Italienische Wörter und Wendungen in Théophile Gautiers Werk "Jettatura"

Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 2005

19 Seiten, Note: 3,0


Table of Contents

1.1. Research background
1.2. Problem statement
1.3. Research objectives
1.4. Significance of the research

2.1.1. Niche tourism
2.1.2. E-Marketplace
2.1.3. Customer purchase intention


4.1. Study method
4.2. Sample and data collection
4.2.1. Data collection




“Factors influencing customer's purchase intention in niche-tourism e-marketplace”


1.1. Research background

For the last decade, Vietnam has been recognized as one of the fastest growing tourism destinations in Asia. Vietnamese tourism industry has witnessed a tremendous growth and became one of the major sectors within the Vietnamese economy in recent years. In fact, it has contributed approximately 9.2% to the GDP of the country in 2019 thanks to over 18 million foreign tourists and 85 million domestic holidaymakers according to Vietnam Tourism Annual Report 2019 (Tourism, 2019). This figure has proved that this “non-smoke” industry has been and will be a promising land for investment.

This robust growth is attributed to the contribution of three main groups of travel agencies, which are: foreign online travel agency (OTA) (e.g.: Agoda,, Expedia, Traveloka...), domestic travel enterprise (eg: Viettravel, Saigon Tourist, Vntrip, Trivago, IVIVU,.), medium and small size travel agencies focusing on niche-market. With regard to the foreign online travel agency such as Agoda,, Traveloka, Expedia, etc., they can be referred as a third-party technological company, who resell services related to transportation and accommodation on behalf of other companies. The way these foreign OTA attract customer is developing a digital platform with a built-in booking system that offers customer a freedom of choice. This personalization characteristic allows customers to select their own prefer accommodation and transportation with a competitive price. Meanwhile, domestic travel enterprises such as Vietravel, Fiditour, Saigontourist, VNTrip,. are famous for their vast diversity of mainstream tour packages which can meet the needs of a large number of customers. The final counterpart in Vietnam tourism market is niche-market travel agencies, who usually focus on providing comprehensive package tour such as eco-green travel, spiritual travel, bucket list travel, LGBT travel, ethnic experience travel . etc. They are also regard as a group of medium and small-sized companies, however, some figures have shown that travelers have shown a tendency to hunt for niche experiences crafted by travel “expert” rather than going in for a mainstream tour. Moreover, these travel agencies only operate within a narrow niche at which they gain “expert” knowledge in; therefore, compared to companies who offer a vast diversity of tour destination, niche-market travel agencies (TA) are more likely to maintain a high-quality service. This is also the core value that makes them stand out from a very competitive market.

With the development of human's living standard, people nowadays are urged to seeking distinctive experiences in traveling. According to Loo (2017), “57% of travelers feel that brands should tailor their information based on personal preferences or past behaviors”. In other words, customers are looking for a life-changing transformational experience from rather than a mainstream package tour.

The trend of niche tourism has taken place in many countries of South-east Asia. For example, Malaysia's diversity in term of tourist attractions warrants the development niche tourism products to carter to travelers of various interest such as: diving tourism, golf tourism, bird watching tourism and wedding destination. According to Malaysia tourism Board (2019), total estimated revenue of diving tourism was RM 1.625 billion, as wellas the bird watching tourism earned around RM 14.175 million in revenue. Adventure tourism such as trekking hiking and surfing is considered as a growing travelling activity not only in Asian destinations but also in United States, Canada. In North America, 18.1% of American and 25.4% of Canadians have taken a day-long hike in the past two years, and 4% of Americans and 7% of Canadians took overnight camping tripsaccording to UNWTO Annual report 2014 (Tourism, 2014). The number of surfers worldwide also experienced an increase from 26 million to 35 million between 2001 and 2011 with some popular destinations such as Indonesia (Tourism, 2014). It can be said that niche tourism has gradually gained its popularity in worldwide; therefore, as a country which place tourism as one of the driving forces for the economic development, Vietnamese tourism has no choice but gradually adapt to this trend. Statistics from UNWTO has shown that Vietnam among other countries such as Cambodia, Philippines, and Sri Lanka, is one of the highly recommended destination for Ecotourism, which is also a potential package tour of many niche-market travel agencies.

