Mobile Usage Behavior of Indian Youth

Research Paper (postgraduate), 2016

63 Pages, Grade: A


Executive Summary
India is currently the world's second-largest telecommunications market and has registered
strong growth in the past decade and half. The Indian mobile economy is growing rapidly and
will contribute substantially to India's gross domestic product (GDP), according to report
prepared by GSM Association (GSMA) in collaboration with the Boston Consulting Group
(BCG). The cell phone industry is in the Mature Life Cycle Stage, where nearly all-potential
customers are already users of the industry's product. In today's life mobile phone usage has
become an important necessity of our life and it is an inevitable truth that the mobile industry
is taking every one by the storm. The cell phone industry is one of the fastest growths besides
the Internet. Cell phones have gone through a huge change and its market has expanded glo-
bally. The cell phone market is increasing very fast with today's ever-emerging technology
and innovation in improving cell phones. Today, society is living with advance technology
and everyone wants to keep pace with the new technologies. Cell phone users use cell phones
for more than just talking; the mobile services consumer wireless usage study found that 56
percent of customers used their cell phones as cameras, clocks, calendars, music players, and
other non-talk functions. The purpose of this study is to understand the Mobile usage behavi-
or by young customers in India. A quantitative research design which is descriptive and ex-
ploratory in nature was selected to gain insights about the mobile usage behavior by young
customers in India. The sampling unit for the study are mobile users of Hyderabad, who are
in the age group of 14- 40 years. Convenience sampling method is adopted. Questionnaire
aims at understanding `what' and `why' of mobile phone usage and it consists of three sec-
tions: Demographic details, Statements of reasons people give for using mobile phone and
purpose of using mobile phone. These statements are prepared by using Likert's five-point
scale ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree). The collected data is analy-
zed in statistical method of factor analysis in the IBM SPSS 20.0 software. The data collected
on 30 variables was deducted into six factors in the software and analyzed accordingly. The
technique of Varimax rotation was used to maximize the sum of the variances of the squared
Those six factors are Career Orientation, Technological Advancement, Future outlook, Self
Development, Relaxation, Wide Exposure.

1.1 Overview ... 6
1.2 Objectives of the Study ... 7
1.3 Scope of the Study ... 8
Review of Literature ... 8
Research Methodology ... 17
3.1 Type of research ... 17
3.2 Sampling Unit ... 17
3.3 Sampling Technique ... 18
3.4 Questionnaire Design ... 18
3.5 Data Collection Sources ... 18
3.6 Plan for Data analysis ... 18
4.1 Factor Analysis ... 19
4.2 Frequency Analysis ... 30
Limitations and Future Directions ... 57
6.1 Limitations ... 57
6.2 Future Directions ... 57
Appendices ... 60

List of Figures
Figure No
Title of the Figure
Represents Scree Plot
Represents Mobile Brand Used
Represents Mobile Service Provider
Represents Internet Service Provider
Represents Mobile Usage Period
Represents Mobile Phone Usage
Represents Age
Represents Gender
Represents Education
Represents Household Income
Represents Customers Categorized on Playing Games
Represents Customers Categorized on Chat
Represents Customers Categorized on E-mail
Represents Customers Categorized on Obtaining Business
Represents Customers Categorized on News
Represents Customers Categorized on SMS/MMS
Represents Customers Categorized on Sharing Videos
Represents Customers Categorized on Information
Related to Further Education
Represents Customers Categorized on Mobile Banking
Represents Customers Categorized on Job Search
Represents Customers Categorized on Shopping
Represents Customers Categorized on Buying Tickets
Represents Customers Categorized on Bill Payment
Represents Customers Categorized on Downloads
Represents Customers Categorized on Social Media Inter-

List of Tables
Table No
Title of the Table
KMO and Bartlett's Test
Total Variance Explained
Rotated Component Matrix
Reliability Statistics for Career Orientation
Reliability Statistics for Technological Advancement
Reliability Statistics for Future outlook
Reliability Statistics for Self Development
Reliability Statistics for Relaxation
Reliability Statistics for Wide Exposure

