Sectors of Self Employment of Persons with Disabilities in Urban Areas of East Wollega Zone, Western Oromia, Ethopia. Empirical Findings and Recommendations


Academic Paper, 2019

67 Pages


Excerpt

CONTENTS

List of Tables

List of Appendices

Abstract

1. Introduction
1.1. Background of the Study
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3.Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the Study

2. Literature Review

3. Methodology
3.1. Study area
3.2. Sampling technique and sample size determination
3.3. Data types, sources and methods of collection
3.4. Data analysis

4. Results and discussion
4.1. Descriptive analysis
4.1.1. Old age persons
4.1.2 .Disabled persons
4.2. Econometric analysis
4.2.1. Determinants of self employment of old age persons in IGAs
4.2.2. Determinants of self employment of disabled persons in IGAs
4.3. Gender Disparity
4.3.1. Gender Disparity among urban old age individuals
4.3.2. Gender disparity among the disabled persons

5. Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1. Elderly households
5.2. Disabled households

6. References

7. Appendices

List of Tables

1: Group test of sex of the households

2: Group test of age (years) of the households

3: Group test of family size of the households by sex

4: Group test of family size of the households

5: Marital status of the elderly households

6: Group test of the status of isolation of the households

7: Group test of educational status by sex of the households

8: Religion of the sample households

9: Group test of health status of the households

10: Group test of the status of social capital of the households

11: Group test of ownership of communication assets

12: Group test of membership in social association

13: Group test of the status of skill training

14: Group test of household annual income

15: Group test of family income (ETB) of the households

16: Group test of ownership of saving

17: Group test of ownership of assets

18: Group test of the status of credit use

19: Disability category of respondents

20: Sex distribution of the households

21: Age and Family Size of the households

22: Group test of educational status

23: Group test of skill training status

24: Marital Status of the households

25: Group test of membership in social associations

26: Group test of social capital status

27: Group test of status of isolation

28: Forms of disability of households

29: Group test of status of ownership of assets

30: Group test of status of ownership of communication assets

31: Group test of status of ownership of saving account

32: Group (proportion) test of status of use of credit

33: Logit model output on the determinants of participation of elderly households in IGAs

34: Logit model output on the determinants of participation of disabled households in IGAs

35: Group test of the elderly households’ annual income (ETB) by sex

36: Group test of family income (ETB) of the elderly households by sex

37: Group test of total income (ETB) (head income + family income) by sex of the elderly

38: Type and proportion of disability among female and male households

39: Group test of sex of the households

40: Group test of the status of skill training by sex of the disabled households

41: Group test of the status of credit use by sex of the disabled households

42: Group test of the status of asset ownership by sex of the disabled households

43: Group t-test of disabled household head’s income (ETB) by sex

44: Group test of family income (ETB) by sex of the disabled households

45: Group test of aggregate income (heads’ + family income) by sex \of the disabledhouseholds

List of Appendices

1. Variance Inflation Factors

2. Marginal effects of the Significant Variables in the Logit Model :elderly

3. Marginal effects of the Significant Variables in the Logit Model : disabled

Abstract

Social policy agenda could be seen as integral part of the nation’s economy, contributing to economic growth, equity and sustainability and should not be treated as competing with economic resources. The elderly and disabled persons are the neglected citizens in the socio-economic transformations of many African countries including Ethiopia. As a result, these groups are forced to live in economically poor and precarious conditions. In light of this, this research paper refers to the determinants of self employment of the elderly and disabled persons and existing gender differences within the groups.

A simple random sampling of households from both groups (selected purposively) was taken proportional to their size in the study area. Accordingly a total of 393 households (272 elderly and 121 disabled persons) were drawn and analyzed using both econometric and descriptive analysis. The study revealed that a substantial number of both elderly and disabled persons are engaged in income generating works equally with other healthy (active) citizens of the people in the area; at the same time indicating that a significant number from both groups still require further support/assistance to cope up with the highly competitive living condition.

