Teachers' Perception and Practice of Using Literary Texts to teach Reading Skills


Term Paper, 2022

30 Pages, Grade: 12


Excerpt

Outline

Abstract

1. Introduction
1.1 General Objectives
1.2 Research Questions
1.3 The Scope of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study

2. Research Methodology
2.1. Research Design
2.2. Population of the study
2.2.1. Sample and Sampling Technique
2.3. Data Collection Instruments
2.3.1. Questionnaire
2.3.2. Classroom Observation
2.3.3. Focus Group discussion
2.4. Validity and Reliability of the Instruments
2.4.1 Validity of the Instruments
2.4.2. Reliability of the Instruments
2.5 Data Collection Procedures
2.6 Data Analysis Technique

3. Discussion of Results
3.1 Quantitative Data Analysis
3.1.1 Teachers’ Questionnaire
3.1.2 Analysis of Classroom Observation
3.2 Qualitative Data Analysis
3.2.1 Open-ended Questionnaires Data Analysis
3.2.2 Focus Group Discussion Results
3.3 Discussions of Results
3.3.1 EFL Teachers’ Perceptions about using literary text in teaching reading
3. Conclusions

4. Recommendations

References

Abstract

­This study aimed to assess the correlation between teachers’ perception and practice in using literary texts to teach reading skills in case of Ethio-national school, School of Indiana and Seattle academy in Addis Ababa. For this study, correlation design and both quantitative and qualitative data analyses approaches were employed. The samples were 43 teachers selected using comprehensive sampling. Questionnaire, classroom observation and focus group discussion were data collection tools. Both descriptive (frequency and percentage) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation) were used to analyze the quantitative data and thematic narration for qualitative. The findings of the study revealed that most of the respondents perceived using literary texts in teaching reading positively. In spite of their good perceptions, their practices of using literary texts in teaching reading were infrequent. The relationship between teachers’ perception and their actual practices were positively correlated but the degree of their correlation was weak. Thus, it is possible to recommend that teachers should use all literary materials included in the text to teach reading skill.

Key Words: perception, practice, reading skills and teaching.

1.Introduction

English is a very useful language for learning and developing the overall communication ability of students. In language education, works of literature that bring delight to readers of a language should also be naturally suitable material in the teaching of the language itself.

Literary texts were initially the main source of input for teaching in language classes in the era of Grammar Translation Method but since then it has been dropped down the pedestal. In fact with the advent of structuralism and audio-lingual method, literature was downplayed and era ago discarded to the periphery (Collie & Slater, 1987, p.2). Also in the era of CLT, literature was neglected and more attention was given to dialogues and conversations which were more practical and visible in the real world situation.

Employing literary texts in language classroom has many advantageous. Scholars such as Lazar (1993, p, 15) strongly agree on the use of literature to teach language. Hence, there were scholars who believed that literature can be a valuable asset in language class). She stressed that literature motivates students, encourage them to learn the language, express their feelings, help them to develop their language comprehension, help them to relax etc.

Reading is one of the effective means of extending the command of language. It has a considerable place in language learning programs. It determines learners’ success in academic studies and personal development. It also enhances learners’ language proficiency. Nuttall (1996) states that, reading if implemented effectively, can lend itself to the development of other language skills. Most importantly, in educational setting where a foreign language serves as a medium of instruction at the high school level, as in the case of Ethiopia, the role of reading skill is significant in the students’ academic career. Furthermore, Nuttal (1982) and Wallace (1992) argue that reading can mean the ability to understand or interpret a text.

Through reading, the learners are exposed to rich new vocabulary, new sentence structures and it also acquaints the learner with good models of language use. Learners’ reading ability depends on language teachers reading instruction practices in the classroom. Currently there is scarcity of research investigating in Ethiopia focus on EFL teachers’ perception of reading instruction and how these perceptions are reflected in their classroom. Due to this lack of empirical data, teachers’ perceptions, the extent to which a teacher is able to demonstrate how learners develop, learn and think about the content of a reading selection or even the level of competence to which the teacher demonstrates his/her responsibility that reflect high expectations for students’ achievement of reading proficiency is unknown.

With strengthened reading skills, students will make greater progress in language and attain high development in all academic areas. Teachers’ perceptions regarding reading instruction are one factor in what is done in classrooms and ultimately on students’ learning. Hall, (2005) points out that what teachers do in the classroom is governed by what they perceive to work best and these perceptions often serve to act as filters through which instructional judgments and decisions are made. Borg (2003), Grabe(2004) states that there is a need to understand, and account for the underlying belief of language teachers and the impact these have on their classroom practices. Teachers’ perceptions about instruction of reading comprehension strategies influence their classroom actions.

