The Impact Of Study Habits On Academic Performance in Mathematics. The Case of Senior Secondary School Students

Bachelor Thesis, 2019

88 Pages, Grade: 4.02






1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypothesis
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

2.1 Introduction
2.2 The Concept of the Habit
2.3 The Concept of Academic Performance
2.4 Effect Of Note Taking On Academic Performance Of Students
2.4 Effect Of Time Management and Time Allocation to Study on Students Academic Performance
2.5 Impact of Classe Attendance on Academic Performance of Students
2.6 Relationship of Study Habits With Academic Performance of Students in Mathematics
2.7 Factors Influencing Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Mathematics Other Than Study Habits
2.8 Students´ Attidtudes and Their Effects on Learning and Academic Performance in Mathematics
2.9 Gender Influences on Study Habits and Academic Performance of Mathematics Students

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Area of the Study
3.4 Population of the Study
3.5 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.6 Research Instruments
3.7 Validity of the Research Instrument
3.8 Reliability of the Research Instruments
3.9 Administration and Collection of Research Instruments
3.10 Method of Data Analysis

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of Data Relevant to Research Questions
4.2 Analysis of Response to Research Questions
4.3 Test of Hypothesis
4.4 Discussion of Results

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Discussion of Findings
5.3 Summary of the Study
5.4 Conclusions
5.5 Recommendations
5.6 Suggestion for Further Research






This project is dedicated to Almighty Allah for being my inspiration grace, guidance, strength and protection throughout my academic endeavor. I also dedicate this work to my wonderful parents, Mr.& Mrs. Olatunji for their provision and direction throughout the period of my academic training.


I am highly indebted to my parents, Mr. Olatunji Taofeek and Mrs. Olatunji Sitirat, for my life, my Education, your steadfast prayers, support, encouragement and provision, especially in the aspect of finance, I love you both.

To my mother, Mrs. Olatunji Sitirat, thank you for being my support system throughout my stay in University of Lagos. For your belief in me that always inspired me to press on even in the face of seeming impossibilities, no words can adequately express my gratitude. Words can’t depict the extent to which I appreciate you.

To my supervisor, Dr. S.O. Akinoso, I am exceptionally grateful for the time and patience devoted in correcting, explaining and guiding my work, for your prompt responses and your encouragement throughout the study.

To the Mathematics Education class of 19, whom have now become my second family, I must say it was a privilege knowing you all. We will keep soaring higher. I love you all.

Finally, to everyone who contributed in one way or the other to my successful journey in university of Lagos, may Almighty Allah bless you all. Many more years of friendship to us.


The study examined study habits and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Mathematics. A case study of selected secondary schools. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between study habits and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Mathematics. To carry out this study, four (4) research questions and one null hypothesis were raised to guide the study. The population of 1128 Senior Secondary School Two (SS2) students with a sample size of 200 respondents was selected from 5 public secondary schools for the study using simple random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to gather data for the study, which comprises of two sections (A and B), section A comprise of 20 items while section B, comprise of 30 achievement tests on mathematics. The reliability coefficient of 0.72 was obtained using Split Half Method. Data collected was analyzed using simple frequency counts, percentages and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient (PPMC) and the hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance using One-Way Analysis of Variance(ANOVA). However, the results revealed that there is significant relationship between study habits and academic performance of senior secondary school students in mathematics. Based on the result of the findings, it was recommended that group guidance should be organized in schools by professional counsellors in order to create awareness on how students can develop effective study habits which could lead to good academic performance in mathematics and a functional school library should be mounted in all the secondary schools.

Key words: Mathematics, Student’s Academic Performance and Study Habits.


1.1 Background of the Study

Mathematics is a methodical application of matter (Olubiyo, 2009). It is so said because the subject makes a man methodical or systematic (Onabamiro, 2002). Mathematics makes our life orderly and prevents chaos. Certain qualities that are nurtured by mathematics are power of reasoning, creativity, abstract or spatial thinking, critical thinking, problem-solving ability and even effective communication skills (Muraina, 2013). Mathematics is a core subject that has its application in every other subject whether sciences, arts, social sciences and commercial (Akinoso, 2017). Throughout the history of man down to this time, mathematics has been tremendously useful in very many aspects of human endeavors and the uses still continue. This is why mathematics is regarded as an essential too in many fields of study including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance or social sciences generally and arts (Akinoso, 2017). Akinoso (2014) emphasizes that, knowledge of mathematics is very essential in workplace, major employer in every sector made clear need for people with appropriate skills in mathematics. Anyone can be a mathematician if one is given proper guidance and training in the formative period of one's life (Salau, 2006).