Educational status (literacy level), credit use, asset ownership, age and health status of the households are the significant variables that affect participation in income generating activities in the case of the elderly households, while use of credit and better health condition are the significantly associated variables for the disabled households. The proportion of participation of female households is higher for both groups. There is discrepancy in annual income of female household heads among the groups compared to male headed households.

The study recommends support on enhancing their educational level, health condition and provision of credit to increase their engagement in income generating activitiess for the healthy (able to work) persons; and provision of a continuous assistance for the remaining households that are in bad health condition ( from both the elderly and disabled households).

Key words: Employment, Income Generating Activities, Determinants, Elderly, Disabled persons and Logit model.

“The moral test of government is how that government treats those who are in the dawn of life, the children; those who are in the twilight of life, the elderly; and those who are in the shadows of life, the sick, the needy and the handicapped.” Lillian Gordy Carter.

1. Introduction

Development policies and strategies of nations are expected to address every corner of the society including the disadvantaged and the marginalized portion of the community (such as the elderly and disabled individuals). Despite the consensus to pursue all inclusive developmental works, the elderly and disabled individuals are mostly forgotten due to a number of reasons some of which are related to neglect in development agendas by the concerned bodies, cultural barriers and economic development status of nations.

Given their substantial number, the neglect of these groups of people will result in their lower contribution to the economy, vulnerability to income shocks and psychological (social) crisis for the society at large. Considering their values, potentials and perspectives in the development agenda of a nation definitely adds to the development and welfare of the society.

Research based developmental approaches are likely to be successful; as researches result in differences on awareness, knowledge/understanding on the subject ultimately influencing policies and practice as the result of the new findings (Morton, 2015). Such efforts of scientific approaches on development are limited in less developing countries including Ethiopia. In light of this, this research (report) assessed the factors that affect the self employment of the old age and disabled persons; and analyzed gender disparities on participation of the households in income generating activities and household income. This chapter presents the background, statement of the problem, objectives, significance, scope and limitations of the study. The details are provided in the subsequent pages.

1.1. Background of the Study

According to CSA (2007) data, in Oromia region, the number of elderly and disabled individuals is 1,302,343 (urban=604,364 and rural=697,979) and 282,544 (of which female constitute 46 percent) respectively. For the same period, in east Wollega zone, there are 47, 517 and 12,883 (48% female) old age and disabled individuals respectively. These figures are expected to be higher as of today.

In this study, old-age persons refer to individual households of age greater than sixty irrespective of their sex. Similarly, disability of persons in the study area include blindness, deafness, non functional upper limb(s), non functional lower limb(s), body movement difficulty, learning (mental) difficulty and mixed or more than one type of disabilities.

In developing countries including Ethiopia, both old age and disabled persons face problems of marginalization and economic discrimination in every aspect. As a result, they are characterized by poor living condition, receive low health services and undermined (have little or no) contribution to the over-all economic growth in general Older persons are perceived by many as ‘senior citizens’ of a given country. Seniority and rich experience of old persons in various fields, skills and professions could be utilized at maximum level for countrys’ economic development provided that the necessary conditions are paved. Among others, the engagement of older persons in economic activities will contribute to the successful retirement of the elderly and avoids unprecedented social crisis that would otherwise occur. This requires implementation of activities related improvement of their health condition, provision of need based supports and keeping their psychology at large.

Migration or movement of different people from different parts of the country and regions to major urban centers is commonly observed in line with the current economic progress of the country. A similar phenomenon is observed in east Wollega zone where an overwhelming number of people are moving from various districts and zones to make a living in urban centers. The elderly and disabled persons are the disadvantaged people and hence their similar movement from place to place was observed. Even though well documented data is not available at zonal and district levels in this regard, an overwhelming presence of these groups in urban centers like Nekemte is practically observed. Therefore, Nekemte town was selected to represent urban parts of the study area.