Food travel is an undeniable trend among tourists worldwide and offers numerous opportunities to boost the local economy and promote culture. On December 11, 2020, Vietnam's Ministry of Culture, Sports, and Tourism officially approved a new project called “Creating a National Brand for Tourism and Culture (Wolf, 2021). In accordance with the project, Vietnam will develop its tourism industry by focusing on a pair of competitive edges - food and heritage, which will be a key factor to highlight the national tourism reputation on a worldwide scale. In 2015, Viet Nam's Nem ran (fried spring rolls) was listed among top10 dishes inthe world by the US Cable News Network (CNN). Vietnamese cuisine was voted as one of the 10 best food destinations in the world by CNN's television audience. Vietnam has 12 dishes named in the "Top Asian cuisine value dishes", as recognized by the Asian Record's Organization (ARO) (Anh, 2018).

Another niche market tour is medical tourism industry, and it is believed that Vietnam is emerging as a key player in Southeast Asia's medical tourism industry. In 2017, 80,000 foreign tourists came to Vietnam for health check-ups and medical treatment, bringing in US$2 billion in total. The medical tourism industry is projected to grow 18 to 20 percent annually (Nguyen, 2019).

The promotion of niche market tourism can enhance the sustainable economic development since it can simultaneously boost the local economy and protect the environment. Niche market in tourism refers to products or services that shared by a small group of people, meaning that niche tourism is the antithesis of mass tourism and opposite to large group tours (Stanton, Etzel and Walker,1991). For this reason, niche visitors tend to come in small groups, which cause less damage to the local environment. Meanwhile, these tourists also spend money for services provided by the local businesses such as restaurants, hotels and other recreational facilities, therefore, it can encourage local business to thrive. Another benefit of niche tourism is the promotion of local culture such as religious and heritage tourism when it can provide incentives for local people to reserve their traditional products. For example, traditional villages such as pottery Bat Trang is a well-known tourist attraction in Vietnam. In such places, tourist services are believed to be the primary source of income for local people when they can earn money from selling pottery vases, bows as souvenirs for visitors. Niche TA also offers a chance for visitors to have some hand-on experience making pottery products. Lastly, visitors themselves also benefit from niche-tourism when it allows them to gain experiences that they have never had before. Obviously, the expansion of niche tourism is one of the perks for the development of tourism industry as well as the advancement of the national economy.

The above figures have revealed that niche tourism market, especially in Vietnam, despite of being only a segment of a large market, has the potential to attract more and more travelers thanks to its own uniqueness. As the result, the travel agencies focusing on niche­market needs a better prepare to exploit this potential. Therefore, this research will focus only on niche-market travel agency.

1.2. Problem statement

As mentioned above, niche tourism is extremely unique, potential and increasingly becoming a trend of modern life, however, niche-market travel agencies are facing certain difficulties in promoting their service, providing information and connecting with more potential customers, especially in the digital age.

In the context of the digital transformation age in Vietnam, it is believed that Vietnamese customers has gravitated towards using the Internet for receiving and looking for information. To be more specific, with the population of more than 90 million, Vietnam E-Commerce Association's statistics shown that 70% of Vietnamese population uses smartphones or personal computer and spends an average of 2 hours a day surfing on the internet (VNETWORK, 2019). The report from 2016 of Google Research also pointed out that 70% of Vietnamese travelers search information via mobile phone. As the result, it is undeniable that Vietnam is a massive online travel market with $2.2 billion in revenue and it is expected to reach $9 billion by 2025 according to 2015 annual report by Temasek Holding (TEMASEK, 2019). The increase of internet users over the last decade, as well as the changes in customer's information inquiry and purchase intention toward online applications have strongly impacted the domestic tourism industry. This puts Vietnamese travel agencies under pressure to innovate themselves with technology in order to survive, adapt and compete in the tourism market.

