The Effect Of Population Growth On Forest Resources. The Case Of Wolaita Zone, Boloso Bombe Woreda, Ethiopia

Scientific Essay, 2020

28 Pages, Grade: 1


Table of Contens

1.1 Background
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3.1 General Objective
1.3.2 Specific Objective

2. Literature Review
Human activities enhancing emissions
Push factors: Solutions to the problem by the society: e.g. Research on energy, clean coal technology, etc

3.1 Location
3.2 Topography
3.3 Vegetation
3.4 population
3.5 Climate
3.6 Land-use land cover Situation
3.7 Wild Life
3.8 Livelihood
3.9 Economic Activity

4. Methodology
4.1 Data Collection Techniques

5.1 Socio economic features of the study area
5.1.1 Household income
5.2 Forest status and forest management
5.3 Land Size of the households
5.4 Energy sources of the households
5.5 Family Size of the households
5.6 Family Planning

6.1 Conclusion
6.2 .Recommendations



1.1 Background

Population and environment are closely connected in a complex and dynamic manner. This relationship depends on a number of socioeconomic, cultural, political and developmental aspects. Being the heart and lungs of the world, forests act as barometers of the economy and environment (Kumar, 2001). The major factors contributing to deforestation are poverty, low level of income and population growth Debel et al.(2014). Since the dawn of human history, the destiny of humans and trees has remained tightly bound. Forests have exerted a tremendous influence on livelihood and economic development in many societies. One of the most important concerns of this age is the question of population growth and whether the earth’s resources can sustain this rapid expansion of population in most parts of the world. This has reignited an extensive debate worldwide on the relationship between population growth, depletion of resources and environmental sustainability (United Nations, 2001). The larger a population grows, the more likely it is to deplete its resources Rogers (1992). The equality of the environment is constantly losing its status due to increase in population growth in most countries of world John (1984).

The poverty stricken economy of Ethiopia needed scientific management of its natural resources and balancing the population to cope up with the climate change and the challenges of the globalization of economy. Thus, there is a need to review the population and environment interrelation at the country level in order to suggest the means to minimize adverse effect of population pressure on environment (Amare, 2013) cited by Debel et al.(2014). Population growth is undoubtedly one of the most critical socio-economic factors that could alter the pattern of forest resource use (Giliba et al., 2011). In general, underlining causes of deforestation are poverty, population growth, poor economic growth and the state of the environment Million, 2001

Ethiopia is one of the countries where forest resources degradation exhibits primarily due to population explosion. The forest policy is also not said to be effective in forest policy regards. At present it is facing a serious ecological problem triggered mainly by the fast growth of population which led to destructive nature of land resource uses involving deforestation even without leaving time space for regeneration of natural forests. The situation exposes the land to serious land degradation altering local environment and micro climate. To change this situation urgent natural resource management primarily forest management strategies intervention is required. Therefore, this study is aimed to assess the effects of population growth on forest resources exhibiting in Zaba village in Boloso Bombe woreda and to suggest remedial solutions before the environment is getting worse and its serious outcome.

1.2 Statement of the problem

There are a number of problems facing the forestry sub-sector. The forest resources have been declining both in size and quality. The high forests which used to cover 16% of the land area in the early 1950s were reduced to 3.6 % in the early 1980s and further declined to 2.7 % in the early 1990s Million,2001. In Ethiopia the ecological crisis is deepening. It is deemed to be the result of misguided an unregulated modification of the Ethiopian environment, in particular the vegetation, soils and natural ecological processes. Increased human and animal population, whose livelihood is based on the use of natural resources, inparticular renewable natural resources, has led to their fast depletion and serious degradation. Their exploitation has been and still is beyond their “ self-replicating capacity” Tedla and Lema (1998)

Plate 1.3 Deforestation causes climate change and desertification

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Environment and Disaster Risk (UNEP, 2011)

Forest clearing for agricultural encroachment and other land use systems affecting the natural forest of zaba kebele which is at its peak required an immediate management intervention in the area. Not only that many loads of fuel wood are deported and many quintals of charcoal are extracted daily. Ethiopia’s forests are being destroyed at an alarming rate and the area covered by forests at present is only 2.4% compared to the estimated 40% initial coverage. The primary causes of natural forest destruction are agricultural expansion and the demand for increasing amounts of construction materials, fuel wood and charcoal Million(2001).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Plate 1.2 Agricultural encroachment, charcoal making and fuel wood collection photograph

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Plate 1.1 Daily fuel wood collection rate

Source: By researcher, 2018


1.3.1 General Objective

- To assess the effects of population growth on forest resources

1.3.2 Specific Objective

- To assess the effects of population growth on natural forests.
- To assess the current population trend of the study area
- To examine the factors that can affect forest management systems.
- To assess the gaps of forest management system in the area.