1.2. Statement of the Problem

Older persons (especially older women) and disabled persons (especially disabled women) are amongst the poorest in developed countries like Ethiopia. Poverty of these groups often goes beyond income, and includes physical weaknesses, isolation, powerlessness and low self-esteem. Such people often fail to claim their entitlements because of lack of information, less attention given to the groups and absence of appropriate structures. The challenge could be double among women due to gender related factors. They have unequal opportunity to participate in decision making on issues related to their development and welfare. Prolonged health problems are common among many older people and health services are not easily accessible to the majority besides being expensive. Competitive economic environment, growth of towns and the movement of people from rural to urban in search of jobs have changed existing culture and formal relationship in the family and society in general. As a result of weakened traditional life, young people do not show respect to older people and often defame them.

Disability is understood differently by different individuals or groups. Now days, disability is generally recognized to involve the interaction of medical and social factors (WHO, 2001). According to WHO (2001), disability refers to impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. The economic benefits of adopting a disability inclusive approach to development by recognizing their potential, valuing and respecting their contributions and perspectives are widely acknowledged as being significant (Aus AID, 2008; Metts, 2000; WHO & World Bank, 2011). As opposed to isolated policies and actions, a comprehensive approach to development enhances an integrated strategy benefiting all individuals and the society as a whole (Berman-Bieler, 2008).

It is harder for these people to benefit from development and escape from poverty due to discrimination in gainful employment and lack of access to resources to promote self-employment and livelihood activities. They are experiencing limited employment opportunities and decreased productivity in their adulthood. The households are experiencing hardships including food insecurity, poor housing, and inadequate access to health care. The efforts to promote development and poverty reduction and social protection programmes have not adequately included this section of the society.

Many of these people need assistance and support to achieve a good quality of life and to be able to participate in social life on an equal basis with others. They need to be empowered to live in community and participate in work and other activities, rather than be marginalized or left fully dependent on family support or social protection. They need formal assistance that enable them to participate in paid or income generating activity.

Perceptions about the elderly include beliefs that the elderly are physically unable to do their jobs, have a high rate of absenteeism, are less productive and are less receptive to innovations than younger people (Czaja, 2007). However, there are few actual data to support these assumptions and, in fact, some research studies indicate that these stereotypes are inaccurate (UNFPA & HAI, 2012). Many of previous studies have yielded rich data on the difficulty of the elderly, but comparatively less have been produced on the value of older persons such as their engagement in income-generating activities. Currently therefore, the precise nature of older persons’ engagement in income-generating activities is not well known. Specifically, there is limited understanding of factors that influence participation in these activities at old age.

The governments at central and local level did not adequately address the problem of older and disabled people through undertaking needs assessment in the society; providing care and protection in the community and institutions; ensuring the provision of basic needs; involving in income generating activities and sensitizing the community on issues related to these groups and their participation in the national development.

This paper contributes in bridging the gap; and investigated the determinants of engagement in income-generating activities; and assessed existing gender disparity among the groups of older and disabled individuals in the study area.

1.3. Objectives of the Study

The over-all objective of the study is to identify the factors that affect the employment of older and disabled persons in income generating activities in the study area. The specific objectives are to:

1. Describe the socio-economic characteristics of the Old-age and disabled persons in the study area
2. Identify (analyze) factors affecting self employment (participation) of the old-age and disabled persons in the study area.
3. Analyze gender disparity within the groups of elderly and disabled persons.

1.4 Research Questions

The study aimed to answer the following research questions.

- What is the status (socio-economic characteristics) of the elderly and disabled persons in the study area?
- What are the factors that affect self employment (in IGAs) of older and disabled persons in the study area?
- Is there a gender disparity within the groups of the elderly and disabled persons?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The finding serves as an input to utilize the undermined contribution of the two groups for the country, in an endeavor on the successful retirement of the elderly and avoiding of unprecedented social crisis. The result of the study serves as an input for planners, decision makers and policy makers. Moreover, the findings and information on the socio-economic profile of the groups will serve other scholars/ researchers/ engaged on the subject for further enquiry.

1.6 Scope and limitation of the Study

The study is limited to east Wollega zone of Oromia regional state of Ethiopia. Nekemte town is the major cosmopolitan city (urban center) selected to represent the zone. The study is limited to analysis of factors affecting self employment (i.e. income generating) of the elderly and disabled persons and does not include any form of unpaid productive works.