Academic performance of students is a major concern of all education stakeholder’s world over. This interest and the concern are not unconnected with the fact that only a qualitative education and good performance can guarantee effective national development, socialization of individual to become an integral part of the society, and achievement of personal goals and individual aspirations (Abubakar, 2009; Sanda, 2009; Yusuf, 1993). Over the years, the research into the academic performance of students have attracted the attention of education researchers, teachers, counsellors and school administrators in Nigeria due to the public outcry over the low standard of education (Aremu, 2002; Tenibaje, 2009). As important as high academic performance is to all, students’ performance has not been encouraging. Despite pertinent research activities, (e.g. Aremu, 2002, Imogie, 2002, Onabamiro, 2010, Tambuwal 2012) during the last three or more decades, there is still as a great deal to research into about students’ academic performance. This is because many factors are capable of influencing students’ academic performance for example, study habits which is our major concern in this study, students’ motivation level, attitudes of students, self-efficacy, school environment to mention but a few.

According to Hills and Ballow (2000), the study habits of students play a vital role in reflecting the standard of education and the students’ academic performance in mathematics. The students cannot be expected to learn everything needed about the subject from their teachers in the classroom alone, it is the combination of both the classroom learning and out of classroom learning that make up students’ study habits. The need for effective counselling services among students cannot be overemphasized in order to achieve good academic performances. The students need to be counselled on the need to develop good study habits that will enhance a good academic performance. Okon (2005) observed that students with structured and organized study habit performed well during examinations. Okon (2005) went on to recommend that parents, government and teacher should provide reading materials and a conducive environment for effective learning. Onwuegbuzie (2001) in his study suggested that guidance services are needed on student study attitude and study habit for a better academic performance. Sorenson (2006), while listing the good basic study habits stated that one must study with the primary aim of understanding. This requires one not to be in a hurry of getting through, rather sustained concentration is necessary.

Crow and Crow (2002) states that effective study habits include plan/place, a definite time table and taking brief of well-organized notes. Many studies have been carried out by researchers like Adeyemo (2005) and Gbore (2006) on effective study habits. They argue that study habits have strong relationship with the academic performance of students. A student who cultivates certain study habit will perform differently from a student who has another set of study habit. It is believed that student who lacks effective and efficient means of studying would be building on shaking foundation and consequently have weak foundation. The teachers teach all the students collectively but all the students do not have the same grades, here we see underachievers and high achievers in mathematics. With these the teachers get puzzled with the sight of such situations and then try or push too much (Riaz, Asma, Niaz, 2002). There may be a number of reasons like different levels of intelligence, lack of good infrastructural facilities, and lack of good libraries and so on. But one of the reasons is that students fail to make good an effort to learn what their teachers taught them in the school and also do not study at home because they fail to recognize the importance of study habits to their academic achievement.

According to Riaz (2002), the study habits of the students could play pivotal role in the learning process reflected in the academic performance of the students in mathematics. Abid (2006) stated that the quality of a nation depends upon the quality of its citizen while quality of citizen depends on the quality of its education which in turn depends on the study habits of the students.

According to Hills (2000), a very good and conducive learning environment encourages students study habit and might have positive impact on their academic performances but students reading in an unfavorable environment might find it difficult to study which may affect their academic achievements. Students with financial constraints might also find it difficult to perform excellently well in their academics. However, students study habit should contribute to their academic performance. Some students do not attend classes, do not take down notes, do not do their assignments, do not read their books or make use of the library. These attitudes may negatively affect their academic performances especially in mathematics. This study intended to identify various study habits used by the students and the relationship with their academic performances. The distressing phenomena: scholastic underperformance and failure have caused serious concern to educationists, guidance counsellors and educational planners for several decades as this amount to colossal wastage of resources available for education. This necessitates serious probe into the causes that underlie and factors that lead to underachievement and failure, so that means could be devised to grapple with these enormous problems. This is why Aremu (2001) opines that the more mathematical we are in our approach, the more successful we will be. Mathematics offers rationality to our thoughts. It is a tool in our hands to make our life simpler and easier. In support of these assertions, Abba (2007) posits that student should realize and appreciate the beauty of the subject and embrace it with all our heart. It is a talent which should be compulsorily honored by all in every walk of life. The study habits of students vary from one student to the other and from one place to another. It is an important aspect of learning because students’ achievement in schools depends greatly on their study habits. The low understanding level in mathematics has become great concern for our country, parents, educationists and government. The researchers and educationists have made frantic efforts to find out the causes of low achievement in the subject (Muraina,2013). In spite of all these efforts the problems still persist.

