerous conduct. In such a situation where injuries and fatalities are almost certain, preparation is vital and will forestall things like work environment injuries that will hurt the associations morally and monetarily. (Griffin and Hu, 2013).


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Factors Affecting Safety Behaviours of Construction Workers in Malaysia
Management Commitment, PPE and Training
Open University Malaysia
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factors, affecting, safety, behaviours, construction, workers, malaysia, management, commitment, training
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Subramaniam Ramasamy (Author), 2020, Factors Affecting Safety Behaviours of Construction Workers in Malaysia, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/978729


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