Production and Reproduction Performances and Constraints of local and exotic Layer Chicken in Ethiopia

A comparative Evaluation


Hausarbeit, 2020

33 Seiten


Leseprobe

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY

1. INTRODUCTION

2. LITRATURE REVIEW
2.1. Chicken production systems
2.1.1. Free-Range Chicken Production System
2.1.2. Semi- Intensive Chicken Production System
2.1.3. Intensive Chicken Production System
2.2. Productive and reproductive performance of local layer chicken
2.2.1. Reproductive Performance of local layer chicken
2.2.2. Productive and reproductive performance of exotic Chickens
2.3. Hatchability and survival rate of local and exotic chickens
2.4. Major Constraints of Local and Exotic Chicken Production in Ethiopia

3. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

4. REFERENCES

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.The mean age at first lay for local chicken ecotypes

Table 2.The mean clutch number per year for local chicken ecotypes

Table 3.The number of eggs per clutch for local chicken

Table 4.The clutch length for local chicken ecotypes

Table 5.The mean egg production for the local chickens

Table 6.The average age at sexual maturity for exotic breed

Table 7.The mean egg production for exotic chicken breed

Table 8.The mean number of eggs incubated for exotic chicken breed

Table 9.The mean number of egg hatched for local chicken breeds

SUMMARY

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Keywords: Local and exotic chickens, Productive and reproductive performance, constraints

1. INTRODUCTION

Animal productions in general and chicken production in particular play important socio economic roles in developing countries (Clarke, 2004; Kondombo, 2005). The most dominant chicken types reared in Ethiopia are local ecotypes, which show a large variation in body position, plumage colour, comb type and productivity (Halima, 2007). However, the economic contribution of the sector is not still proportional to the huge chicken numbers, attributed to the presence of many productions, reproduction and infrastructural constraints (Aberra, 2000; Halima, 2007). On the other hand, scholars also reported the names of indigenous chicken designated based on their plumage colors like for instances: Tikur (black), Nech (white), Keyie (Red) and Gebsima (Roan) in the country (Nigussie et al., 2010).

With the aim of improving chicken productivity, different breeds of exotic chickens (Rhode Island Red, Australorp, New Hampshire and White Leghorns) were imported to Ethiopia since the 1950’s (Abraham and Yayneshet, 2010). Since then higher learning institutions, research organizations, the Ministry of Agriculture and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’s) have disseminated many exotic breeds of chicken to rural farmers and urban-based small-scale poultry producers (Solomon, 2008). Bevan’s Brown was introduced since 2012 and is largely populated. According to the annual report of Southern Zone of Tigray (SZT) (2014), other chicken breeds are not commonly seen as they were introduced in limited number for research works and/or they are genetically diluted in the chicken population.

In the past 20 to 25 years, there has been a shift to commercial production by small- and medium-scale producers exploiting mainly urban markets. However, the expansion of the commercial chicken production in Ethiopia, and in similar developing countries, has been hindered by the shortage of adequate local supply of high-performing chicken stocks. Currently being made to alleviate this problem by introducing, evaluating, and identifying suitable high-performing imported breeds that can adapt to intensive and efforts are extensive management conditions in Ethiopia (Esatu et al., 2015; Ibrahim et al., 2018).

Chicken production encompasses into traditional scavenging, small and large-scale market orientated sectors which is based on the objective of the producer, the type of inputs used and the number and types of chickens kept (Halima, 2007). The rural poultry sector constitutes about 98% of the total chicken population (FAO, 2007) and are largely consists of the indigenous or native domestic fowl. The traditional back yard systems are characterized by mainly low-input and small-scale with 4-10 mature birds per household, reared in the back yards with inadequate housing, feeding and health care. Scavenging is the most important component of the poultry diet (Fisseha et al., 2010; Meseret, 2010).

The Ethiopian indigenous chickens are known to possess desirable characters such as thermo tolerant, resistance to some disease, good egg and meat flavor, hard egg shells, high fertility and hatchability as well as high dressing percentage (Aberra, 2000). According to Abubakar et al. (2007) the impact of the Ethiopian village chicken in the national economy and its role in improving the nutritional status, family income, food security and livelihood of many smallholders is significant owing to its low cost of production. The diverse agro ecology and agronomic practice prevailing in the country together with the huge population of livestock in general and poultry in particular, could be a promising attribute to boost up the sector and increase its contribution to the total agricultural output as well as to improve the living standards of the poor livestock keepers (Aleme and Mitiku, 2015; Hunduma et al., 2010).

