Factors affecting the scholastic performance of third year accountancy students

Bachelor Thesis, 2019

88 Pages



Description Page






Rationale of the Study
Purpose of the Study
Research Question
Significance of the Study
Theoretical Lens
Scope and Limitations of the Study
Definition of Terms

Social Networking Sites Addiction
Financial Instability
Environmental Factors

Research Design
Research Participants
Research Instruments
Plan for Analysis
Data Gathering Procedure
Ethical Consideration

Factors Affecting Scholastic Performance
Among Third Year Accountancy Students





The successful completion of this study would not have been possible without the overwhelming help form the people whom to us is beholden to and are deserving of our sincerest gratitude and highest respect.

We pay our gratefulness to UM Digos College and the Department of Accounting Education for giving us the opportunity to conduct study for our thesis, for the encouragements and support in order to finish our study.

We also want to give our sincerest gratitude to our family for the moral and financial support, classmates for giving their time to be interviewed and to our professors who gave us lot of patience and understanding all the way from our journey toward the completion of this research.

To Jonathan Arendain, MATGC our data analyst and also our adviser who compassionately guide us, his endless support, advices, valuable comments, suggestions, and encourage us to make this study accomplished.

To Viola Buenaventura, Ed. D, Jeaneth P. Tormis, CPA, MBA and Alicia Ayuste, Ph.D, the panel examiners who from the start gave us the guide towards the bright path heading to the success of our research.

To Ryan Dale B. Elnar, Ph.D, Viola Buenaventura, Ed. D and Khareen Culajara, MAED the validators, for their constructive criticism about our research instrument and for giving us suggestions for the improvement of our study.

Finally, utmost appreciation is given to the members of the group who are also there for the combined support and sacrifices exerted. And above all, we give thanks to our Almighty God for his infinite grace and mercy.


First of all we dedicate this study to our Almighty God, who gave us strength and to overcome our weakness along the conduct of our study.

To our friends and classmates who are there in case of need giving their time to help and encourage us to accomplished our study.

To our parents for their unconditional love and support morally and financially throughout the study.


1 Thematic Diagram on Social Networking Sites Addiction

2 Thematic Diagram on Financial Instability

3 Thematic Diagram on Environmental Factor


Scholastic performance of a student is crucial in achieving academic success. There are two kinds of scholastic performance that students have which is high scholastic performance and low scholastic performance. This study aims to determine factors affecting the scholastic performance of the 3rd year accountancy students in UM Digos College in the year 2017-2018. This study used a qualitative research design. In addition, the procedure for the gathering is through a Focus Group Discussion (FGD). We used a Thematic Analysis to correspond with the needs of the qualitative responses of the study. After Analysis, the final themes that arose were “Social Networking Sites Addiction, Financial Instability, and Environmental factors” that significantly affect the scholastic performance of the 3rd year accountancy students un UM Digos College. Furthermore, the findings also disclosed the negative and positive effect of the above final themes. In addition, this study can be a tool to help students in giving awareness and enhancing their scholastic performance like their study habits, time management and in dealing social media sites.

Keyword: Scholastic Performance, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), Thematic Analysis, 3rd year Accountancy Students, UM Digos College

Chapter 1


Rationale of the Study

The quality of students' performance stays at best need for educator, trainers, and researchers who have for quite a while been keen on examining variables contributing successfully for quality of performance of students. These factors are inside and outside school that impact student's inclination of scholarly achievement. According to the study of Lent (2000), said that the scholarly accomplishment has turned into a pointer of understudies' future in this exceedingly aggressive world and the most noteworthy objective of the instructive procedure which each individual expected to perform. Also according to (Lent, Brown and Hackett 2000), said that scholarly accomplishment is a key system through which young people find out about their gifts, capacities and abilities which are an imperative piece of creating vocation goals. In Addition, Brown (1999) said that scholastic achievement is imperative in light of the fact that later on work environment having decent employments and agreeable wages as well as a larger amount of training in their occupations.

There is underlying complexity of the factors affecting the performance of students in educational fulfillment and this is the thing that incited the present study regardless of the intricacy of factors influencing student's achievement, the study of (Ifeoma, Chinyere, Efeyadu and Akuezilo 2017), are indicting to the proof that institutional variables are related with scholarly performance however, mainly in other subjects rather than accounting. Accounting is one of the subjects needed by every individual irrespective of the person's profession. For any business to thrive, the knowledge of accounting is necessary.