When learners are learning reading strategies, they are equipped with the tactics to reflect, analyses, clarify the meaning of what they read and determine what is relevant to the assignment from what is irrelevant. Further, they are able to critically evaluate, compare and contrast new learning with old knowledge and appropriately apply the lessons learnt. The ability to do all this increases their motivation to read and the role of the teacher remains that of a facilitator and guide, (Macaro, 2001). Thus, teachers’ classroom practices have a significant impact on student outcomes. This is a cause for concern as teachers play an important role as mediators, facilitators and monitors of the reading process (Rido, Ibrahim &Nambiar 2014).

Different local studies have been conducted related to these areas for example; Yitagesu (2017) conducted on investigating the role of literary texts in developing students’ reading comprehension with specific reference to grade nine students. His finding indicates that the literary texts enhanced the students’ reading comprehension. Alene (2012) investigated EFL teachers’ and students’ views towards using literary texts in EFL classrooms and his findings revealed that it was difficult to generalize the teachers and the students’ views towards literary texts is good and their uses in English language classrooms. In principle, most teachers and students perceive literary texts as useful in terms of language development. Moreover, he confirmed that they lacked the knowledge to integrate the literary texts with the teaching of language skills effectively. Furthermore, Kefyalew et.al. (2013) did a study on literary materials in teaching reading skills. And their findings using literary texts in teaching reading skill provides opportunities for them to develop literal understanding, and promote problem-solving ability. For this reason, Ministry of Education in Ethiopia launched to incorporate literary texts in EFL students’ textbook. However, it was not yet implemented effectively and teachers’ perception is unknown.

But the difference and the gap that is needed to fill by the current research is how did the teachers perceive using literary text in teaching reading skills and how their perception towards literary text influence or correlate the practice of teachers in teaching reading skills. Another gap was as far as the research reading concerned there was no any local study conducted in this selected issue and the area of the current study conducted in Ethio-national school, Seattle academy and school of Indiana. So, the problem and the population were considered as one gap to do this research. The researcher himself had worked in these schools as full timer and part timer so, his experiences helped that the teachers may or may not use literary text in teaching English language as well as reading skills as per the text book includes different literary text in it. So, these things motivated the researcher to conduct a study on the relationship between teachers’ perception and practice of using literary texts to teach reading skills. To clearly state, the researcher had a confusion to teach reading through literary texts in his career. To this end, this study examined the relationship between teachers’ perceptions and practice of using literary texts to teach reading skills.

1.1 General Objectives

The general objective of this research was to examine the teachers’ perception and practice in using literary texts to teach reading.

1.2 Research Questions

To achieve the objectives this research was raised the following research question:

1. What are the perceptions of teachers in using literary texts for reading lesson?
2. How do teachers practice using literary texts to teach reading?
3. What is the relationship between teachers’ perception of using literary texts and their actual practice?

1.3 The Scope of the Study

This research was delimited methodologically, conceptually, and geographically. Thus, the basic research design employed in this study would descriptive survey and mixed approach of data analysis based on the nature of the study the data type collected. Conceptually, it was delimited to the correlation between teachers’ perceptions and practice of using literary texts to teaching reading lessons. Methodologically, it was employed descriptive design and mixed method research. Geographically, Ethio-national school, School of Indiana and Seattle academy grade 11 English language teachers would be the focus of this study.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This research might have the following importance: First, the study might help school teachers, particularly English Language Teachers to aware of the existing situation and, make their efforts to improve students’ reading comprehension skills by implementing appropriate literary text, Second, it might help language teachers to reconsider the function of using literary text in teaching reading in EFL/ESL classes and promote students' reading ability by using literary texts in general. Thirdly, it might help English language curriculum designers provide more effective curriculum for eleventh graders equipped with current trends of teaching and learning reading comprehension. Fourth, it might benefit for supervisors and other responsible bodies to conduct training courses for English teachers to raise their awareness of the importance of using literary text in teaching reading.

Fifth, it might contribute to improve the process of teaching English in general and the reading comprehension in particular, and finally, researchers who are interested in this area might use the findings as a base for further investigation.

2. Research Methodology

This section deals with research design, population, sample, and sampling techniques, data collection instruments, reliability and validity of the instruments, procedures of data collection and methods of data analysis.