However, most research on attitudes points to the fact that attitude also plays a crucial role in learning and overall academic performance of students in mathematics (Zan and Martino, 2007) hence determines the student’s success in the subject. It determines their ability and willingness to learn the subject, work on a variety of assigned tasks and their persistence in the tasks available. In general, the conceptions students hold about Mathematics determines how they approach mathematics tasks leading them into either productive or non-productive orientations. In many cases, students have been found to approach Mathematics as procedural and rule-oriented. This prevents them from experiencing the richness of Mathematics and the many approaches that could be used to develop competence in the subject (Mensah, 2013).

Moreover, self-efficacy in mathematics was also seen as strong factor. Several studies revealed the strong relationship between self-efficacy and mathematics performance (Pampaka 2011; Fast ,2010; Liang,2010). Mathematics self-efficacy is developed most especially if there is positive teacher support and personal relevance (Aldridge, 2013). Maximizing on the impact of self-efficacy, Cheema (2013) concluded that basic and simple measurements of math self-efficacy are likened to its impact on students’ academic performance. Self -efficacy in mathematics is strongly related to the students’ attitudes (Vukovic, 2013).

1.2 Statement of Problem

The problems associated with study habits might have a major effect on student’s academic performance in Mathematics, it is believed that everyone has a different study habit and it is important to find out the best way to study. The problem most students have that contributes to their poor performance in tests and examinations is lack of proper study habits which shoots out test anxiety. For an excellent performance, there is the need for the student to form good reading and study habits. At present, due to the influence of the mass media, students do not show much interest in reading books; magazines and journals, among others. Many parents and teachers complain about students of recent days who have not developed reading habits among themselves. Officials of the West African Examinations Council and teachers of Mathematics complain of the kind of Mathematics problem-solving skills possessed by today’s generation of students. The net result reflects the poor performance of many students in final examinations. One of the many issues confronting students nowadays is perhaps, not their inability to read but their lack of interest which leads to poor study attitudes, poor reading methods and study skills. Moreso, test anxiety is caused by not taking precautionary measures into cognizance which are inappropriate way of doing their assignment, not taking notes in class, time management in test/examination preparation and writing in examination halls within a given time constraint. In order to ameliorate the deteriorating effect in students’ performance. This study seeks to employ the application of homework, note taking, time management, test preparation as factors that can promote the component of study habit to improve on students’ performance and help them take control of their learning.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The present study is aimed at examining the impact of study habit on the performance of senior secondary school students in Mathematics. The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between study habits and academic performance of students in mathematics in secondary schools. Specifically, the study sought to:

i. Examine the relationship between notes taking and student’s academic performance in mathematics.
ii. Examine the relationship between use of library and students’ academic performance in mathematics.
iii. Examine the relationship between time allocation to study and student’s academic performance in mathematics.
iv. Examine the relationship between students’ class attendance and students’ academic performance in mathematics.

1.4 Research Questions

In this study, the following research questions were raised to guide the study.

1. Is there any relationship between notes taking and student’s academic performance in mathematics?
2. Is there any relationship between student’s use of library and their academic performance in mathematics?
3. Is there any relationship between time allocation and time management to study and student’s academic performance in mathematics?
4. Is there any relationship between class attendance and students’ academic performance in mathematics?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following null hypothesis will guide the study:

H01: There is no significant relationship between study habits and academic performance of students in mathematics.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study when completed would be benefited to the following individual: students, teachers, parents, ministry of education and the general public. The result of the finding would enable students to develop good habits which could lead to good academic performance in mathematics. The study would expose student to different ways of taking note in the class and this would enable them to develop good strategies which could lead to good academic performance in mathematics, such techniques include; the use of abbreviation, paying attention in the class and many others.The result of the finding would help sensitize parents on how to encourage their children to develop effective study habit through the information that would be provided in the study. Teachers would see the result of the finding useful especially in discharging their duties in the school. This would be achieved through the accurate information that would be provided in the study. The study would enable the ministry of education to initiate programmes that would facilitate effective habits among students in the school. Such programmes includes: implementation of guidance and counselling services in school etc. Finally, the result of the finding would encourage members of the public to motivate their wards to take their education very important and discourage laziness, examinationmalpractice and other anti-social vices among students in their communities.