In UM Digos College, the researchers observed that students' performance in accounting subjects has not been encouraging. And these observations were consistent with the study of Mushtaq and Khan (2012), which says that the scholarly performance is influenced by mental, financial, social, individual and natural elements. In spite of the fact that these components firmly impact the performance of the understudies, despite everything they contrast from individual to individual. Hence, the researchers found it vital to identify the factors affecting the scholastic performance among 3rd year accountancy student in UM Digos College.

Purpose of the Study

According to (Mauldin et al. 2000), the essential goal of accounting programs is to deliver an adequate quantity of alumni who have considerable accounting information, with the solid correspondence and explanatory abilities requested by managers. So as to meet the requests of businesses, accounting programs must produce the efficient and most brilliant graduates with highest aptitudes, yet diminishing amount and quality may mean the powerlessness to meet the requests of the job market.

Consequently, this investigation led to decide the factors affecting the performance of accounting students in accounting subject at the College of Accounting Education in UM Digos College. Specifically, the 3rd Year Accountancy Students are the main participants of this study. Furthermore, the rendition of accounting student towards accounting subject is significant since these subjects are fundamental courses for their chosen profession.

Research Question

1. What are the factors that affect your scholastic performance in studying Accounting?

Significance of the Study

As the researchers began their study, they already have their distinctive ideas who and what will benefits in the chosen study. The outcomes of this study mean to support the group of individuals.

UMDC Teacher. The result of this study can open their minds considering that every student have their diverse dimensions of learning. It additionally gives observation for them to have the capacity to make a reasonable activities and arrangements that may enhance and keep up the performance of accounting students.

Parents of Accounting Students. The result of this study gives information to the parents that they may likewise think about the side of their children what he/she wants to be in the future. The Parents can likewise help the teacher by supporting their children in school activities boosting them up and give the necessities which could be utilized in their study.

Accounting Student. The results of this study give information and help the student to enhance their study skills and some other propensities, to overcome their problems that could affect their performance. At the point when these factors are efficient and effective, they may able to develop and maintain their performance that will lead them to success.

Theoretical Lens

Parental training and family financial situation level has favorable connections with the understudy's nature of accomplishment according to Jeynes (2002). The scholastic performance of understudy's fundamentally relies on the parental association in their scholarly exercises to accomplish the higher level of scholastic achievement (Barnard et al. 2004). According to Krashen (2005), said that those students whose guardians has degree has better outcome on exams than those whose guardians who has no degree. A guardian who has a degree can all the more likely speak with their kids in regards to the paper works in school, exercises and the learning's being learned at school. It is likewise seen that guardians who are monetarily hindered are less able to manage the expenses of the average cost for basic items of the kids at larger costs and consequently their kids would not work at their best according to (Rouse and Barrow 2006). The students with high level of financial status perform superior than those students with low level of financial status added by (Garzon et al, 2006).

Another research findings referred to by (Reynaldo et. al 2015), expressed that quality classroom guidance generally relies upon quality instructors, schools and students. The main part of responsibility anyway lies to educators being key character in the showing learning process. Nobody has a superior impact in learning than the instructor. Truth be told, the nature of the school and nature of classroom guidance is especially reliant upon the nature of educators who instruct in school basically, quality yield exudes from the quality information sources. Teachers' teaching experience likewise adds to student's performance. It is additionally a reality that older teachers are said to be increasingly committed and devoted to the service. By virtue of their time allotment and remain in the teaching service, they acquire more experiences.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

The Researchers constrained the study on selected 3rd year accountancy students in UM Digos College. The researchers concentrated to the outside and inward factors affecting the scholastic performance of the student.

Definitions of Terms

The accompanying terms are characterized for better comprehension of study. They are expounded dependent on their applied and operational utilization:

Accountancy Students. This refers to the 3rd year Bachelor of Science in Accountancy (BSA) students in UM Digos College in which they are the main participants in this study.

Scholastic Performance. This refers to the high and low academic performance of the 3rd year accountancy students in UM Digos College.

Chapter 2


This piece of the research output presented different review of related literatures that help the perusers to completely comprehend various histories and other literary articles that will be relevant to our study.