2.1. Research Design

Descriptive design and mixed data analysis approaches were employed in this study on qualitative and quantitative. As Creswell (2014) explained survey design provides a quantitative or numeric description of trends, attitudes, or opinions of a population by studying a sample of that population. As the nature of the study was describing teachers’ perception and practices in teaching reading and to explore the correlation between teachers’ perception and practices descriptive survey design is felt to be appropriate.

2.2. Population of the study

The target population consisted of the teachers of English in Ethio-National school, Seattle Academy and School of Indiana. The study was conducted by taking three of these schools who were grade 11thEnglish language teachers into consideration.

2.2.1. Sample and Sampling Technique

Regarding the research, the schools were selected purposively since these three schools were proximity to the researcher and he has worked in these schools as full time and part timer. So, it would help the researcher to get pertinent data. The samples were taken from each of the schools by using comprehensive sampling. After comprehensive sampling was made all 43 (100 %) teachers were selected out of 43 English teachers.

2.3. Data Collection Instruments

To collect data from the samples of the target population, the researcher started since January 18 to March 03/2012 E.C. classroom observation, questionnaire, and focus group discussion. All instruments of data collection were designed in a way to measure teachers teaching practice and perception based on selected criteria. All the items were made based on literature and theoretical assumptions.

2.3.1. Questionnaire

A questionnaire was prepared for teachers which contain relevant points to the study. Different items were developed by the researcher based on theoretical bases of teaching reading by using literary texts and adapted some items from other researchers. In this study it was aimed to measure the perceptions of teachers and equally their practice of teaching reading through literary texts. So, a questionnaire which consists of closed item was designed for the sample teachers in this research.

2.3.2. Classroom Observation

Observation was conducted by preparing observation checklist guide for the purpose of looking the actual class room practice of teachers’ practice in using literary texts to teach reading. And it aimed at getting more useful information on how effectively the sample teachers teach reading by using literary text in the actual classroom, in addition to the questionnaire. Thus, check list guided observation was conducted by the researcher himself with one co-observer in different classroom teaching classes from each of the schools particularly on reading classes.

2.3.3. Focus Group discussion

Focus group discussion is one of the instruments for this study. It was conducted with selected teachers who were included in the questionnaire parts. For this semi-structured questions were prepared basically focusing on teachers’ perception and practice in using literary texts to teach reading. Focus group discussion is particularly useful for getting the story behind participant’s experience. It is believed that, better evidence could be obtained when teachers’ are invited for face to face discussion about what they do in when they are teaching reading skills regarding the use of literary texts. Moreover, this helps to triangulate the data collected from questionnaire and observation.

2.4. Validity and Reliability of the Instruments

The reliability and validity for the instruments was checked before the instrument distributed and hold on to the respondents

2.4.1 Validity of the Instruments

Before the actual data collection process was made validity was checked (face, content and construct validity) by consulting English language teachers in Debre Markos university (their specialization is TEFL) and tools were revised accordingly (from student questionnaire English version) 6 items were revised for teachers questionnaires 3 instructions and 7 items were made some modification based on the comments), and 3 items related to strategies were deleted.

2.4.2. Reliability of the Instruments

After all the instruments was made ready, their reliabilities were checked by using pilot test in Keftegna Haya Sost secondary and preparatory schools in Addis Ababa and calculating the reliability coefficients using Crombach alpha for perception, practices separately and found that 0.84, and 0.78 respectively which was acceptable Regarding this, Crombach (1951) forwarded that commonly accepted rule for describing internal consistency using Cranach’s alpha is 0.90≤ α is excellent, 0.80 ≤ α < 0.90 is good , 0.70 ≤ α is acceptable< 0.80, 0.60 ≤ α < 0.70 is questionable , 0.50 ≤ α < 0.60 is poor , and α < 0.5 is unacceptable . So, in regarding to the reading phase the items have good, reading strategies and factors were also acceptable.

2.5 Data Collection Procedures

Primarily, to get authentic data, respondents were volunteer, willing and positive. For this cooperation letter could be written from the college, and the researcher needed to admit the purpose of the study through communication with school directors and teachers. After this step, all the instruments were made ready, their reliability (using pilot test in one of secondary schools in Addis Ababa and calculating the reliability coefficient using Crombach Alpha) and validity (face, content and construct validity by consulting English language teachers in Debre Markos university) was checked and revised, proper time for data collection was arranged, problems were handled accordingly. The researcher gave orientation for teachers before they had taken and responded for the questions. Questionnaire was conducted first, to know their perception and practice. So, focus group discussion comes second, and then classroom observation was conducted finally to triangulate the data.