However, in reality, not all types of travel agency can fully make use of this potential market. For OTA such as Agoda, Traveloka, Expedia, with the advantages of financial, technology and marketing, they have developed their user-friendly applications, customers can easily search information and get access to a variety of options related to transportation, accommodations, or mainstream package tours.In contrast, niche-market TA in Vietnam seems to fail to do the same because they are medium and small size suppliers. They even do not have a website or a digital platform to introduce their service to customers or find difficult to develop and effectively operate their own websites due to lack of financial budget, technological and marketing experience. There is also no digital platform or e­marketplace specialized for niche-market TA in Vietnam. It leads to the gap between niche­market TA and their potential customers. If travelers look for an exotic trip, they have to go through a complicated and time-consuming process to find the travel agency that suits their needs. For example, the process would start from looking for reviews from social media or word-of-mouth recommendations from friends, then they directly contact to the travel agency without being well-informed about the price or the verification of other niche­market agencies. Therefore, it is crucial to build an e-marketplace application where all the information about diverse niche-market TA is provided, plays as a mediator to connect, and support both niche-market TA and customers. However, to create an e-marketplace which can match customers' demand, it is essential to identify factors affecting customer's purchase intention toward online travelling services, especially for service in niche-market tourism in Vietnam.

1.3. Research objectives

The main objective of this study is to investigates what factors influencing customer's purchase intention in niche-tourism e-marketplace.

To achieve the aims of thisstudy, the answers for the following questions are sought:

1) What factors influencing customer's purchase intention in niche-tourism e­marketplace?
2) Which factoris the most important?

1.4. Significance of the research.

The result of this research can be useful for e-marketplace developers, niche market travel agency, and customers themselves. The most important contribution of this is research is that by analyzing factors that have a significant impact on customer's purchase intention in niche-tourism e-marketplace, developers can be able to solve the problems of connecting customers with niche travel agency by building an online platform that is specialized for niche tourism only. Moreover, travel agency themselves can also be well- informed about what to focus on to improve customer satisfaction besides their unique product. As a result, customers who are struggling to find a suitable niche package tour can also be equipped with a more concentrated information channel when it comes to searching for an exotic travelling experience.


2.1. Key concepts

2.1.1. Niche tourism

The term “niche tourism” is believed to be developed from the notion of niche marketing. According to Toften and Hammervoll (2009), niche marketing is concentration on a small limited market appropriating for small or specialized businesses. As definition of (Kotler, 2003), niche marketing focuses on customer, who describe a specific requirement and are willing to pay a greater price to companies or agents best equipped to meet their demand for products and services. In tourism context, more recently, Novelli (2005) came up with definition of niche tourism as “an umbrella tourism form, which identifies macro and micro tourism segments appealing to a specific group of travelers”. By the description of Novelli (2005), tourism trend includes two categories “mass tourism” and “niche tourism”. Mass tourism in definition of Novelli (2005)is “conventional tourism involving large number of tourists in stages setting”. In contrast, niche tourism is “special interests, culture and/or activity-based tourism involving small number of tourists in authentic settings”. Novelli (2005) has clarified each component of niche tourism and proposed a typology of tourism trends.

I Macro »lebe types ]

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1. Typology description of niche segments by Novelli (2005)

As demonstrated in the Figure 1, to avoid overlap in the conceptual model, Novelli (2005) has introduced the terms “macro niche types” and “micro niche types”. The first term refers to alternative tourism product and their broadest sense such as cultural, rural, environmental. The second term is understood as the macro-niche's smaller branch which is clearly different kind of package tour such as heritage, ecotourism, photographic, etc. In the context of Vietnamese market, there are some products and services of macro niche that would be potential to develop such as “cultural”, “environmental” and “emerging”.