The study more or less might be liable to the following limitations. Eliciting information from the respondents like these (disabled groups: unable to hear and speak) requires knowledge of sign languages on the side of the enumerators. Due to lack of such knowledge, provision of translators (third party) for the enumerators was among the tasks of the survey work. Translation of such information might not be perfect when done by third party.

Some sample households are reluctant to correctly tell the exact amount of their daily, weekly, monthly and annual income due to various reasons. The situation required more effort and approaches (mechanism) to obtain correct information. Many households do not exactly know their age; felt old at lower age of around 45-60 and required extra time and effort to obtain the intended targets.

Moreover, the study encountered problems of base-line secondary information (in-accuracy) and actual distribution of the different categories of disabled persons in the town due to mobility. The situation necessitated for a slight modification in the planned sample size distribution within the disabled groups in the six sub cities of the urban center under study.

2. Literature Review

Self employment of individuals could be defined as the process of earning a living through the use of own capital or borrowed fund using ones’ own knowledge, intelligence and efficiency by taking minimum risk. Self employed people have their own work rather than being provided by another employer, earning income from a trade or business that they operate.

The definition of old age or older persons varies from country to country. According to Quadagno (1999) and UNFPA & HAI (2012), a person is taken to be an old at 65 since people become eligible for full old-age security benefits at this age in US and other developed nations. Public perceptions of ‘older persons’ also varies from place to place with some positive, neutral and negative connotations. Mainstream societal stereo types perceive elderly as warm (positive) but also as incompetent (negative) (Cuddy, et al., (2005). While some perceive older persons as wise, knowledgeable, experienced and patriotic; others describe as shrewd, greedy, selfish, stubborn, close-minded, pessimistic, boring, forgetful and technologically challenged (Barret & Cantwell, 2007).

In Ethiopia, old age begins at the age of 60 and known as countrys’ retirement age (Negarit Gazeta, 2011). This study also adopted this definition of older person. In Ethiopia and most African countries, older persons are considered as one who are knowledgeable and informant about history, traditional customs, and culture (Soga, 2009); seen as icons of patriotism, reservoir of heritages of useful cultural value from generation to generation, agents for solving problems and reconciliation of conflicts between individuals and ethnic groups (MOLSA, 1999).

Older people, and especially older women, are amongst the poorest in the country. Poverty of the elderly often goes beyond income, and includes physical weaknesses, isolation, powerlessness and low self-esteem. According to Abdi (2002), aged and retired persons are overlooked assuming that they have income security from their retirement pension. However, such pension benefits are not enough to make a living (Hiwot, 2012). They are forced to subsist on a bare minimum income (Assefa & Frehiwot, 2003).

Labor force participation by older workers is relatively high in developing countries, though their employment opportunities and remuneration tend to decrease with age. (Barrientos, Gorman, &Heslop, 2003). According to Kajitani (2011), other things being equal, more work improves older persons’ health. He further argues that while the increase in income by working may also improve health, working would make the Japanese elderly have a motive to invest in their health in order to raise or maintain their productivity and income. Alternatively, social interactions and activities through or at work may promote health. Conversely, early retirement discourages and reduces these social interactions and activities and may thus have a negative impact on their health.

Similarly, according to MOLSA (1996), older persons in the working environment have rich experience and skill that could be shared with the young and inexperienced labor force. Studies conducted in different parts of Ethiopia revealed that older people are considered as active and able to perform the activities required for survival (Noguchi, 2013); they remain economically productive as long as they are physically and mentally healthy and as long as the core family requires their contribution (HAI & Cordia, 2011).

Older and disabled persons face common challenges of economic discrimination and isolation despite differences in their definition and contexts. According to WHO & World Bank (2001), “disability is an umbrella term for impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. It refers to the negative aspects of interaction between an individual (with a health condition) and that individual’s contextual factors (environmental and personal factors). This study adopted the above definition of ‘disability’ by WHO & World Bank (2001) in reference to impairments, activity limitations and participation restriction due to both physical and mental conditions of individuals.