The production performance of indigenous or local scavenging chickens of Ethiopia is low because of their low egg production potential, high chick mortality and longer reproductive cycle and due to their low genetic potential (slow growth rate, late sexual maturity and broodiness for an extended period). Local chicken flocks are self-propagating, with broody hens laying only 30– 80 eggs per year in 2–4 clutches, and spending longer time between clutches to rear chicks (Mapiye et al., 2008 and Fotsa et al., 2014). Local chickens are considered to be disease resistant and adapted to their scavenging environmental conditions. However, local chickens kept under the intensive system of management (in confinement) are inferior to exotic stock in health status and characterized by a lack of interest in their environment, wing droppings, huddling at the corner, leg weakness and cannibalism. They are also slow in rate of feathering and exhibit recurrent outbreaks of disease (Demeke, 2004). Therefore, to meet the ever-increasing demand for meat and eggs, increase the contribution of exotic chicken to Ethiopian economy and expansion of commercial poultry production introduction of superior/exotic breed has been proposed as one of the plausible option. As a result, currently the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research introduced Lohman Brown, Novo Brown and Dominant Sussex d104 Final hybrid layers. The Lohman Brown is egg type breed of hybrid origin, selectively bred from New Hampshire’s and other brown egg laying breeds of chickens (Felt, 2011). They start lying at an age of 18 weeks and reported to lay up to 300 brown eggs per year. Novo Brown starts lying at an age of about 20 - 24 weeks. Under commercial conditions, productivity of Novo Brown is reported to be around 330 eggs per year. Dominant Sussex D 104 is a result of crossing paternal Sussex stock with slow feathering maternal stock and an attractively colored layer for small scale and free-range production conditions (Mebratu, 2020).

There were huge number of indigenous chickens and small numbers of exotic chicken in Ethiopia but its productive and reproductive performance were low and varies in different area, and are not reviewed and well documented for users and producers. There is a need for reviewing the productive and reproductive performance of village chickens to improve the indigenous chicken productivity and to save the indigenous genotype from distinction or replacement by exotic chickens. Therefore the objective of this review is to summarize the comparative evaluation of production and reproduction performances and constraints of local and exotic layer chicken in Ethiopia.

2. LITRATURE REVIEW

2.1. Chicken production systems

In Ethiopia, poultry production systems show a clear distinction between the traditional, low input system on the one hand and modern production system using relatively advanced technology on the other hand. Chicken can be reared in different management and production systems. Based on chicken breed type, input and output level, mortality rate, type of producer, purpose of production, length of broodiness, growth rate and number of chicken reared. In Ethiopia, there are three types of chicken production systems. These are free-range production system, semi-intensive production system and intensive production system (Abebe et al., 2015; Abera, 2018).

2.1.1. Free-Range Chicken Production System

This chicken production system is practiced in most rural areas of the country and objectives of production are for household consumption and as source of additional income for the household. It covers 95-98% of the chicken production system of the country and it is not profitable since it is not market oriented. It contains small flock size (5-20 chickens per household) which is indigenous breed types mostly depend on locally available feed material as supplement with low health services and other management practices (Abebe et al., 2015). The chicken does not have their own constructed chicken house rather maintained in the main house with the family. Chicken brooding and rearing is only the care they obtain form their mother/hen. Because of these there is high mortality of chicken and long broody periods and there is risk of exposure for different chicken diseases and predators. The major feed sources for chicken are worms obtained from free scavenging, legumes, and cereals and sometimes there is supplemental feed during feed shortage. The amount given is small and do not fulfill their nutrient requirement. Because of this their productivity is low (Abera, 2018).

2.1.2. Semi- Intensive Chicken Production System

This type of chicken production system is better than free ranging production system since it uses inputs like supplemental feed, vaccine, etc. It has a small house which accommodate laying nest and feeders which serves as chicken house for night time. The house has one or two side open door for easy movement of the chicken to the fenced area during the day time. The fence can be made from mesh wire or other materials and will not allow the chicken to escape above on it. The fenced area should be always clean and dry. Since the feed the chickens obtain from the scavenging is very low, they should be supplemented with energy and protein feeds. Since the main objective of the production is to get profit, they should get better health management practice like vaccination against NCD than free scavenging system. They are more productive than the chicken in free scavenging system. It contains flock size of 50-200 birds/chicken per household which are improved breeds (Abera, 2018; Abebe et al., 2015).

2.1.3. Intensive Chicken Production System

This type of chicken production system use more inputs (feeds and feeding, breed, health, housing and other inputs) than the above two chicken production systems. It is market oriented and the main objective of production is to get better profit. The number of chickens involved are relatively high (more than 200 chicken). The chicken breed used is specialized improved breeds (layer or broiler). They should provide the expected product within that time (Abera, 2018; Abebe et al., 2015).

2.2. Productive and reproductive performance of local layer chicken

The productive performance of indigenous chickens are low and which includes clutch number, average number of eggs laid per clutch, average days per clutch, average number of eggs per hen per year, slaughter age and weight of chickens (Matawork, 2018). Indigenous chickens are poor in productive and reproductive performance which are characterized by small sized eggs, slow growth rate, late maturity, slow age at first mating, small clutch size, a natural learning to broodiness and high mortality of chicks among the flock. Low productivity of indigenous chickens is due to low hatchability and high mortality of chicks (Fissaha et al., 2010; Getachew et al., 2016).