2.1.2. E-Marketplace

An electronic marketplace or online marketplace is referred to third-party platform where customers and merchants or service provider can conduct online business. Definition of e-marketplace according to White et al. (2007) is a “web-based system connects several businesses together for the purpose of trade and collaboration”. To be more specific, it is digital distribution channel or transaction platform that have the ability to bring customer and merchants or service provider, who are looking for interaction or transaction, close to each other in the digital environment. To achieve this, the e-marketplace need to provide a collaborative atmosphere and collaborative environment. As the opinion of Cheung and Law (2009), online purchase via e-marketplace may benefit customers in a variety of ways, including the ability to compare and offer qualitative information about various items; enhanced transaction speed; cost savings; and quick booking confirmation. In the context of the tourism's diversity, the e-marketplace is an efficiency platform for information exchange and product transactions. As Law et al. (2004) has mentioned, thanks to these advantages of e-marketplace, specifically online travel arrangements, travelers comprehensively receive information and relevant to assist their decision-making process. In addition, in this study, it is believed that the niche-market travel agencies need to take the advantage of e-marketplace in connecting and interacting with customers through the information exchange and transaction process.

2.1.3. Customer purchase intention

According to Pavlou (2003), in the context of e-commerce, the purchase intention was defined as “the customer's intent to engage in an online exchange relationship with a web retailer”. To be more specific, sharing information, sustaining relationship and conducting transaction all can be part of the online exchange relationship. Furthermore, in the B2C business context, the customer-retailer online exchange relationship involves browsing, collecting information, creating and comparing price and product's quality. As the definition of Mohd Sam and Tahir (2009), purchase intention is understood as “the probability that the customer will purchase the product”. This can be address to customer's motivation engaging them to take action and purchase the product. If the motivation of customer is robust, it is undeniable that they will be compelled to purchase the product or service. But in the contrast, if the motivation of customer is not strong enough, they are more inclined to avoid paying money for the product or service. Adding more the customer­retail exchange relationship, Kim and Hong (2010) suggested that one thing can help building and maintaining a good relationship with customer is by understanding their purchase intention. This come to conclusion that it is essential for any kind of e-commerce, or in this research specifically the e-marketplace for niche-tourism, to investigate and deeply understanding factors influencing customer purchase intention.

2.2 Previous studies

Tarigan (2018) has conducted research investigating factors impacting on millennials' purchase intention towards online travel agent in the Indonesian context. The main subject of this research focusses on Indonesia's millennials, who have financial strength and often seek for experience by traveling to destination around the world. This generation often be referred as social media user and tech savvy (Chigne, 2017) and usually considers the internet and social media as their major source of information. In this study, the researcher has listed and evaluated four main factors that have influence on millennials' purchase intention toward online travel agent, which are: ease of payment, trust, benefits of online shopping and information quality. The main finding of this research has shown that three factors including “ease of payment”, “trust” and “benefits of online shopping” have significant and positive direct impact towards millennials' purchase intention. Moreover, the factor “information quality” does not have any impact as the result of the evaluation shows that the information perceived by customer across online travel agencies is basically the same between one and another (e.g., flight tickets schedule & price, rescheduling tickets, and refunding the tickets). To reach these findings and come to conclusion, the researcher has evaluated all four factors impact on customer's purchase intention by using quantitative method through online self-administered questionnaire.

As in another research, Handayani and Arifin (2017) has investigated factors affecting purchase intention toward online travel packages available on e-marketplace website. In this study, the researcher aims to evaluate factors influencing purchasing intention of customer in the context of online transactions via tourism e-marketplace in Indonesia. This evaluation of the research helps reveal what motivates customer to purchase travel services online. The research subject is Indonesian travelers, who are members of online travel communities or forum. In this study, the researcher has demonstrated the influence of the factor “online words of mouth” (e-WOM) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB), which contains factor as “subjective norm”, “attitude” and “perceived behavioral control” on customer purchase intention towards tourism e-marketplace. The main finding of this study is that the e-WOM strongly impacts on subjective norm, attitude, perceived behavioral control, perceived relative advantage, perceived risk and destination trust. Beside this, the findings of this study have also shown that attitude can function as a moderator between consumers' perceptions and their intention to participate in a tour. To arrive at these conclusions, the researcher has collected data via survey with 441 respondents and used quantitative method.