2.6 Data Analysis Technique

Both qualitative and quantitative techniques were employed to analyze the data collected. The quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency count, and percentage) and Pearson correlation was employed. Due to this, to analyze the perception and practice of teachers’ separately, frequency, count and percentage were used. To see the relationship between teachers’ perception and practice in using literary texts to teach reading class, Pearson correlation was employed. The qualitative data was analyzed using narration.

3.Discussion of Results

This section is all about the data collected results and discussion made based on the obtained results. It is organized starting from the demographic data of respondents and continues to the main data analysis collected through questionnaires, focus group discussion, and observation. For the analysis of the questionnaires 43 teachers were included. In addition, focus group discussion was conducted on 6 teachers taken from those of the respondents for the questionnaires, and 12 classroom observations on selected reading lesson topics were conducted of teaching reading by using literary texts, are included in this part. So, in this section first the quantitative data which are collected from questionnaire were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics and then data collected from observation was analyzed by frequency, count and percentage. Then lastly focus group discussion was analyzed through narration. Finally, the findings taken from the data were discussed by supporting different empirical and theoretical evidences.

3.1 Quantitative Data Analysis

The quantitative data included teachers’ questionnaires that aimed to indicate teachers’ perceptions and their actual practices of using literary text in teaching reading. In addition, it determined the relationship between teachers’ perceptions and their practices of using literary text in teaching reading. The quantitative data was presented with tables that contained the items, frequencies and percent’s of responses, numbers of respondents so as to attempt the analysis clearly.

3.1.1 Teachers’ Questionnaire

The questionnaire which was administered to teachers and it aimed to answer the perceptions of teachers about the needs of using literary texts in reading class, teachers’ practices of using literary texts in teaching reading skills and challenges that defect teachers from textbook adaptation.

For the aforementioned purposes, a total of 43 teachers participated from those three secondary and preparatory schools of Addis Ababa. To this effect, for EFL teachers 43 copies of questionnaire were distributed among these (100%) of the questionnaire were filled and collected. After the data was obtained from questionnaires of all teachers, the data were analyzed as follows.

3.1.1.1 Teachers’ view about using literary text in teaching reading skills

This sub- section of the questionnaire consists of a Likert type Scale which respondents indicated their level of agreement about the needs of using literary text in teaching reading skills. By using the questionnaire administered to preparatory teachers, responses about their perceptions of using literary texts in teaching reading skills were calculated and presented so as to identify teachers’ perception about the needs of literary text in teaching reading skills.

Table 3. Teachers’ view about using literary text in teaching reading skills.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Kay: 1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Undecided 4. Agree 5. Strongly agree

In Table 3, the items related to teachers’ opinion about the needs of using literary texts in teaching reading skills are presented to find out their perceptions. That is why; its main purpose is to assess teachers’ opinion toward using literary text in reading class so as to determine their perception about the needs of using literary text in teaching reading. As it can be seen in Table 2, 23(46.52%) of the teacher agreed that here are different factors that discourage them to use literary texts to teach reading. They believed that they teach all literary text in the text book 23(53.5%). Even though they like to read literary text in English, they have a gap to read different literary text written in English 16 (37.1%). And they didn’t not give a chance for the students to bring any type of literary text to read in their reading lesson 20 (46.51%). Moreover, the teacher believed that teaching reading through literary text makes the teaching learning process hot since 20 (46.51 %) strongly agreed and reading literary texts bring positive influence while they were teaching reading skills 20(46.51 %) agreed on this issue. Thus teachers showed their agreement on the items. This means teachers have good opinion about the needs of using literary texts in teaching reading skills to develop students’ reading skills and language ability in general.

Therefore, it can be easily concluded that English language teachers have positive perception on the uses of literary text in reading class so as to improve the quality of teaching reading skills.

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Details

Title
Teachers' Perception and Practice of Using Literary Texts to teach Reading Skills
College
Bahir Dar University
Grade
12
Authors
Year
2022
Pages
30
Catalog Number
V1243184
ISBN (Book)
9783346685179
Language
English
Keywords
teachers, perception, practice, using, literary, texts, reading, skills
Quote paper
Dawit Dibekulu (Author)Ayele Tsehayneh (Author), 2022, Teachers' Perception and Practice of Using Literary Texts to teach Reading Skills, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1243184

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