Swachh Bharat Mission (Clean India Mission). A Case Study

Elaboration, 2019

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Swachh Bharat Mission i.e. Clean India Mission, a national level initiative started by the Government of India in 2014 is a major step towards the protection of environment. Already India achieve 99.9% open defecation free status. If Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) is implemented properly with all its stakeholders and public taking their respective responsibilities, there is no doubt that India will become a clean country. A brief about this program, objectives, schemes, statics, implementation of Swachh Bharat Mission by Govt. in ‘‘X’’ sub-division, the areas in which SBM should focus to improve and related health concerns and its role in environmental protection has been discussed in this paper.

Keywords – Swachh Bharat Mission, open defecation, sanitation.

‘’X’’ a sub-division of Assam where implementation of SBM schemes are considered for field work for this paper; directly not mentioning the name of that sub-division.


The Swachh Bharat Mission was initiated with the aim of achieving a clean India by 2 Oct, 2019 through cleanliness and sanitation (solid and liquid waste management and making whole India open defecation-free).

The overall mission has two parts-

SBM (Gramin) & SBM (Urban).

SBM Gramin is a modified version of the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan which was launched earlier. Besides eliminating open defecation, cleanliness, hygiene across all over India, the Mission also aims to decrease the use of single use plastic, proper drainage to make clean and green India.

SBM Urban targets urban areas. In India one third of the total population are living in urban areas. The population of urban areas are increases day by day. And with increasing population in urban areas, urban India will also need focused to make a Swachh India. So to provide better sanitation, better waste management facilities, increasing public and community toilet, improving drainage system in the urban areas, this mission has launched a sub mission named as Swachh Bharat Mission- Urban.


About cleanliness Mahatma Gandhi said that if he wanted anything before independence, it was cleanliness in the country. He was very much concerned about the dirty roads, streets and specially in rural areas of the country. The mission was launched by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 2nd of October, 2014 at Rajghat, New Delhi.

It will be a tribute to the Father of the Nation on his 150th birth anniversary on 2 Oct, 2019. It is significant that the PM himself is taking very active role in making the campaign a success; at Rajghat he started the campaign by cleaning the street by himself. Then some bollywood actor, actress, sportsman, businessman, famous person also promoting SBM.

The logo with spectacles of Mahatma Gandhi with Swachh Bharat written on the two glasses with the bridge of the spectacles in national tricolour signifies the entire nation uniting together to achieve the vision of Mahatma for a Clean India.

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Fig-1: Logo of SBM

Effects of SBM on health issues-

The success of SBM can be depict from the reducing health issues which are related to sanitation, drinking water, waste materials. After implementation of SBM diarrhoea among children below 5 years in India have reduced significantly over the past 4 years. Low birth weight of babies which cause due to drinking impure water has also improved. Some dental diseases due to drinking fluride, arsenic added water is also improved for implementing pure drinking water facility under PHED. A study conducted by World Health Organisation (WHO) said that the initiative of SBM will leads India to good potential health condition in rural area.

Different parts under SBM

Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (SBM-G)-

The main schemes under SBMG are –

- Construction of individual household toilets in each family (IHHL)
- Construction of community & public toilets (CSCs).
- Improvement in Solid & Liquid Waste Management (SLWM).

The cost of construction per toilet is Rs. 12,000. This cost also will include water facility, water storing, hand-washing and cleaning of toilets facilities. For the states of North East, Jammu and Kashmir and those state which are in Special category states, the central will provide 10,800(90%) and the State will provide Rs. 1,200(10%) of total cost; for other states central and state share is 60:40. The SBM-G is being implemented in the districts of the States with the help and support from the Dept of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Central Govt and the respective State Governments.

No. of Household toilets constructed in India-

According to Dept of Drinking Water and Sanitation 99.9% of India is open defecation free.

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Fig-2: Household toilet construction

(Source: Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation)

Solid and Liquid Waste Management is a important parts of SBM-G. As scientific disposal of waste has to be done for an better impact on environment, there is an urgent need for efficient disposal and proper management of waste in various states, especially rural villages. Already many states have given important to it and taken various activities such as construction of waste collection centers, installation of bio-gas plants, installations of bio-fertilizer system, installation of dustbins, system for collection, proper disposal of garbage, construction of drainage facility and construction of ponds.

Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U)-

The Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban has cover construction of 1.04 crore households toilets, construction of 2.6 lakh public toilets and construction of 2.5 lakh community toilets and a solid waste management facility in each town. Under this SBM-U program, community toilets built in residential areas where it is difficult to construct individual household toilets due to compact space and connection of proper water supply. Public toilets also constructed in designated populous locations such as markets, bus stations, tourist places, railway stations, etc.

One of the facility of SBM- Public toilets is that people can get the location of these toilets through using google map, SBM android app in mobile phone. Upto 2 oct, 2019 in India, 4400 city is declared as ODF city. In total 4,99,000 public and community toilet is build in different cities across India. The main challenge in urban areas is waste management as compared to sanitation. Upto 2 oct, 2019 about 4,38,700 matric ton waste collection is done under SBM-U project in India. Under this mission solid waste management and decompose in a scientific way is preferred. According to Pollution Control Board of India, by collecting the solid waste produced in urban areas 88 megawatt electricity is produced. Central Govt. aims to 100% door to door waste collection within 2022 in all the cities all over India including small cities. The ministry of urban development and the central pollution board of India, publish National city ranking under Swachh Bharat Mission scheme annually. This rating covers 500 different cities.

Ban on single-use plastic-

In 25 August, 2019 Prime Minister Narendra Modi officially declared about impose a nationwide ban on single-use plastics i.e. plastic bags, cups, small bottles to reduce use of pollution-causing, non degradable, soil, water pollution causing single-use plastic. India generates plastic waste about 25,000 tones per day across all cities. Single-use plastic take upto 1000 years to decompose completely.

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Fig-3: % of different plastic waste in India (Source: Central Pollution Board of India)

But this bans have add fears among public, industries, which use plastic in packaging for different items from chocolates and biscuits to chips and shampoo. India has total 30,000 plastic processing units. According to the All India Plastic Manufacturers’ Association, this plastic manufacturing industry also employs over 4.3 million people. The Govt. have to carefully take the steps to control the impact of plastic ban, in terms of plant closures and job losses, at a time of economic slow growth. But considering cause of environment pollution, problematic degradation, killing wildlife, harmful to human health, not easy to recycle, high cost to cleanup plastic ban is a great step towards Swachh Bharat.

Rivers are a major source of plastic waste into oceans. According to a international NGO survey, 90% of ocean waste is due to plastic waste. So people have to minimize the use of plastic as much can. People have to aware about these harmful effects of single-use plastic. Working together we can make India as a pollution free nation and a healthy nation.


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Swachh Bharat Mission (Clean India Mission). A Case Study
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Swachh Bharat Mission, open defecation, sanitation, India, case study, challange, clean India, SBM, PHE, ASSAM, problem, SBM results, Reality of SBM, cleanliness, report, field study, modi SBM, lacks
Quote paper
Bidyut Kalita (Author), 2019, Swachh Bharat Mission (Clean India Mission). A Case Study, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/535325


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