Excerpt

## Table of contents

ABSTRACT

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Chapter 2 - METHODOLOGY

Chapter 3 PRESENTATION, DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

REFERENCES

## ABSTRACT

This research assed the performance of Grade Five learners in Mathematics of Mayor A.S. Fortuna Memorial Elementary School, Guizo, Mandaue City during the first quarter of school year 2020 -2021. To analyze the data, the researcher made use of the input – process – output (IPO) continuum, which served as the structure and guide for the direction of the research. The inputs of the study will show the effectiveness of intervention program. These inputs will be obtained through the pre-test and post test scores. The process of this research includes the administering the pre-test, intervention through innovation remedial program and validation, presentation including the statistical treatment thereof, and analyses use in the interpretation of the data. The findings of the study reveal that the grade five learners performed better in performance tasks with a mean percentage score of 67.33% than the written works with a mean percentage score of 80.50%. This study reveals that situative perspective in solving routine and non-routine problems involving addition and/or subtraction of fractions using appropriate problem solving strategies and tools and in solving routine or non-routine problems involving division without or with any of the other operations of fractions and whole numbers using appropriate problem solving strategies and tools significantly affects teaching and learning fractions while it does not affect in solving routine or non-routine problems involving multiplication without or with addition or subtraction of fractions and whole numbers using appropriate problem solving strategies and tools.

Keywords: fractions; problem solving; situative perspective; Descriptive Method; Mandaue City, Cebu

## Chapter 1

### INTRODUCTION

Rationale

Mathematics is the science that deals with the logic of shape, quantity and arrangement. Math is all around us, in everything we do. It is the building block for everything in our daily lives, including mobile devices, architecture (ancient and modern), art, money, engineering, and even sports. People often wonder what relevance mathematicians serve today. In a modern world, math such as applied mathematics is not only relevant, it's crucial. Modern areas of applied math include mathematical physics, mathematical biology, control theory, aerospace engineering, and math finance. Not only does applied math solve problems, but it also discovers new problems or develops new engineering disciplines (Hom, E., 2013).

The order of teaching fractions is fairly consistent across all state standards (even if your state isn’t using Common Core). There are prime places where standards for teaching fractions should link to and build upon students’ prior understanding of whole numbers and prepare students for the next mathematical concepts. However, many children never master fractions. Such difficulties are not limited to fraction estimation problems nor do they end in 5th grade. This weak knowledge is especially unfortunate because fractions are foundational to many more advanced areas of mathematics and science. Fifth graders’ fraction knowledge predicts high school students’ algebra learning and overall math achievement, even after controlling for whole number knowledge, the students’ IQ, and their families’ education and income (Siegler, R., 2017).

At the primary school level, mathematical concepts can be motivated through the appropriately designed hands-on activities supported by manipulative materials. Likewise, as stated in RA 10533 it is hereby declared the policy of the State that every graduate of basic education shall be an empowered individual who has learned, through a program that is rooted on sound educational principles and geared towards excellence, the foundations for learning throughout life, the competence to engage in work and be productive, the ability to coexist in fruitful harmony with local and global communities, the capability to engage in autonomous, creative, and critical thinking, and the capacity and willingness to transform others and one’s self.

In the study of Allen, C. (2005) on her data analysis revealed that students constructed their own knowledge about various fraction concepts and operations because students engaged in discussions, after solving story problems, that developed, extended and restructured their knowledge. One example of this occurred after students had solved an equal-sharing problem. Two students came up with different answers and another student explained why both answers were equivalent. Student work samples and post test results indicated that the one student’s explanation was understood, adopted and extended by all the students in my class. Moreover, the data revealed that students’ pictures typically represented the context and action of the story problems. For example, subtraction problems dealing with length were usually represented by number lines or horizontal rectangles with crossed-out markings to show the subtraction operation. Throughout this research study, she found out that students were capable of learning from each other and solving problems for which they have no preconceived algorithm. Also, analyzing students’ work and listening to their discussions in ways that focused on their thinking, not their answers, provided information about what students were grasping and not grasping.

Context

As what the researchers experienced in teaching Mathematics 5 at Mayor A.S. Fortuna Memorial Elementary School, schoolchildren have difficulty in solving problems especially if these story problems involve fractions. Based on the results from the previous school year 2019 -2020 during the first quarter where fractions were introduced, solving routine and non-routine problems involving fractions were came up the least mastered competencies. Aside from having difficulty in understanding the problem, most of these learners have not memorized the four basic mathematical operations.

In order to respond to this issue, the researcher came up with this study that would improve the learners’ performance specifically in dealing with the concept of fractions. The researcher proposed intervention program that highlights the learning activities in the identified least learned competencies through video lessons, tutorials and varied activities in print. This research assumes that using situative perspective story problems in teaching fractions would render positive results in the performance in Mathematics of the grade five learners of Mayor A.S. Fortuna Memorial Elementary School.

### RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This research will assess the performance of Grade Five learners in Mathematics of Mayor A.S. Fortuna Memorial Elementary School, Guizo, Mandaue City during the first quarter of school year 2020 -2021. Specifically, this will answer the following questions.

What is the performance level of the grade five learners in mathematics during the first quarter of school year 2020-2021?

What are the least-mastered competencies of the grade five learners during the first quarter of school year 2020-2021?

What are the least mastered competencies in mathematics that involves fraction?

Is situative perspective with story problems significantly affect the Grade 5 learners in learning fractions?

## Chapter 2 - METHODOLOGY

In this section presents the Participants, Research Method Used, Instruments, and Data Analysis Plan.

Participants

The participants of the research will be the grade five learners of Mayor A.S. Fortuna Memorial Elementary School enrolled for the school year 2020-2021. There are three sections in the grade five namely: Truth, Candid and Chastity. The target population of the grade five is 113. Table 1 on the succeeding page shows the distribution of the respondents.

Table 1

Frequency of Respondents

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Research Method Used

This research will use experimental method of an action research. This method requires gathering of data based on proposed plan to be conducted. Pre –test and post-test will be administered to gather the data.

Instruments

This research utilizes the pre-post-tests as basis in assessing the effectiveness of the proposed intervention to grade five learners. The mean percentage score (MPS) of Grade Five Learners will be identified after the pre-test. This is to identify the least learned competencies and the level performance of the learners. Pre-test is to be undergone by the respondents prior to the conduct of the intervention program. The respondents will be assessed in competencies during the quarter one. Post-test. This is the mathematical test that is to be taken by the respondents after the entire session of the intervention.

Data Gathering Procedure

The gathering of the data will be done according to the following scheme: preliminary, preparation, administration and statistical treatment of data. As an initial preparation for the gathering of data, a written permission to conduct a research on Learning Fractions for Grade Five Learners through a Situative Perspective with Story Problems at Mayor A.S. Fortuna Memorial Elementary School will be secured from the principal.

Then, pre-test will be conducted to identify the least mastered competencies in fractions. After the pre-test, the collection and tabulation of scores will be done. This time, innovation intervention program will be implemented to give them the skills and competencies that they will need in order to improve their performance. It is the kind of strategy undertaken to enable those experiencing difficulties in aspects of least mastered skill in fraction to catch up or develop in appropriate ways.

After the entire session, a post-test will be administered. Post – test will be administered after the remediation program is completed. Then after the post-test, the collection and tabulation of the scores will be done. Afterwards, the interpretation of the data will be made.

The procedure in administering, collecting and tabulation of scores and the statistical treatment of the pre-post-tests will be done. The output obtains in the research will assess through a situative perspective with story problems learning fractions and this would be the basis for the adoption of the proposed plan.

Data Analysis Plan

To analyze the data, the researcher will make use of the input – process – output (IPO) continuum, which served as the structure and guide for the direction of the research. The inputs of the study will show the effectiveness of intervention program. These inputs will be obtained through the pre-test and post test scores. The process of this research includes the administering the pre-test, intervention through innovation remedial program and validation, presentation including the statistical treatment thereof, and analyses used in the interpretation of the data.

The output of this research will be the recommendation and the proposed effective innovation remedial program as an aid in improving academic performance of the grade five learners in Math. The output would be proposed to the principal of Mayor A.S. Fortuna Memorial Elementary School for possible adoption and implementation.

## Chapter 3 PRESENTATION, DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This chapter presents the data which answer the questions in this research. The results were presented, analyzed and discussed in this portion.

Performance Level in Mathematics

The performance of the respondents is measured by taking written tests and doing the performance tasks. Teachers evaluate in the form number grades and side notes, to describe how well a learner has done. It is classified as outstanding, very satisfactory, satisfactory, fairly satisfactory, and did not meet expectations academic performances. Table 2 presents the performance level of the grade five learners in Mathematics during the first quarter of school year 2020-2021.

Table 2

Performance Level in Mathematics

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The table above shows that Candid got 66.20% in written works and 79.37% in performance tasks. Grade Five Chastity obtained *Mean Percentage Score* of 68.32% in written works and 81.49% in performance tasks while Grade Five Truth obtained a *Mean Percentage Score* of 67.47% in written works and 80.64% in performance tasks. The overall performance level of the grade five in written Works was 67.33% while 80.50 in performance tasks.

The finding above reveals that the grade five learners performed better in performance tasks than the written works. In the study of Lazic, B., Milinkovic, J. & Petojevic, A. (2012) on connecting mathematics in propaedeutic exploration of the concept of fraction in elementary grades which supports in the findings of this study stated that the positive effect of learning mathematical contents through the conceptual generalization approach deals with the increase of interest, motivation, and on-task behavior among the pupils. With the implementation of learning by performance approach in the teaching practice of the elementary education, there is an increase in the effectiveness of learning mathematical contents.

**[...]**

- Quote paper
- Diosyver Monteron (Author), 2021, Learning fractions and story problems. A situative perspective, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1118832

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