In this study, factors affecting the scholastic performance among third year accountancy students are useful and reliable for accounting majors as well as to all students which can be sorted into three variables including Social Networking Sites Addiction, Financial Instability and Environmental Factors which will be elaborated in the following discussions.

Social Networking Sites Addiction

Lack of Focus due to Social Media Addiction is one of the problems students confronting at this moment. According to Int J Environ Res Public Health (2017), in the most recent decade Online Social Networking Sites (SNSs) became known with individuals who engaged SNSs to associate with others who have same interests with them. The need to be online may result in unreasonable utilization of SNSs, which in extraordinary cases may come up to addiction. It was upheld by the study of (Griths et. al. 2014), they said that individuals these days invest their energy in guaranteeing that they nearly have ideal circumstance in life for them to post it online. This kind of behavior simple pictures out of what addiction in social media is.

Additionally, according to Brubaker (2013), said that the present age of college students has been exposed to an innovation which drove them to depend on social media such as Facebook and Twitter and when students abuse or perform multiple tasks while doing their school work it would affect their academic performance. Students being addicted to social networking media sites found out that it is difficult for them to study which leads them to become very poor academically Egedegbe, (2014). It was supported by the study of (Yeap et. al. 2016), said that if the students are addicted to the internet, their scholastic performance would diminish, their study habit would decrease, it would increment in absenteeism, and they would skip their exams. Concurring additionally to Othman (2017), who likewise included that excessive use of internet among students, can cause scholastic problems.

However, they turn out to be exceptionally brilliant because of the information they get from these sites and it is easy to get almost any sources for school assignment. A study revealed that scholarly achievement was determined by how the students utilize the internet, regardless of whether it is for education purpose or non-educational activities (Li et. al. 2014). It was bolstered by the study of (Skiera, Hinz and Spann 2015), when students are connected to social networking media it will help them with earning better grades at school. Additionally as per (Yunus and Salehi 2012), they battled a comparable way that understudies expanded more vocabulary, improved their composition aptitudes and diminished their spelling botches through internet based life utilization.

Social Media particularly Facebook for Emotional Expressions. Social media can likewise be a method for communicating or sharing your feelings by posting in Facebook. It is additionally a method for discharging your feelings to a few things that make you feel awkward. As indicated by Kirkpatrick (2010), said that Facebook gives the students an approach to interface with those individuals known and obscure to them also the students can create profiles, promote and share information and contents with them. Additionally, according to Dijck (2013), social media is a method for self-articulation, self­portrayal and self-advancement. It was upheld by (Weber and Mitchell 2008), said that students can use social media through showing pictures and composing remarks on it for them to express their feelings to the posts.

However, exorbitant utilization of social media would result to addiction which gives negative impact to the academic performance of the students which is as indicated by (Arendain, J. & Murcia, J. 2015), they said that an excessive amount of Facebook use prompts introduction and additionally commission of forceful, deliberate routines or conduct that can be transferred by chatting, since electronic types of contact like Facebook appear to show unlimited chances to execute the badgering, affront, denigration, pantomime, rejection, and maligning different people on the internet. Additionally, according to Egedegbe, (2014), said that students who are addicted to social networking media sites turn out to be extremely poor scholastically.

Social Technology for Watching New Movies and Playing Video Games is a method of releasing stress from school works according to Weaver (2013), that students find relief in playing multiplayer games and watching movies on Netflix in their gadgets. Likewise according to Ferguson (2010), his examination demonstrated that the two people, who are playing fierce PC recreations, seem to have the ability to grasp mental capacities to manage disappointments and end up being less worry from assignments.

However, inordinate utilization of gadgets to watch movies and to play games would result to addiction. According to Othman (2017), who said that unnecessary usage of internet can cause compulsion specifically to the students that can contribute scholastic problems. It was likewise upheld by the study of (Levine et al., 2007), that the measure of time spent utilizing the internet by youngsters was fundamentally identified with higher appraisals of distractibility for scholarly.

Social Media for Social Communication gives us the opportunity to easily communicate with people which is according to Bell (2014), said that social networking sites are shaping an unyieldingly central bit of how we all communicate. Its online communities pass on a strong and convincing voice, and there is a lot to be gotten from interfacing straightforwardly with people through these channels whether that is to accomplish journal peruses, to arrange with partners, or even just to remain up with the most recent with friends and family.