1.1 Overview
In 1973, John F. Mitchell and Martin cooper bought first handheld device into the world. The
first mobile phones, referred to as First Generation or 1G, where introduced to the public
market in 1983 by the Motorola company. A mobile phone is an electronic device which is
used to make and receive calls over a radio frequency carrier while the user is moving within
a telephone service area. Most modern mobile telephone services use cellular net-
work architecture, so they are also called as cellular telephones or cell phones. Mobile phones
support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access,
short-range wireless communications (Bluetooth etc), business applications, gaming,
and digital photography. Mobile phones which provide all these services are known
as smartphones (Wikipedia). Smartphone is a mobile phone which works on a mobile opera-
ting system (Android, IOS, Windows) having advanced computer capability and connectivity
than a feature phone. They made a major change in today's world and we, human beings are
also becoming dependent on them. They can also handle our day to day tasks which include
remembering important dates, tasks, schedules and much more. Smartphones have made our
lives simpler, better and we stay connected to our loved ones at almost no cost. They have
become universal among the general public when Apple launched the first smartphone in
June 2007. These smartphones offered various functions such as internet browsing, e-mailing,
voice, text and video communication, as well as the use of downloadable applications to be
integrated into one device. Subsequently, smartphones powered by the Android operating
system were introduced in October 2008, followed by the introduction of downloadable ap-
plications (apps) on these devices (Hadjipanayis et al., 2016).
Mobile phone is considered to be one of the most rapidly growing new technologies in the
world. In 2001, mobile phone subscriptions were less than a billion worldwide with the majo-
rity of the subscriptions from the developed countries. At the end of 2010, however, mobile
phone subscriptions had reached five billion worldwide, where in, subscriptions from develo-
ping countries are more than that of the developed countries (Kelly, 2009; Rebello 2010).

In today's life mobile phone usage has become an important necessity of our life and it has
also created employment opportunities in various countries, which also accelerated economic
growth. Mobile phone usage has become a source of communication among the people of
different countries. It can be said that it is one of the most important creations of mankind
that brought the world together. Mobile phone has become an indispensable tool for one and
all, right from a school going child, a house wife to a servant, the mobile phone has its major
impact on their lives. People are not only fulfilling their social needs with mobile phones but
also using mobile technology as a way that has brought a positive change at both environ-
mental and social level (Yihong, 2010). As mobiles are smaller in size, they can be with their
owners at all times and used all the time. That constant presence and availability affect and
shape the habits of daily life for the user.
Now- a- days, owning a mobile phone is a sort of necessity and it is an inevitable truth that
the mobile industry is taking every one by the storm. As coin has two sides on it, similarly, a
mobile has its own advantages and disadvantages. So it all depends on the user how he/she
makes use of it for their better living. Different people use it differently. There are people
who use it just for the purpose of taking calls. There are also people who use it as ipod and a
mobile phone, they just want to listen to music and take calls. There are also some people, for
whom the mobile is a status symbol and their world resides in their mobile. They would ma-
nage to do even tasks like, paying utility bills etc.
In the literature review of this report, the research designs of several mobile studies are re-
ported, emphasizing the methods that were adapted especially for mobile phones and the pur-
pose of this study is to understand the mobile usage behavior of young customers in India and
to identify the association of young Indian customers with their mobile phones.
1.2 Objectives of the Study
To understand the mobile usage behavior of young customers in India.
To identify the factors influencing the Mobile usage behavior.
To understand the association of young Indian customers with their mobile phones.

1.3 Scope of the Study
The study enables to have a definite insight on understanding the mobile usage behavior of
young customers in India. This study also measures the association of young Indian custo-
mers with their mobile phones. The various parameters of the survey covers all activities per-
formed by the mobile phone.
Review of Literature
Wei and Kolko (2005) had written a paper which presents a case study of mobile phone use
in Uzbekistan, a former Soviet republic in Central Asia. Paper discussed the need for stu-
dying mobile phone use in the whole context of a society, with consideration of the cultural,
political, and economic factors that influence phone use. In order to explore the cultural issu-
es of mobile phone use, a two-week study was conducted in March 2004 in Tashkent, the
capital of Uzbekistan. There were three primary research activities: observations in public
areas, interviews of mobile service providers, and interviews of mobile phone users and non-
users. Results found that unique patterns of mobile phone use existed in Uzbekistan and users
are adopting mobile phone in culturally meaningful way. People use their mobile phones very
carefully especially in public areas, however the cost of the phone itself may cause some ow-
ners to treat the phone with care because economics of mobile phones also affect use. Author
suggested that, to more effectively understand the role of mobile phones in a society it is ne-
cessary to study them in the entire cultural context.
Mobile phones are a unique technology that has become seamlessly stitched into users' lives.
In the paper Wei (2006) presents innovative methodologies for mobile phone studies. Some
of these methods include cameras and other recording devices, diary studies, and controlled
experiments. In general, mobile phone studies may use classic research methods such as in-
terviews or surveys or controlled experiments that are suitable for a variety of situations, stu-
dy can also rely on participant diaries of their mobile phone behavior in an attempt to appro-
ximate real-time data, study can also capture the data about real-time or actual phone use
through automated means. Such methods may include referring to monthly bill statements or
filming mobile screens and key presses. Wei mainly focused on mobile phone users of Ban-