People with disabilities are amongst the poorest and most vulnerable in developing country including Ethiopia. The economic benefits of adopting a disability inclusive approach to development by recognizing their potential, valuing and respecting their contributions and perspectives are widely acknowledged as being significant (Aus AID, 2008; Metts, 2000; WHO & World Bank, 2011). As opposed to isolated policies and actions, an inclusive approach to development enhances an integrated strategy benefiting individuals and society as a whole (Berman-Bieler, 2008)

People with disabilities have diverse personal factors with differences in gender, age, socioeconomic status, sexuality, ethnicity or cultural heritage. Disability is correlated with disadvantage, but not all people with disabilities are equally disadvantaged. Women with disabilities experience the combined disadvantages associated with gender as well as disability and may be less likely to marry than non-disabled women. (Disability rights commission, 2007).

3. Methodology

3.1. Study area

The study is conducted in east Wollega zone ( Nekemte urban center). Total population in east Wollega zone is 1,213,503 (CSA, 2007). According to CSA (2007) data, in east Wollega zone, there are 47, 517 and 12,883 old age persons and disabled individuals respectively. These figures are expected to be higher as of today.

Nekemte is the major urban center and the capital city of east Wollega zone located in western Oromia with an estimated population of 75, 219. It is a zonal town with the 2nd grade administrative status. Administratively it is divided into six (urban) sub cities and one newly established rural sub city. Migration or movement of people from different zones, districts and other parts of the region to Nekemte town is higher relative to other cities in the zone. Nekemete town is located at 331 km west of Addis Ababa and its altitude ranges from 1960 to 2171 meters above sea level. The town is bordered by Guto Gida, Wayu Tuka, Leka Dulecha and Diga districts in the North, East, South and West direction respectively. Geographically, Nekemte town is located in the range of 904’N latitude and 36030’E longitude. The average temperature of the town ranges between 140C to 260C. The maximum rainfall is approximately 2200mm and minimum rain fall is 1500mm (Nekemte Municipality Office, 2015).

3.2. Sampling technique and sample size determination

The study involved both non probability and probability sampling technique. East Wollega zone is purposively selected (among other zones) as it hosts the major cosmopolitan urban center of Nekemte in the western Oromia. A simple random sampling of the elderly and disabled persons was made from all the six sub cities under Nekemte town proportional to their size in each sub city.

The total population of the groups in east Wollega zone urban center is estimated to 32,400; assuming the presence of equal proportion of the older and disabled persons in urban and rural areas of the zone. Accordingly, based on Yemane (1967) formula, a total of 393 sample households (older persons = 272 and disabled persons = 121) were sampled for the study. At 95% level of confidence, the sample size is determined using the following formula as adopted from Yamane (1967). n = N /[1 + N(e2)], Where n is the sample size, N is the population size, and e is the level of error taken to be 5% . The sample size calculated using the above formula is 394 households. 393 Households1

3.3. Data types, sources and methods of collection

Both primary and secondary data were used in the study. Primary data was collected from the sampled households with direct interview using survey instruments. Secondary data, related to older and disabled persons was gathered from different sources such as CSA of Ethiopia and electronic sources. In gathering the primary data, enumerators were recruited and trained before the beginning of the survey. A pretest of questionnaire was also conducted to improve the quality of the questionnaire before the final survey schedule.

3.4. Data analysis

The study employed both descriptive and econometric analysis. Means, percentages, Paired-t (proportion) tests and correlation are used in the descriptive analysis. For the purpose of analyzing the factors affecting participation of the households (in groups) in income generating activities, a logit model was used to estimate the interaction between the dependent variable and independent variables. In estimating the logit model, the dependent variable is participation in IGAs, which takes the value of ‘1’ if a household participate and ‘0’ otherwise. However, the independent variables are of both types, that are, continuous or categorical. According to Gujarat (2004) the Logit distribution model is defined as: (1) Where, is the probability that an individual will participate in IG activity given ; represents the respondents explanatory variables; and and are parameters to be estimated; and represent the base of natural logarithms, which is approximately equal to 2.718.