The indigenous chickens are known to possess desirable characters such as thermo- tolerance, resistance to some diseases, good egg and meat flavor, hard egg shell, high fertility and hatchability as well as high dressing percentage (Abdelqader et al., 2007). In Ethiopia, limited attention has been given to characterization and classification of indigenous non-descriptive chicken ecotypes and research is at its rudimentary stage for the identification, description (Halima, 2007). Only small portion of Ethiopian indigenous chicken were identified and characterized. These includes Tilili, Horro, Chefe, Jarso and Tepi (Tadelle et al., 2003b), Gelila, Debre-Elias, MeloHamusit, Gassay, Guangua and Mecha (Halima, 2007) and Farta, Konso, Mandura and Sheka (Nigussie, 2011) were the major chicken ecotypes found in different parts of Ethiopia.

2.2.1. Reproductive Performance of local layer chicken

Reproductive cycle takes longest time for indigenous chickens because of they require long time to reach sexual maturity age and they replace parent stock by traditional broody hens which require long time to recover the reproductive cycle (Matawork, 2018).

Age at first egg lay

The mean age at first lay 24.62±0.25 weeks (6.15 months) recorded in Gebremariam et al (2017) Meseret (2010) reported 6.33 months and (Nebiyu et al., 2013) reported 6.53 months but Mekonnen (2007) reported 7.07 months and Barua and Yoshimura (2005), reported 5.75 months and Addisu et al (2013), reported 23.84 weeks. Moreover, the age at first egg of local pullet for low altitude was significantly lower than high altitude but no significant difference was observed between mid-altitude and the two agro-ecologies (Gebremariam et al 2017).

Table 1.The mean age at first lay for local chicken ecotypes

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Therefore; the overall age at first lay for local layer chickens is ranging from 5.75 month to 7.07 months.

Number of eggs per clutch

The mean clutch number per year 3.46±0.04 reported by Gebremariam et al (2017) , Mammo (2006) reported 5.2, Mekonnen (2007) reported 3.7, Bogale (2008) reported 3.7, Fisseha et al (2010a) reported 3.83, Addisu et al (2013) reported 3.62, Nebiyu et al (2013) reported 3.81 and Ssewannyana et al. (2008) reported 2, Hagan et al (2013) reported 3, Alem (2014) reported 3.2 and 3.43 for Gomma districts (Meseret 2010). This might indicate the variation of broodiness behavior among the Ethiopian chickens. Therefore; the overall clutch number per year for local layer chickens is ranging from 2 times to 5.2 times.

Table 2.The mean clutch number per year for local chicken ecotypes

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Number of eggs per clutch

The number of eggs per clutch found in Gebremariam et al (2017) was 12.98±0.13. Mekonnen, (2007) reported 14.9 eggs/hen/clutch, Ssewannyana et al. (2008) reported 14 eggs/hen/clutch, Moreki (2010) reported 15.5 eggs/hen/clutch, Melese and Melkamu (2013) reported 18 eggs/hen/clutch, Nebiyu et al. (2013) reported 13.3 eggs/hen/clutch and Alem (2014) reported 13.6 eggs/hen/clutch. But it is almost similar with 11-15 eggs/ hen/clutch (Aboe et al., 2006), 12.92 eggs/hen/clutch (Meseret, 2010), 10-18 eggs/hen/clutch (Samson and Endalew, 2010), 12.64 eggs/hen/clutch (Addisu et al., 2013) and 12.8 eggs/hen/clutch (Hagan et al., 2013). Therefore; the overall number of eggs per clutch for local layer chickens ranges from 11 eggs to 14.9 eggs.

Table 3. The number of eggs per clutch for local chicken

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Clutch length

The clutch length (in days) of local chickens was investigated to be 22.54±0.44 by (Gebremariam et al 2017) , Mekonnen (2007) reported 26.2 days and Nebiyu et al (2013) reported 26 days but Alem (2014) reported 21.6 days ranged from 15 to 28 days for Central Tigray, North Ethiopia. Therefore; the overall clutch length for local layer chickens is ranging from 15 days to 28 days.

Table 4. The clutch length for local chicken ecotypes

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Details

Titel
Production and Reproduction Performances and Constraints of local and exotic Layer Chicken in Ethiopia
Untertitel
A comparative Evaluation
Autor
Jahr
2020
Seiten
33
Katalognummer
V982800
ISBN (eBook)
9783346338549
ISBN (Buch)
9783346338556
Sprache
Deutsch
Schlagworte
production, reproduction, performances, constraints, layer, chicken, ethiopia, evaluation
Arbeit zitieren
Tajudin Denur (Autor), 2020, Production and Reproduction Performances and Constraints of local and exotic Layer Chicken in Ethiopia, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/982800

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