1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The study attempts to give information about study habits and its effects on the academic performance of senior secondary school students in mathematics in schools within Yaba-Akoka local government but due to time, money and other factors it will be limited to only five schools in Yaba-Akoka local government area in Lagos.

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

Study: An approach applied to learning or solving mathematical problems.

Habit: an acquired behavior pattern regularly followed in the course of studying mathematics.

Academic Performance: refers to how well a student is accomplishing his or her tasks and studies. This will be measured by the overall student’s obtainable marks in mathematics.

Student: a person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college.

Study skills: These are peculiar strategies developed by the student in studying mathematical topics in senior secondary school curriculum.

Study habit: This is a behavior or style which include; note-taking, time management and time allocation to study that is systematically formed by students towards learning mathematics.

Study attitude: is usually used to refer to a students’ positive attitude toward the specific act of studying and the student’s acceptance and approval of the broader goals of any form of education.

Study methods: Are arrays of strategies which tackle the process of organizing and taking in new information, retaining information in mathematics or dealing with mathematics assessments.


2.1 Introduction

This chapter reviews related literatures on the study under investigation. It will identify write-ups on the sub-headings mentioned below;

2.1 The Concept of Study Habits
2.2 The Concept of Academic Performance
2.3 Effect of Note-taking on the Academic Performance Students
2.4 Effect of Time Management and Allocation on the Academic Performance of Students
2.5 Impact of Class Attendance on the Academic Performance of Students
2.6 Factors influencing Academic Performance of Students in Mathematics
2.7 Factors Influencing the Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Mathematics other than Study Habits
2.8 Students’ Attitudes and their Effects on Learning and Academic Performance in Mathematics
2.9 Gender Influences on the Study Habits and Academic Performance of Mathematics Students.

2.2 The Concept of the Habit

Study literarily means to learn about something, taking educational courses. Hornby (1998) remarked that study is a special type of reading that requires devotion of time and especially, attention to acquiring knowledge from books. Habit could be said to be natural to human being as we are not the same through our observations, we relate differently with each other, so individual should be careful in adopting or forming a suitable habit that always yield good performance. Jato, Ogunniyi, and Olubiyo (2014) described habit as a settled or regular tendency of practice, especiallyone that is hard to give up and according to Iheanacho (2002); reinforcement increases the possibility that any given response will be repeated. In suggestion, it is important to form a good habit to bring a desired result for such habit to be repeated.

Study habit starts from childhood, root learning and memorization being the popular study habit children adopt to learn. Study habit is the pattern of behaviour adopted in the act of learning. O’Neale and Harrison (2013) viewed study habit as the continuous practice or repetition of study skills over time. Educational Research Information Centre (2009) views study habits as approaches applied to learning. Study habit according to Flippo and Caverly (2000) is a learned pattern of studying that may occur with or without conscious awareness or deliberate efforts. Crede and Kuneel (2008) define study habit as study routines including, but not restricted to frequency of studying material and studying in a favorable environment.

Study habit from this point of views can be said to be regular practice of one or two study skills in achieving a good academic performance. It is a combination of one or more individual tactics or techniques such as note taking (Wade, Trathen, and Schraw, 1990). According to Jones, Slate, Perez, and Marini (1996) “Study habit constitute the overall approach itself, representing the students’ concept of how to accomplish learning goals and the specific actions taken”. There are different dimensions patterns or skills that can be adopted as a study habit varying from one researcher to the other. Bolanle and Olufemi (2010) concluded in their study that homework and assignment and written works are significant study habits. In the view of Kenjika (1998), the fundamental components of study habit include: drawing up and abiding to daily study schedule, full involvement in teaching and learning process, reading, promptly doing and turning in class work and assignment, jotting down points while the teacher is teaching and during private studies. Nuthana and Yenagi (2009) highlighted some study habits as having significant correlation with academic achievement. They include: reading and note-taking, habits of concentration and preparation for examination.

The components or patterns of study habit central to some research findings includes: reading and note taking, concentration, cramming, comprehension, selection of main ideas, class-work and assignment and guessing of examination questions.It is important to note that no one habit of study works for every student as habits differ from student to student, it depends on the habit a student knows it suits him or her.