Social media accounts as a communication tool positively affect the students in the study of (Jain et. al. 2012), said that the advantage of chatting with other students, instructors and outer sources to procure learning. It was supported by the study of (O'keeffe and Clarke-Pearson 2011), they said that internet benefits students by associating them to each other on assignments and class requirements. Slaughter (2007), said that social networking media have profoundly changed the learning. Truth is told as an educational instrument, internet advances learning by allowing understudy's and educators the chance to interface in new and exceptionally energizing ways along these lines empowering adaptable method of learning. It is expressed that adaptable learning extends the decision on how, what and when individuals learn.

In any case, an excessive amount of utilization of social media for communication misleads students and would result to addiction. Coughlan (2015), emphasized that students are constantly bustling sending and accepting messages while studying. Thus, they got lower score in the test and were less effective at tasks such as note taking. In addition, the substantial use of the internet has indicated teenagers visiting chat rooms which came about them to remain up late henceforth affected their concentration and attention in class that leads to the disintegration of their scholarly performance (Leung and Lee, 2012).

Financial Instability

Lack or Loss of Academic Interest due to Financial Problems give the students extra worry from school on where to find money to pay for their tuition fees and other expenses arises from the requirements or projects. According to McDaniel (2018), said that school educational cost and charges are expansive costs for students; a full-time undergrad may burn through a large number of dollars each term for books.

Also according to Spielgaben (2013), destitution is one of the fundamental issues on a few nations. Most guardians are experiencing serious difficulties gaining cash for their youngsters' educational cost expenses. There are a few schools that have costly educational cost expenses, which guardians can't manage. Some of the guardians do is that they stop their children from schooling and return them when they have enough money to pay for school expenses. In those circumstances, students could easily lose interest in studying for contemplating in light of the fact that their school level does not coordinate their age. In addition, according to Bennett (2017), said that kids from lower-income homes frequently experiencing a lack of parental consistency, an absence of supervision, poor sustenance and poor job demonstrating.

Nevertheless, according to John Wiley & Sons (2018), said that one would expect that family income is an essential positive factor in youngsters' school achievement. Notwithstanding, proof is regularly polluted by the absence of control for parental capacity, since at least a portion of ability is transferred genetically to children.

The financial problem of students may lose their enthusiasm to study their lessons, to do their requirements and projects. According to Adeoye (2017), said that personal finance is one of the contributing factor that is probably to increase risk of depression and depression is a typical and intense restorative ailment that influences how you feel, think and act it causes sentiments of pity, and sometimes, an aggregate loss of enthusiasm in exercises you once enjoyed.

Also according to Cambridge Credit Counseling Corp. (2018), depression goes past simply broad sentiments of pity and self-question. There is a wide bunch of physical and mental reactions related with wretchedness that may incorporate inconvenience dozing, an adjustment in hunger (over eating or under eating), and an absence of enthusiasm for most loved exercises, chance taking conduct, and especially dim musings.

Additionally according to Kantrowitz (2009), said that many students lack of adequate support to their parents so they look for jobs to support their finances and because of difficulties in handling jobs they loss interest to study and drop out in college.

Feelings of Frustration and Disappointments are also a problem of students right now being not able to pay their tuition fees in school. According to Alvarez Law Firm (2017), said that financial problems can cause outrageous frustration and stress that influence individuals and families from varying backgrounds. According to Kalinauckas (2018), he added that he feels disappointed to those individuals who have gifts that is not going anyplace in view of financial issues. In addition, According to Essel and Owusu (2017), said that it is unquestionably not a good experience when an understudy's needs to manage dual challenges of academics and financial constraints. Life ends up being greatly trying when an understudy is behind on bills payment; for when deadlines are not met and it is adequate to get an understudy strained and discouraged.

Lack of Study Habits and Time Management of being a Working Student can decrease the performance of students. According to (Shazia and Muhammad 2015), said that time management plays an indispensable job in improving student's academic performance and achievements. Each and every student should have time management ability which includes setting goals and priorities, using time management mechanism and being organized in using time. It was supported by Adam (2007), said that time is a fundamental key. You cannot study legitimately without thinking about it; subsequently time management is definitely a study procedure in itself. Given the hectic timetables of college student which require balance among scholastics and extra activities makes time management extremely essential. The timetable you create should control you in where to designate the accessible time on scholastic activities, non-academic exercises also public activity. It was added by Manila Bulletin (2011), said that the purpose of showing great study habits is to become successful and productive. Having great study habits helps incredibly in accomplishing one's objective in college.