4. Results and discussion

4.1 Descriptive analysis

Older and disabled persons share common features of economic discrimination and isolation in less developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a wide difference among the two in terms of cause, past experience, body physical status, perception of the community, age and other socio economic factors. Factors that affect the self employment of the elderly are expected to be different from the factors that influence the engagement of disabled individuals in income generating activities. In light of this, this study adopted a cohort analysis (i.e. separately for both groups) to take account of their internal differences.

4.1.1 Old age persons

4.1.1.1. Demographic characteristics

The demographic features of the households refer to sex, age and family size of the sampled elderly households.

Table 1.Group test of sex (male=1; female=0) of the households by participation status of IGAs (1=participant; 0=non participant).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own data source, 2017)

Among the total old age households (n=272), females constitute 68 percent; while the males make up 32 percent of the households. About 26 and 29 percent of males and females participated in income generating activities respectively. In terms of participation in IGAs, there is no significant difference among male and female household heads (Table 1).

The average age of the elderly urban households in the study area is 71 years. The mean age of male and female household heads are 72 and 70 years respectively.

The mean age of the households that participated and that did not participate in income generating activities are about 69 and 72 years respectively. There is a significant difference among the groups of participants and non participants in IGAs in terms of age of the households (Table.2)

Table 2. Group test of age (years) of the households by participation status of IGAs (1=participant; 0=Non participant)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own data source, 2017)

The family size of the households 3 members on average; with mean size of 3 and 2 members for male and female headed households respectively. The t-test statistic revealed a significant difference between male and female headed households in terms of the number of family in the household (Table 3).

Table 3. Group test of family size (number) of the households by sex (male=1; female=0).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own data source, 2017)

The average family size of the elderly households that participated and that did not participate in income generating activities are 3 and 2 members respectively. There is no significant difference among the participant and non participant households of IGAs in terms of family size (Table 4).

Table 4. Group test of family size (number) by participation status of the households in IGAs (participants=1; non participants=0).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own data source, 2017)

4.1.1.2 Social and institutional characteristics

Social and institutional characteristics refer to the marital status, literacy status, status of isolation, social capital, religion, health condition, ownership of communication assets, skill training and participation in social associations of the households.

Table 5. Marital status of the elderly households

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own data source, 2017)

Of the total urban old age households under study, about 43, 6, 5 and 45 percent are married, unmarried, divorced and widow/er respectively. The proportion of single (i.e. sum of unmarried, divorced and widow/er households) is significantly higher than couple households (Table 5).

Majority of the elderly seem to lead their livelihood separately. Even though life alone at old age might seem literally difficult, there is no significant difference among single and couple households in terms of participation in IGAs. Similarly, contrary to their loneliness, about 73 percent of the households responded that they do not feel isolated; while the remaining 27 percent reported to feel isolated from the community in their social life. The test statistic also confirmed that there is no significant difference among the groups of participant and non participants in IGAs in terms of the status of feeling of isolation of the households (Table 6).

Table 6. Group test of the status of isolation (felt isolated=1; did not feel isolated=0) of the households by participation status in IGAs (participants=1; non participants=0)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own data source, 2017)

In terms of literacy status, 18 and 82 percent of the elderly households are literate (i.e. read and write) and illiterate (i.e. can’t read and write) respectively.

There is a significant difference among the participant and non participant households of income generating activities in terms of literacy status (Table 7).

Table 7. Group test of educational status (literate=1; Illiterate=0) by sex ( male=1; female=0) of the households

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own data source, 2017)

The elderly households belong to two ethnic groups of Oromo and Amhara; constituting 97 and 3 percent respectively. Religion-wise, the households belong to three religion groups; namely Orthodox, protestant and Muslim constituting about 53, 35 and 12 percent respectively (Table 8)

Table 8. Religion of the sample households in the study area

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own data source, 2017)

The health condition of majority of the elderly households is not promising (on average) for engagement in business activities. The descriptive result showed that among the total households included in the study, only 15 percent are in good condition (i.e. able to work); while the remaining 44 and 41percent are in medium condition (sometimes able to work) and bad condition (completely unable to work) respectively. There is a significant difference among the groups of participant and non participant households of income generating activities in terms of their health condition (Table 9).