The last example can be mentioned is the research of Lin (2010) also explore and evaluate factors influencing customer's purchasing intention for online travel product in Taiwanese context. The study aims to find out which factor have the significance impact on consumer trust and how consumer trust can be built accordingly from the Taiwanese consumer's perspective. As for the evaluation, the researcher has listed out some factors affecting purchase intention for online travel product, which are: individual characteristics, product type, reputation and trust. The main finding of this study has suggested that trust has the most significant impact on customer's purchase intention. In the context of Taiwan, the finding also shows that customers are likely to make purchase for travel product online because of influencing by side-factors such as: “reputation of travel website” and “e- WOM”. By using multi-methods enable triangulation: in-depth interview, participant observation and questionnaire survey, the researcher evaluates factors influencing Taiwanese consumer's purchase intention for online travel products emphasizing the role of trust.

The previous researches mentioned above are among typical examples of evaluating factors affecting customer's purchase intention for online traveling product. However, most of them are done in different cultures or countries, rather than focusing on Vietnamese market. To be more specific, the studies of Tarigan (2018)andHandayani and Arifin (2017) are conducted in Indonesian context, and Lin (2010)'s research is carried out in case study of Taiwanese consumer. In addition, these previous researches focus on the e-marketplace or online travel agency in mass tourism context, and none of them target to the niche tourism. Therefore, to fill the gap of previous studies, this paper will focus on e-marketplace specialized for niche-tourism in Vietnamese context.

After analyzing significant factors investigated by the mentioned previous study, the researcher decides to include “trust”, “e-WOM (online customer's reviews)”, “reputation of the e-marketplace”, “information quality”, “benefits of purchasing online”, “ease of payment” for several reasons. Firstly, due to the similarity between the main subject of this research which is customer's purchase intention for online traveling product and that of previous studies, it is reasonable to select factors that have been concluded to positively impact on the focused subject. Moreover, as for “information quality”, although the study of Tarigan (2018)has concluded that it has no effect on customer purchase intention, the researcher finds it necessary to include in this study. It can be justified by the differences between mass tourism services and the niche one. Specifically, while information perceived by customer across online travel agencies on mass tourism is basically the same between one and another (e.g., flight tickets schedule & price, rescheduling tickets, and refunding the tickets), niche tourism has its own unique product as well as the itinerary, hence, more information is needed. In addition, Lin (2010) has also found that “trust” has the most significant impact on customer's purchase intention supported with side-factors such as: “reputation” and “e-WOM. In the context of Vietnamese, niche-market travel agencies are mainly small or medium companies. As the result, customers often need more trust to purchase service products from niche-market travel agencies. This research will evaluate factor “trust” whether or not influencing Vietnamese customer's purchase intention in niche-tourism e-marketplace by investigating the impact of three side-factors “reputation of the e-marketplace”, “information quality” and “e-WOM (online customer reviews)” on customer's trust.


In the previous section of literature review, the researcher has conducted a comparison of factors influencing customer's purchase intention for online travel product. As mentioned above, after analyzing in the context of this study, factors have been included as independent variables and need to be evaluated, which are: “Trust”, “Ease of payment” and “Benefits of purchasing online”. Moreover, three side-factors “Reputation of the e­marketplace”, “Information quality” and “e-WOM (online customer reviews) have been also included to investigate their impact on customer's trust. In addition, the “customer's purchase intention” is also be mentioned as a dependent variable. This section will be the discussion for answering the research questions, and the research framework is proposed (see Figure 2).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The first hypothesis is the impact of reputation of the e-marketplace on customer's trust in niche-tourism e-marketplace. As the definition of Walczuch et al. (2001), reputation can be claimed as a vital source for trust in e-commerce. This can be understood that reputation has a high potential to increase confidence in firms selling on the Internet.

H1: Reputation of the e-marketplace significantly influences customer's trust in niche-tourism e-marketplace.

The second hypothesis is the effect of information quality to customer's trust in niche-tourism e-marketplace. Nusair and Kandampully (2008) define information quality as the quantity, accuracy, and presentation of information about products and services on a website or other digital platform. The objective of information quality is to attract potential customers by giving relevant information on the website (Mohd Sam and Tahir (2009) ).