According to Grasgreen (2012), said that finances are affecting students' scholastic performance, with capacity to get a job as a big factor, graduating students whose work is over twenty (20) hours out of every week concluded that it meddled with their scholastic performance, yet similarly the same number of said they as often as possible working more hours to take care of expenses.

The study of Spielgaben (2013), said that most student failed in their tests since they lack time to study after work, they cannot concentrate on their study due to their job particularly when they have to study hard for their tests that is why they end up quitting their schooling and just concentrate to their job. It was supported by the study of Kantrowitz (2009), said that various understudies who drop out of school need to work while enlisted in school since they frequently believe that its especially difficult to encourage themselves and their families and set off for college at the same time. Also according to Essel and Owusu (2017), said that having job while schooling is extremely valuable to a student it furthermore results to a lot of worry for them which might be too hard to even think about handling. Students would not have no enough leisure time to study for their quizzes and examinations also some even miss a lot of classes since they will be drained when they go out of their workplace. However, according to Essel and Owusu (2017), said that many partake part - time occupation or transient employment in the midst of their time of studies and some of them do this to pick up involvement for the future and furthermore to help their studies and themselves fiscally.

Having Physical and Health Problems is also one of the problems students having right now. According to Cambridge Credit Counseling Corp. (2018), said that financial stress can have major effects on the health. Stress, in general, can cause heart attacks, strokes, and numerous different serious medical problems regardless of the source. Wretchedness goes past simply broad sentiments of pity and self-question. There is a wide group of physical and mental sign related with sorrow that may fuse burden resting, an adjustment in craving (over eating or under eating), and an absence of enthusiasm for most loved exercises, hazard taking conduct, and especially dim musings. It was supported by the study of Essel and Owusu (2017), said that in the life of an understudy, medical issues result to a great deal of pressure and these pressure swing to try and make the situations most noticeably awful by compounding an already painful situation. Stress can prompt physical manifestations including cerebral pains, furious stomach, lifted circulatory strain, chest torment, and issues dozing. In addition, according to the California School Boards Association (2018), the physical soundness of understudies altogether impacts their capacity enable to accomplish scholarly progress. Understudies who have significant medical issues just like for example, asthma, weight, poor sustenance, absence of physical action and poor oral wellbeing face various difficulties also it limits to satisfy their potential and making scholastic progress.

Environmental Factors

School Distance from Home also affect to the performance of the students. According to Chica-Olmo (2018), said that dynamic traveling to class like walking and commuting) has health effects for adolescents. Along these lines, the enthusiasm to decide how the distance understudies stroll to class shifts relying upon where they live and how their choice to walk is influenced by relevant/ecological factors. It was supported by The New Times Rwanda (2016), said that long travel to class negatively affect understudies' wellbeing and on their training accomplishment levels. In addition, according to Tumwebaze (2016), said that other weighty factors likewise test youngsters physically and mentally as they move to class. He said that the schoolbag must be passed on longer, long travel likewise mean rising prior, doing assignments later and in addition lessening the spare time which is vital for a healthy lifestyle and students can experience the ill effects of depletion and cerebral pains. However, according to Chillion (2015), said that dynamic driving to class gives a chance to expanding dimensions of physical movement on school days.

Family Expectations and Relatives Pressure for Achievements make the students distracted to their studies which is according to Modernmom (2017), said that in the event that you are putting excessively weight on your children to do well scholastically, it can blowback extremely and wind up influencing them adversely in various distinctive ways. The kid can feel not so much roused but rather more compromised. They'll be so incapacitated by dread of not doing great, that they won't really learn and succeed like the generally would. It was supported by Your Family (2018), said that an excess of weight harms a youngster's confidence and can prompt extreme outcomes, including dejection. It can prompt pressure, causing cerebral pains, absence of rest, and even nervousness assaults.