Table 9. Group test of health status (1=good health (able to work); Bad health (not able to work fully or partially=0) of the households by participation in IGAs (participants=1; nonparticipants=0)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own data source, 2017)

Relative to the total 56 percent households that are able to work (i.e. good and medium condition), currently 29 percent of the households are engaged in IGAs. The remaining balance might require further health treatment (assistance) and economic support to engage in income generating activities. The rest 46 percent have reported that they are not able to work (totally) due to extreme age, severe health problems and other sorts of disability (problem of eye vision or blindness, deafness, immobility due to back ache/spinal/ problems, etc.) that encountered them late in their life. This highlights that these category require a special treatment or humanitarian assistance in general.

In terms of social capital, about 79 percent of the elderly households reported that they do not have other relatives and friends that support them economically; while the remaining 21 percent have a better social capital status. Households with less social capital have a higher rate of participation in IGAs than those with more social capital. Households that have less friends, relatives, etc are found to engage in IGAs probably in response to risks associated with loneliness. However, there is no significant difference among the groups of participants and non participants in IGAs in terms of the variable (social capital) (Table 10).

Table 10. Group test of the status of social capital (has social capital=1; has no social capital=0) by participation in IGAs (participants=1; non participants=0).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own data source, 2017)

Of the total respondents, 9 percent of the households reported that they own communication assets (i.e. at least one of a mobile, radio and TV) while the remaining 91 percent do not have any type of communication asset. Households with more communication assets have higher rte of participation than those households without any form of communication assets. However, the proportion test statistics revealed that there is no significant difference among the two groups of participants and non participant households of IGAs in terms of ownership of communication assets (Table11)

Table 11. Group test of ownership of communication assets (owns communication assets=1; does not own communication assets=0) by participation status in IGAs (particpants=1; non participant=0)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own data source, 2017)

Similarly, while 33 percent of the elderly households are members of social associations (such as idir, ikub and others ) that exist in the area, 67 percent do not belong to any organization. The group test statistics showed that there is a significant difference among the group of participants and non participant households of IGAs in terms of membership in cooperative associations (Table 12).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own data source, 2017)

About 3 percent of the elderly households reported that they have previously acquired relevant training skills in IGAs; while the remaining 97 percent have not obtained any type of skill training in relation to IGAs.

Table13. Group test of the status of skill training (attended =1; not attended=0) by participation status in IGAs (participants=1; non participant=0)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own data source, 2017)

However, there is no significant difference among the two groups of participants and non participants of IGAs in terms of the status of skill training obtained (table 13)

4.1.1.3. Economic characteristics

The economic characteristics of the households described under this section include annual income of the household heads, annual income of the family members, aggregate income of the households (household head’s plus family income) and asset ownership of the households.

The mean annual income of old age households (heads) is 901.00 ETB. The average income of the participant household (heads) of IGAs is 3193.00 ETB; while that of non participant households is nearly nil. There is a significant difference among participants and non participant household heads of IGAs in terms of income earned per annum (Table 14 ).

Table 14. Group test of household annual income by participation status of IGAs (participant=1; non participant=0)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own survey, 2017)

Parallel to the household heads income stream, other members of the family are also engaged in IGAs and earned an average income of 916 ETB per annum. The income of the family members whose household heads are not engaged in IGAs is greater than the mean income of the family members whose household heads are engaged in IGAs even if not statistically significant. The reason could be that the economic condition of the household heads is not promising or cannot sustain and hence other members are forced to look for alternative sources of income (Table 15).

When the income of the household heads and family members is summed together, the households earn mean income of 1790.00 ETB per annum.

Table 15. Group test of family income (ETB) by participation status of IGAs (participant=1; non participant=0)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own survey, 2017)

Data has been collected on the saving status (i.e. whether the households have a saving account or not) of the households to see its association with participation in IGAs. Among the total old age households, only 1 percent have opened saving accounts in different institutions while the remaining 99 percent have not. There is no significant difference among the group of participants and non participant households of IGAs in terms of the variable (Table 16). The reason could be that many old age individuals have no experience (custom) of keeping their money in banks; even if they are good at handling and managing money properly. The small size (capital) of their business might have not created difficulty in transaction.