1. Reading and Note taking: Reading is an act of identifying characters and words resulting into understanding of the meaning of the characters and words while note taking is the practice of writing down piece of information in the class in a systematic way to aid memory. It includes taking notes from the teachers’ explanations in the classroom, taking notes from reading. These habits are very important to the success of students in their academic pursuits and needs to investigate on how it affects the students’ academic performance.
2. Concentration: This is the ability of the students to direct their thoughts and resources to their studies to avoid unwanted distractions from their academic goals. This involves paying attention in classes and studying without distractions from friends or electronic gadgets.
3. Comprehension: This is the ability of the students to intentionally and actively grasp and construct meaning from what has been studied. It is a pillar in the act of reading. It is an important step to be taken towards achieving a good academic performance.
4. Cramming: This is a widely used study skills mostly employed students’ preparation for examination. It is an act of intensive studying of particular subject. This is a common practice in Nigeria secondary schools. It involves trying to reproduce exactly what has been learnt.
5. Guessing examination questions: This is another common habit of students. It involves guessing or concluding on the expected questions to be answered in the examinations. In most cases students neglect other areas in a particular subject and focus more on the expected questions.
6. Selecting the main ideas: This is a study habit that involves students tying to pick the key points from a subject matter, picking from the most important aspect and differentiating the necessary fact from the unnecessary and ponder on the important aspect of the study. It involves reading carefully, paying attention to details to understand or to find out the main idea in a text.
7. Class work and Assignment: This depicts the students’ participation in classroom. It involves the school works that students do at lessons while assignment is an extension of learning which takes the form of school work done at home or after school hours and are always marked. The consistent repetition of one or more than one pattern is a study habit and a study habit is effective if it brings about good academic performance and on the other hand a poor academic performance is as a result of many students fail to adopt a suitable study skill as a study habit.

2.3 The Concept of Academic Performance

Academic relates to education. ‘Performance’ is a very common word used everywhere. Grimes (2003) described performance as “showing of a doing”. Performance could be said to be the manner in which something or somebody functions, operates or behave. Performance is put up by everybody in different activities. In general sense, performance is the doing or showing of abilities, skills derived from learning or experience.

Academic performance is a concept used in educational institutions. It represent pivot which educational activities revolve round. Academic performance is the end product of teaching and learning process. Aremu (2001) was of the view that academic performance is a fundamental criterion by which all teaching-learning activities are measured, using some standards of excellence and the acquisition of particulars grades in examinations measures candidate’s ability, mastery of content, skills in applying the knowledge acquired to a particular situation. Academic performance sometimes referred to as academicachievement is the outcome of efforts in education and the extent at which a student, teacher or institution has achieved the required educational goals

Academic performance could be said to be the results of doing or participating in class activities. Academic performance of a student provides the general background of how a student is progressing. It also represents the amount of knowledge and skills developed by students. Students display their qualities of learning in academics by writing tests, involving in class/home works, writing examinations. Teachers therefore judge the qualities displayed by students in letters, or in numbers describing how students have performed.

Academic performance in the past was mostly measured more by ear than today. Teachers’ observations dominated the assessment procedures. Today’s numerical method of determining how well a student is performing is a relatively recent invention. Grading system came into existence in America in the late queen Victoria’s reign and was initially criticized due to high prejudice. Teachers valued differently the different aspects of learning more highly than others, and although some adjustment was attempted in order to make the system fairer, the problem continued. Today, changes have been made to integrate differentiation for individual students’ abilities, and exploration of alternate methods of measuring performance is ongoing. However, in secondary schools academic performance is measured in terms (part of a year) using numbers. Measuring academic performance in Nigeria secondary schools involve the use of continuous assessment in each subjects including the examination score.

Different approaches are used by researchers to measure students’ academic performance in carrying out there studies. Mustaq and Khan (2012) measure the students’ academic performance through several ways like Practical and Assignment score, examination score and their test result when trying to find out the factors affecting students’ academic performance. Hijazi and Naqvi (2006) measured student academic performance through the result of particular subject or the previous year result also trying to find out the factors affecting students’ performance: A case of private colleges. Olaseinde (2004) was against the of using examination score or grades in the measurement of academic performance because Olaseinde (2004) was of the opinion that students cheat in examinations and whatever scores they obtain fail to reflect their competence and any decision made about the students on their scores does not qualify as valid and the whole purpose of assessment becomes defeated. In the same opinion, Williams and Media (2013) argued that grades ought not to be the only measures of academic excellence since grades may be influenced by factors such as attendance and instructor prejudice.