H2: Information quality significantly influences customer's trust in niche-tourism e-marketplace.

The third hypothesis is the impact of online customer review (e-WOM) on customer's trust in niche-tourism e-marketplace. Electronic words of mouth (e-WOM) has been defined by Litvin et al. (2008) as “all informal communications directed at consumers through internet-based technology related to the usage or characteristics of particular goods and services, or their sellers”. They include critical or positive remarks posted by customers regarding services in online marketplaces. Customer-generated information is useful for purchasing decision-making since it offers indirect consumer experience. The e-WOM may include other aspects and categories but in this study, the research framework will only focus to evaluate online customer reviews.

H3: E-WOM (online customer reviews) significantly influences customer's trust in niche-tourism e-marketplace.

The fourth hypothesis is the effect of trust to customer's purchase intention in niche­tourism e-marketplace. As the opinion of Schurr and Ozanne (1985), trust has always been a key factorin shaping customer behavior. To put it another way, the impact of trust on consumer online transaction activities is critical in forecasting e-commerce adoption ( Warkentin et al. (2002). Jarvenpaa et al. (1999) has also mentioned that consumers are hesitant to do online transactions due to a lack of trust.

H4: Trust significantly influences customer's purchase intention in niche-tourism e-marketplace

The fifth hypothesis is the impact of online purchasing benefit on customer's purchase intention in niche-tourism e-marketplace. The benefit of purchasing online in customer's thought is gaining something from online shopping. As opinion of Bigné et al. (2010), the advantages of online purchasing are regarded as one of the motivators that drive people to purchase airline tickets online.

H5: Benefit of purchasing online significantly influences customer's purchase intention in niche-tourism e-marketplace.

The last hypothesis is the effect of payment's ease to customer's purchase intention in niche-tourism e-marketplace. Online payment nowadays has been seen as a “more time and cost efficient, convenient, and flexible for both customers and businesses” in the study ofGanesh et al. (2010). Defined as a payment made through web browser or platform by using online payment gate, it is believed that customers shop online for the reason of concerning about efficiency or time-saving ( Ganesh et al. (2010).

H6: Ease of payment significantly influences customer's purchase intention in niche-tourism e-marketplace.


4.1. Study method

As this study requires the evaluation of factors influencing customer's purchase intention toward an online travel platform, a quantitative method is applied and survey questionnaires as an instrument.

4.2. Sample and data collection

4.2.1. Data collection Data collection technique

-The primary data:

Using quantitative method: Make questionnaire and collect survey answers from at least 100 participants to evaluate factors influencing customer's purchase intention in niche-tourism e-marketplace. The main participants of this research are Vietnamese Millennials with the age of 25 to 40 who have financial strength. To be more specific, the research participants include people annually travel, who have purchase service products from an online travel agency (eg., Traveloka, Agoda) or booking package tour from big travel enterprise (eg. Vietravel, Saigontourist, Hanoitourist, etc,). One thing to differentiate this research's participants is their interest in exotic package tours in Vietnam such as ecotourism, trekking, tribal experiences, heritage tourism, eg,. This research uses a survey through online self-administered questionnaire via Google Form. As the researcher needs to collect a large number of quantitative data, the survey questionnaire is spread in the Vietnamese travel community on Facebook, as well as using “” online tools.

-The secondary data:

The secondary data is gathered mainly from textbooks, previous researches, academic or science papers, journals and articles. Some information is also gathered from the internet and google scholar. For receiving suitable and reliable secondary data, the researcher finds related data in terms of “niche tourism”, “online travel”, “e-marketplace”, “online travel purchase intention”, “customer's purchase intention”


Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten


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Italienische Wörter und Wendungen in Théophile Gautiers Werk "Jettatura"
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Phantastische Erzählungen in Frankreich
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Italienische, Wörter, Wendungen, Théophile, Gautiers, Werk, Jettatura, Phantastische, Erzählungen, Frankreich
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Sarah Breitkopf (Autor:in), 2005, Italienische Wörter und Wendungen in Théophile Gautiers Werk "Jettatura" , München, GRIN Verlag,


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