Table 16. Group test of ownership of saving (owns=1; does not own=0) by participation in IGAs (participants=1; non participant=0)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own data source, 2017)

Among the total old age households, 44 percent have responded to own different assets (i.e. at least one of land, house and livestock that are basic in the area), while the remaining 56 percent have no any asset. The group test statistic revealed a significant difference among the two groups of participants and non participants of IGAs in terms of asset ownership (Table 17).

Table17. Group test of ownership of assets (owns=1; does not own=0) by participation in IGAs (participants=1; non participant=0)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own data source, 2017)

About 2 percent of the households have utilized credit from different formal and informal sources meant to begin business activities in the area, while the remaining 98 percent have not used any form of credit. There is a significant difference among the two groups of participants and non participants of IGAs in terms of credit use (Table 18).

Table 18. Group test of the status of credit use (used=1; did not use=0) by participation in IGAs (participants=1; non participant=0)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own data source, 2017)

4.1.2 Disabled persons

4.1.2.1 Composition of disabled persons

All people with disability are not the same. They vary in sex and age groups (such as adult women and men or young boys and girls), with a range of physical health, intellectual or psycho-social impairments that hinder their full participation in society on an equal basis. They also have different skills, abilities and interests even though they share in common the experience of social and economic exclusion due to disability.

The respondents included in the sample have various physical and mental impairments that hamper or reduce their ability to carry out their day to day activities. Such impairments are either an in-born or acquired with age or could be the effect of diseases. The types of impairments or disability in the study area include hearing loss and/or deafness to the extent of 15.70 percent, vision loss and/or blindness to the extent of 14.05 percent, non-functional lower limb(s) to the extent of 24.79 percent, non-functional upper limb(s) to the extent of 9.09 percent, body movement difficulties to the extent of 25.62 percent, mental health impairment to the extent of 8.26 percent, and 2.42 percent other (mixed) impairments (Table 19).

Nearly 50 percent of the respondents have body movement difficulty and non-functional lower limb(s). Around 48.76 and 51.2 percent of the disabled persons are male and female respectively. In terms of their general health condition (ability to work), the descriptive statistics shows that 58.7 percent of them are in medium (sometimes able to work) and bad health condition (not able to work); while the rest 41.32 percent for the respondents are in good health (able to work).

Table 19. Disability category of respondents

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Source: Computed from own data source, 2017)

4.1.2.2 Demographic characteristics

Of the total respondent disabled households, about 51 percent are women while the remaining 49 percent are males. Female and males constituted 64.5 and 35.5 percent of the participants in IGAs respectively. Participation rate of female in IGAs is significantly higher than that of the males (Table 20).

[...]


1 A household is defined as a social entity that lives in the same place, shares the same meals and makes joint or coordinated decisions over resource allocation and income pooling (Ellis, 1993; Meillassoux, 1981).

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Details

Title
Sectors of Self Employment of Persons with Disabilities in Urban Areas of East Wollega Zone, Western Oromia, Ethopia. Empirical Findings and Recommendations
College
Wollega University
Authors
Year
2019
Pages
67
Catalog Number
V923699
ISBN (eBook)
9783346256690
ISBN (Book)
9783346256706
Language
English
Tags
sectors, self, employment, persons, disabilities, urban, areas, east, wollega, zone, western, oromia, ethopia, empirical, findings, recommendations
Quote paper
Daniel Masresha Amare (Author)Melkamu Belina (Author)Elfinesh Mulata (Author)Kidus Markos † (Author), 2019, Sectors of Self Employment of Persons with Disabilities in Urban Areas of East Wollega Zone, Western Oromia, Ethopia. Empirical Findings and Recommendations, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/923699

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Title: Sectors of Self Employment of Persons with Disabilities in Urban Areas of East Wollega Zone, Western Oromia, Ethopia. Empirical Findings and Recommendations



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