At the point when understudies don't live up to their folks' desires, it makes a feeling of uselessness, which was observed to be one of the focal reasons why adolescent suicide rates end up greater. (Randall, et. al., 2015), they saw on how parental pressure affected affluent youth and how they cope and deal with high expectations. They report that adolescents with more perfectionist parents perceived more parental pressure and experienced poorer adjustment. However, according to Morin (2018), said that when kids don't get enough pressure from parents, they might be more averse to perform at their best. High-pressure parents may demand kids practice always and perform well in rivalries.

According to the study of Mortimer (2014), that guardians of higher financial status have higher desires for their youngsters, which lead them to urge their kids to have high instructive and word related yearnings. Youngsters' yearnings along these lines turn out to be amazing middle people of the impacts of money related status on posterity accomplishments. In addition, according to Anderson (2015), said that high parental desires are connected with high insightful accomplishment. In any case, setting desires too high is counterproductive. Albeit parental yearning can help enhance students' scholastic execution nonetheless, extreme parental desire can be noxious to children. Also according to Kean (2005), said that understudies whose guardians hold exclusive requirements get higher assessments, accomplish higher scores on state sanctioned tests, and persevere longer in school than to those whose guardians hold moderately low desires.

Lack of Study Habit due to Conflict of Choice. According to Chege (2016), said that picking a profession is a standout amongst the most imperative choices one will ever make. In a perfect world, one ought to pick a lifelong dependent on their interests, gifts and capacity. Sadly, most understudies in school or college are examining courses they were either constrained into by their folks. However, according to National PTA (2018), said that there is a positive and persuading connection between family inclusion and understudy achievement, paying little respect to race/ethnicity, class, or guardians' dimension of training. At the point when families are engaged with their kids' learning both at home and at school, their youngsters improve the situation in school. The report additionally indicates explicit kinds of contribution as being particularly helpful to youngsters' scholarly achievement.

Also according to (Ebele Uju and Olofu Paul 2017), said that keeping great study habits enables understudy's to study freely at home and yearn for higher instructive vocation. In any case, they express that the most well-known test to the achievement of student is an absence of successful or great study habit. They added that students will undoubtedly perform amazingly well in their scholarly interest when they build up a great study habit.

Family Relationships, Problems and Disputes. According to Bennett (2017), said that when a child gets into mischief or neglects to meet desires at school, the tyke's home and family life should be considered. A couple of family factors can influence a kid's conduct and ability to execute in the classroom. These incorporate financial steadiness, changes in family connections, parental dispositions toward training and occurrences of youngster misuse. Partition has for quite a while been associated with lead to problems, tension and gloom in children. Consistently in light of the fact that single parent household feature parents engaging with their own notions of misery and uneasiness, accomplishing family commitments as of late held by two people and dealing with progressively budgetary solicitations.

It was supported by Essel and Owusu (2017), said that significant extraordinary occasions or happens can be exceptionally unpleasant to everybody, especially understudies. Disagreeable occasions like the separation of guardians make the understudy not act naturally in light of the fact that they move toward becoming casualties of broken homes. Separation removes the satisfaction understudies have and once that joy they lose themselves and consider the past which stresses them up at the long run. It addition by Lifeline Australia (2016), family are the most critical individuals, so relationship issues can be extensively upsetting and can prompt youngsters negative feelings like resentment, misery, tension, stretch, weariness, disarray, feeling disengaged, alone or pulled back, absence of focus.

Study areas are not well Ventilated, Lacking of book materials and Nuisance. According to Fredrick (2015), said that school offices have been seen as a powerful factor to quality training. It is vital to the instructing and learning process. Viable learning can happen through one's communication with the environment. Environment here alludes to the offices that are accessible to encourage understudies learning result or accomplishment. These offices incorporate school building, library, and research center, reading material, programming and equipment of instructive innovation. These offices go a long to upgrade understudy's performance or accomplishment. It was supported by according to The Pennsylvania State University (2015), said that school offices influence wellbeing, conduct, commitment, learning, and development in accomplishment.


Excerpt out of 88 pages


Factors affecting the scholastic performance of third year accountancy students
University of Mindanao
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
Catalog Number
ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
Scholastic Performance, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), Thematic Analysis, 3rd year Accountancy Students, UM Digos College
Quote paper
Love Sunshine Bancale (Author), 2019, Factors affecting the scholastic performance of third year accountancy students, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/590597


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