galore. The study examined how mobiles are used as part of a broader "communications re-
pertoire" for supporting the various stages of a romantic relationship such as finding a part-
ner, courtship, engagement, and marriage.
The study was conducted in summer 2006 with a multimethod qualitative approach of questi-
onnaire, interview, participant observation, and mobile diary methods and focused on young,
urban, middle-class people who are influenced by global media, have jobs with international
companies, and have studied overseas (Wei, 2006).
Now-a-days internet has become integral part of our lives and is next to impossible to ignore.
The major strength of internet is "interactivity". In general, media users are goal oriented,
active and they know their needs to choose media accordingly. Uses & Gratifications theory
is often considered to be the most effective theoretical basis for studying the medium. Roy
(2008) used "Uses and Gratifications" theory to understand the gratifications structure of In-
ternet users in the Indian context. For this research, the data was collected through adminis-
tering structured questionnaire. 26 items used in the questionnaire were intended to capture
the customers' internet using patterns. Principal component analysis with Varimax rotation
was used to identify the underlying gratifications. The gratifications for Internet use as obtai-
ned from the study are self development, wide exposure, relaxation, user friendly, career op-
portunities and global exposure. One factor that has been dominant throughout the Internet
uses and gratifications theory and also in this study was the factor "relaxation". At the same
time, it has been shown that the Internet usage of males and females differ based on the gra-
tification factors "self development", "user friendliness", "wide exposure" and "relaxation"
(Roy, 2008).
Cell phone has become an indispensable tool which has changed the lifestyle of people and
business persons in particular. Cell phone has its own advantages and disadvantages, so it
depends on the user how he/she makes use of it for better living. Murthy and Rama Krishna
(2011) did an descriptive study on cell phone usage. The main objective of this study is to
find correlation between different parameters such as Correlation between the male and fema-
le using mobile phones, Correlation between the age groups of various people using the mo-
bile phone, Correlation between the utilization of mobile phone with regard to the occupation
of all sectors of people etc. To satisfy these objectives, qualitative methodologies along with
quantitative techniques are employed. A total of 2131 people were made to participate in this
survey. Only 1804 of these people are using mobile phones and the remaining 327 are non-
users of cell phones because of their own reasons. The survey is made in eight different loca-

lities of Bhimavaram to meet the overall objectives. Primary data was collected through ques-
tionnaire by the MBA students of 2009-11 Batch of Shri Vishnu Engineering College for
Women, Bhimavaram and secondary Data is collected from various magazines, news papers
and internet websites on different aspects of mobile phone utilization. After collecting the
data from various sources, the data is subjected to verification, quantification and coding with
referred coding keys. Then, the coded data is keyed into computer for data processing and
analysis. The Statistical packages R, SPSS, Microsoft-Excel are used for calculation, percen-
tage, frequency, distribution. Investigation has proved that majority of users are men. Busi-
ness persons and employees are using the cell phones more than the others. The people who
are buying cell phones are very intelligent and taking their own decisions. The other factors
like friends, neighbors, cell cost and advertisements are less influencing. People are also sel-
ecting network connections with different options in mind among which prepaid connection
has influenced the most mobile users (Murthy and Krishna, 2011).
Internet is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic,
business, and government networks. Aqil and Ahmad (2011) did a research on use of internet
by research scholars and PG students of the science faculty of Aligarh Muslim University.
The data is collected in the form of questionnaire and 100 questionnaires were distributed
among the research scholars and PG students. The collected data was analyzed, classified and
tabulated. Results found that most research scholars and PG students have internet access in
their department and users from science faculty access internet from university central library
and university computer center. Most respondents use the internet for research, communicati-
on and career development information. Finally, the paper concluded saying that internet is a
good source of information and a good channel for accessing online information sources to
research scholars and PG students of the science faculty in Aligarh Muslim University (Aqil
and Ahmad 2011).
Now-a-days cell phone is one of the most rapidly growing new technologies in the world. It
has changed the lives of many people, especially young. Hakoama and Hakoyama (2011) did
a research on cell phone usage. Gender differences and financial responsibility were also
examined. Data is collected in the form of questionnaire which consisted 44 questions that
dealt with cell phone ownership, time spent on cell phone calls, monthly cell phone bills, text
messaging etc. Participants were recruited from students enrolled in courses in Human Deve-
lopment in a mid-sized, Midwestern university during 2009-2010. The collected data was