2.4 Effect Of Note Taking On Academic Performance Of Students

The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to all and sundry. The problem is so much that it has led to the widely acclaimed fallen standard of education in Nigeria at large. Aremu (2001) stresses that learning outcome has become a subjectmatter of importance to stakeholders (educational psychologists, teachers, academics, schooladministrators and managers, policy makers and planners, counsellors, psychometricians, parentsetc.) in education and to a large extent to students who are the direct beneficiaries or victims of theoutcome. Academic achievement is undoubtedly a research after the heart of educationalpsychologists. In their attempt to investigate what determines academic outcomes of learners, theyhave come with more questions than answers. In recent time, prior literature has shown that learningoutcomes (academic achievement and academic performance) have been determined by suchvariables as; family, school, society, and motivation factors (e.g Aremu and Sokan, 2003; Aremuand Oluwole, 2001; Muraina, 2013).

Academic performance (most especially of secondary school students) has been largely associated with many factors. Most students in secondary schools in Nigeria are daily confronted with challenges of coping with their academics due to ineffective note taking skills and unsuitable study habit among others. When the issue of Nigeria educational system today is raised, the first sets of thoughts that comes to mind are: decline in standard, deterioration of facilities, examination malpractices, mass promotion syndrome and the like before any other thing else. This calls for an in-depth study and analysis aimed at tutoring each and every stakeholders in the education system on how their actions and inactions have individually and collectively contributed to the collapsing state of education in Nigeria (Muraina, Muraina, Amao & Oyelade, 2013; Muraina, 2012; Amao, Muraina, Olashinde-Giwa & Muraina, 2013).

In any case, knowledge and skill acquisition which education is all about cannot be overemphasized. Over time students’ academic performance in both internal and external examinations hadbeen used to determine excellence in teachers and teaching (Ajao 2001). Considering the governments’ huge investment in public education, its output in terms of quality of students has been observed to be unequal with government expenditure. Consequent upon the observed deterioration in the academic achievement, attitude and values of secondary school students in public secondary schools one wonders if the high failure rates and the poor quality of the students is not a reflection of the instructional quality in the schools.

Note taking has been a staple activity of academic life, particularly in lecture courses, for decades. Despite its widespread use, note taking has generally been taken for granted by both instructors and students. However, in the past few years, changes in the landscape of higher education, such as the proliferation of commercial note taking services, have led instructors to ask questions about the efficacy of note taking in promoting learning and their own role in the process (Muraina, Muraina, Amao & Oyelade, 2013; Muraina, 2013). These questions reflect instructor concerns not only about note taking services, but also the apparent decrease in student note taking abilities and the introduction of active modes of learning within lectures.

Research on note taking indicates that taking notes in class and reviewing those notes (either in class or afterward) have a positive impact on student learning. Not surprisingly, the preponderance of studies confirms that students recall more lecture material if they record it in their notes (Bligh, 2000). Students who take notes score higher on both immediate and delayed tests of recall and synthesis than students who do not take notes (Kiewra, Benton, & Lewis, 2007).

Moreover, the more students record, the more they remember and the better they perform on examinations (Johnstone & Su, 2004). In summary, note taking facilitates both recall of factual material and the synthesis and application of new knowledge, particularly when notes are reviewed prior to examinations. Many studies of note taking find that review of notes (one’s own, borrowed notes, or notes provided by the instructor) significantly improve recall of lecture material. Kiewra, Benton, Kim, Risch, and Christensen (2007) found that students who take notes but do not review,earn lower examination scores than students who review notes prior to the examination.

Additionally, students not present at the lecture but given notes to review (either the instructors’ notes or notes taken by other students) did almost as well as the students who reviewed their own notes and significantly better than students who did not review. Given the importance of note taking and review to student beaming, it is especially problematic that student notes are often incomplete and/or inadequate. Research indicates that students fail to record 40% of the important in summary; note taking facilitates both recall of factual material and the synthesis and application of new knowledge, particularly when notes are reviewed prior to examinations (Muraina, Muraina, Amao & Oyelade, 2013; Muraina, 2012; Amao, Muraina, Olashinde-Giwa & Muraina, 2013; Howe, 2000; Locke, 2007).


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The Impact Of Study Habits On Academic Performance in Mathematics. The Case of Senior Secondary School Students
University of Lagos
Mathematics and Education
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Toheeb Olatunji (Author), 2019, The Impact Of Study Habits On Academic Performance in Mathematics. The Case of Senior Secondary School Students, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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