2. Literature Review

The high population has caused the unsustainable use of soil, water and forest resources. The ever growing energy demand for domestic fuel has resulted in extensive use of crop residues and cow- dung for fuel. Deforestation has accelerated in recent years, especially in the last three decades, in response to a rapidly growing human population Tedla and Lema(1998). The major cause of deforestation is the rapid population growth, which leads to an increase in the demand for crop and grazing land, wood for fuel and construction. Lack of viable land use policy and corresponding law also aggravated the rate of deforestation. New settlements in forests are increasing from time to time and hence resulted in the conversion of forested land into agricultural and other land use systems. At present, the few remaining high forests are threatened by pressure from investors who are converting the moist evergreen mountain forests into other land use systems such as coffee and tea plantations Bekele, (2001). Demands for bio fuels and raw materials have also risen sharply, driven by increased population growth and demand for energy resources, and policies that promote biofuel production and use. These demand are competing with food production for the same set of limited resources of land and water, adding to already existing pressure on land and water resources and causing land use conversion, land degradation, and pressure on protected areas UNEP (2012) pp4. Forest clearing has been identified as one of the most significant causes of deforestation in different parts of the world. Detailed scientific studies illustrate the apparent effect of farming activities resulting in modification of the original vegetation Ogunleye, (2011).

The PSR framework was initially proposed by Tony Friend and David Rapport for the purpose of analyzing the interactions between environmental pressures, the state of the environment and environmental responses. OECD has applied an adapted version of the framework, since the 1970’s, to its work on environmental reporting; the DPSIR. The DPSIR framework can also be used at any spatial level to address the need for reliable environmental data and information for effecting policy responses for better environmental management OECD (1991).

Figure 2.1 Pressure-State-Response Framework

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The DPSIR framework can be used at any spatial level to address the need for reliable environmental data and information for effecting policy responses for better environmental management. Driving forces are the social, demographic and economic developments in a city, for example. They also include livelihood options, changes in lifestyles, poverty levels and consumption as well as production patterns. These driving forces exert pressure on the environment; for example, the excessive use of natural resources such as forests for firewood or land for urban agriculture. In the late 1990s, the European Environment Agency introduced a further extension of the PSR model by adding drivers and impacts to create the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework (EEA, 1999).Figure 2.2 Driving force, Pressure, State, Impact, and Response Framework

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Adapted from Reis et al Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model of environmental change (OECD, 1993)


3.1 Location

Wotagisho is the natural forest situated in zaba kebele of boloso bombe woreda in wolaita zone,SNNPR. The kebele is bordering zaba mountain of Damot sore Woreda in the North, Afama Mino kebele of Boloso bombe woreda both in the South and east and Koysha Nare kebele of Damot Sore woreda in the west . The study site is 14 kms far from the woreda town and 43 kms from the wolaita zone town.

3.2 Topography

The topography of the study area is characterized by ragged terrain and undulated nature. Its altitude ranges 2200 – 2800 m above sea level.

3.3 Vegetation

Zaba kebele is endowed with natural forests such as Wotagisho forest. However, the forestry sector is affected by over utilization and poor forest management. Old stand trees which play the great role in carbon sequestration are seriously deteriorated by the community for construction materials and fuel wood need specially. The forest is mainly dominated by tree Sps like tid(Jeniferus procera) ,dokima, tikur inchet,besana and zigiba(Podo Carpus).

Fig 3.1 the four fold economic model of forest resource utilization

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Sunderlin et al.(2005:16).

“WIN-WIN” outcomes – are those outcomes where the livelihood outcomes are matched by gains in environmental protection. Common for developed countries.

WIN-LOSE” outcomes – this model mainly focuses in current gain without or with less consideration to environmental impact. My study area feature is similar to this. Note that the temporal dimension is important. What begins as “WIN-LOSE” may end up as “LOSE-LOSE” because of the loss of the resource base.

“LOSE-WIN”- Giving due consideration to the environment such that the environment will be protected and the well being and development of the society will be sustained. In this model unwise use of natural resources is defended by strong environmental policy.

“LOSE-LOSE” - These outcomes are those variously described in the environmental literature as “ the down ward spiral of poverty and environmental degradation,” the vicious circle,” or as “desperate ecocide.” Under these circumstances, there is a causal reciprocal relationship between worsening social and environmental condition.

Plate 3.1 Plantation forest on the deforested area

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Source: Captured by researcher, 2018

Deforestation rate is high in zaba kebele that shows forests are poorly managed. Forest clearing for agricultural settlement is high as it can be observed from the plate. Due to poor land management the area is highly degraded as it can be seen from the photograph image of the area. Even though there is reforestation launched and managed properly on some time, due to high deforestation the area is getting degraded. See plate 3.2


Excerpt out of 28 pages


The Effect Of Population Growth On Forest Resources. The Case Of Wolaita Zone, Boloso Bombe Woreda, Ethiopia
Forest management
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ISBN (eBook)
BY: ZERIHUN LEMMA SHANKA (MSc) December, 2020 Wolaita zone, southern Ethiopia
Quote paper
Zerihun Lemma (Author), 2020, The Effect Of Population Growth On Forest Resources. The Case Of Wolaita Zone, Boloso Bombe Woreda, Ethiopia, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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