analyzed using SPSS. The study revealed that the cell phone is not only a must-have tool for
college students but also for high school students. Gender differences were also revealed in
multiple aspects of cell phone use. Females, especially White females, were more likely to
depend heavily on the cell phone for maintaining their social relationships. The cell phone
has also contributed to younger people becoming more financially dependent on their parents.
Author concluded the paper saying that future research that focuses on the impact of the cell
phone in relation to behavioral, social and personality development among younger generati-
ons are strongly needed (Hakoama and Hakoyama, 2011).
Quarshie and Narh (2012) did a research on internet usage by various working folks in Gha-
na. The use of internet has shown a rapid growth during 2012 in almost every country in the
world. A paper based survey is conducted to collect the data where in the respondents were
asked to indicate the purpose of their use of the internet under classifications such as enter-
tainment, education, work-related research, personal finance, events, travel, product informa-
tion gathering, online purchases and communication. The collected data is analyzed using
SPSS. The study shows that 45.6% use internet frequently for educational purpose, 33.75%
frequently use it for news; and only 6.35% frequently use the internet for commerce. Finally,
authors suggested that a government intervention to reduce the cost in internet access and
provision higher speed broadband infrastructure is essential to transforming Ghana into in-
formation-rich, knowledge-based economy and society.
Ubale (2013) has explained that initially, telephone was invented for business usage but now-
a-days youth are using it for a status symbol. Gesser (2004) has told that mobile phones if
used in schools may undermine the authority and weaken the control over student. A statisti-
cal study of the cell phone use pattern says that most of the people using cell phones are tee-
nagers i.e. in the age group 13-17, but author says that it is dangerous to use cell phones es-
pecially by teenagers. A person who is text messaging, carrying his/her mobile in purses or
briefcases will be effected less when compared to person holding the cell phone directly in
contact with head or carrying it in the pocket. Author says that strict rules must be implemen-
ted by the school authorities regarding the cell phone usage in the schools. Too much use of
cell phone increase health risk and cause many diseases which are very dangerous. Hence it is
very much important to use mobile phone within a framework of time. Many studies have
shown talking continuously on cell phone can lead to diseases like cancer, glioma and impo-

tency etc. So, cell phone is also like a coin, if properly used it is boon otherwise it is curse for
the society.
Now-a-days Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is becoming increasingly
widespread, influencing many aspects of our social and work lives, as well as many of our
leisure activities. Abedalaziz, Jamaluddin and Leng (2013) did a study with the aim of inves-
tigating and measuring postgraduate students' attitudes toward the Internet and computer use.
Data was collected from 289 postgraduate students enrolled in four educational Master
Degree Programs at University of Malaya, on a voluntary basis during the first semester of
the 2011 academic year. After a brief introduction to the research, the survey questionnaires
were distributed to students. Therefore, this study is considered as a quantitative study with
multivariate design. All analyses were conducted using SPSS 20.0 and AMOS 20.0. Results
found that the overall profile of the participants' attitudes toward computer usage was mea-
sured in terms of the Affective, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Control, and Behavioral In-
tention and Internet was measured in terms of the perceived usefulness, emotional response
and perceived control. The advantage of this study is that it allows for establishment of com-
parability with many studies in different cultures and languages. In addition, this study re-
presents a replication of two attitude scales in a culturally different environment, which may
be of particular benefit in cross-cultural studies. Variables including gender, field of study,
age, and ethnicity were analyzed in this study (Abedalaziz, Jamaluddin and Leng, 2013).
Now-a-days internet has become an important part in everyone's life, which is used for diffe-
rent purposes like sending mails, chatting, studying online, shopping etc. Ali (2013) did an
exploratory and descriptive research on the use of internet services by students and teachers
of Jazan Community College which examined whether there are any differences in the inter-
net usage between students and teachers, between male and female students and male and
female teachers of different age groups.350 questionnaires were administered among students
and 70 questionnaires were administered among teacher .A pilot study was conducted to
identify any problems of statements in a questionnaire before administering among respon-
dents. These questionnaires include six sections: usage of internet facilities, search engines,
social networking, statements of advantages, and statements of disadvantages and demogra-
phic details of respondents. Simple and cross tabulations are prepared to analyze the data.
Mean and standard deviations were calculated for advantages and disadvantages of internet
services. In addition, Chi-square test was applied at 5 per cent levels of significance. The fin-

dings of this paper revealed that few students do not use internet services. Both teachers and
students use internet daily at home followed by college and internet café. In addition, majori-
ty of teachers spend time between 2 to 4 hours while students spend time less than 2 hours.
Teachers and students who are in the age groups of 30 to 39 years and 20 to 29 years are ex-
perienced in using internet services. Furthermore, majority of students and teachers do not
use many search engines as well as social networking sites. From the analysis, Dr. Ali sug-
gests that colleges need to bring awareness about search engines and social networking sites
that can be benefitted to students as well as teachers (Ali, 2013).
Now-a-days internet has become a powerful tool for communication purpose, to exchange
ideas, and even used in participation in local, national and international networking and it is
an inseparable part of today's educational system. Thanuskodi (2013) examined the influence
of gender role on Internet usage pattern such as frequency of internet, places of using inter-
net, use of search engines, and problems faced by them while searching the internet.
Stratified random sampling technique was employed for selecting the students of Madurai
region and the data was collected in the form of questionnaire from 340 college students
during academic sessions. The collected data was analyzed using different quantitative tech-
niques. With the help of t-test it is found that there is significant difference between male and
female respondents in the usage pattern. Female respondents took first position with respect
to their overall use of search engines and problems in accessing Internet. Male respondents
took first place in their overall place of using Internet, purpose of gathering e-resources, and
overall access to Internet / Web sources. Finally author said that both genders have equal ac-
cess to Internet; however, the differences are noticed in terms of usage pattern (Thanuskodi,
Now-a-days cell phones play an integral part in the lives of young people. People of different
ages, economics status, educational qualification, and sex now own and use mobile phones.
Akanferi et al. (2014) conducted a quantitative research to identify the common type of hand-
set preferred and the cost involved, to assess the reasons for purchasing a mobile phone and
to assess the most common uses of the mobile phone among young adults of public tertiary
institutions in Ghana. Accidental sampling technique was used to select 1000 participants and
a self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data from participants. The
participants are students of some selected public and private universities in The Greater Ac-
cra Region of Ghana. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 17 was

used to analyze the data gathered. Based on findings of this study, it is concluded that an
overwhelming majority of young adults use mobile phones in Ghana. The most patronised
mobile phones among young adults include Samsung, Nokia, Blackberry and Techno and
spending on mobile phone increases with increasing age of young adults. Respondents allo-
cated the highest amount of time to chatting(WhatsApp, etc), followed by listening to music
and radio, browsing the net, making and receiving the calls, therefore most of them use mobi-
le phones for entertainment rather than business and education-related functions. Young
adults must endeavor to gear the use of mobile phones towards accomplishing more produc-
tive activities such as doing assignments and career-oriented research (Akanferi, Aziale and
Asampana, 2014).
The increasing digitization of news is fundamentally reshaping the news industry. The chan-
ging news channel environment has raised a classic problem for marketers: how to appropria-
tely target and reach consumers in a multichannel environment. Xu et al. (2014) analyzed the
impact of mobile news apps on consumer demand at the corresponding mobile news websi-
tes. First, survey is organized in multiple steps that force respondents through a few gateways
before reaching the target questions which helped the instrument elicit more reliable answers
from the respondents. Second, whereas MobiLens data are aggregated on a quarterly basis,
the survey occurs each month and asks respondents about their mobile phone usage behavior
in the preceding month. In this paper authors discussed how news apps differ from news
websites on mobile devices. Using large scale survey data, authors found robust empirical
evidence that the adoption of a mobile news app significantly increases the probability of vi-
siting the provider's corresponding mobile website. Findings support the view that ideologi-
cal segregation makes it easier for advertisers to segment and target audiences in a multi
channel environment. This research paper makes a marketer to understand to achieve better
advertising policies across mobile news distribution channels (Xu, Forman, Kim, & Ittersum,
Now-a-days mobile phones known as smart phones have become integral part of our lives.
Smart phones offer a variety of applications, such as Web browsing, entertainment tools, and
personal calendar and contact management applications of the type that traditionally run on
desktop computers. Some of the reasons why smart phones became popular rapidly in Korea
may be related to the adoption by the type of user known as the early adopter. The data for
this study was obtained from online survey methods with 1162 people using a specific mobile
Excerpt out of 63 pages


Mobile Usage Behavior of Indian Youth
Institute of Computers and Business Management –School of Business Excellence
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Mobile Usage, Consumer Behavior, India, Telecom
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Dr. Kunal Gaurav (Author)R Manjusha (Author), 2016, Mobile Usage Behavior of Indian Youth, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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